Recent Submissions

  • Development of soy protein fortified fish sticks from Tilapia

    Malkanthi, H.H.A.; Arampath, P.C.; Jayasinghe, P. (2012)
    The objective of this study was to develop soy protein fortified fish sticks from Tilapia. Two preliminary studies were conducted to select the best fish-soy protein-spice mixture combination with four treatments to develop breaded fish sticks. Developed products were organoleptically assessed using 30 untrained panellists with 7-point hedonic scale. The product developed with new combination was compared with market product. Sixty percent of Tilapia fish mince, 12% of Defatted Textured Soy protein (DTSP), 1.6% of salt and 26.4% of ice water (<5°C) and Spice mixture containing 3g of garlic, 2g of pepper 2g of onion and 1.6g of cinnamon were selected as the best formula to manufacture the product. There was no significant difference when compared with market samples in relation to the organoleptic attributes. Proximate composition of the product was 25.76% of crude protein, 2.38% of crude fat, 60.35% of moisture and2.75% of ash. Products were packaged in Poly Vinyl Chloride clear package (12 gauge) and were stored at -1°C and changes in moisture content, peroxide value, pH value and microbiological parameters were assessed during five weeks of storage. Organoleptic acceptability was not changed significantly in all parameters tested (p>0.05). Total aerobic count and yeast and mould count were in acceptable ranges in frozen storage for 5 weeks. Data were analyzed using AN OVA and Friedman non-parametric test.
  • Vegetation structure and faunal composition of Wathurana wetland ecosystem Tebuwana, Kalutara, Sri Lanka

    Amarathunga, A.A.D.; Hitinayake, H.M.G.S.B. (2012)
    A study was conducted in Tebuwana Wathurana Wetland ecosystem to understand its vegetation structure and faunal composition in order to assess its conservation needs. As there are no published records on the flora and fauna of Wathurana Wetlands in Tebuwana, it is necessary to understand the ecological and other relevant features in order to develop strategies to conserve this wetland. These objectives were pursued by surveying the vegetation of the wetland and by identifying fish and bird species present. A total of 66 species of flora and 61 species of fauna were identified in the survey. Of the 27 fish species recorded from the Tebuwana Wetland, 9 species were endemic and 17 species belonged to the indigenous category. With regard to the flora in the wetlands, the dominant families were Rubaceae, Fabaceae and Arecaceae. The 66 species belonged to 39 families and 61 genera while 12 species were endemic and 4 species were considered highly threatened. These flora were found in four layers. Of the 22 species of birds recorded, two species were endemic. This study revealed that these Wathurana Wetlands have a high species diversity but that they face many threats including encroachments, extraction of forest products mainly as timber, land filling, mining and occurrence of invasive species. It is essential to minimize the exploitation of natural resources from this wetland in the future and in particular to mark the boundary, conduct awareness programmes and continue research.
  • A study of the constraints affecting ornamental fish production in Sri Lanka

    Heenatigala, P.P.M. (2012)
    Although Sri Lanka is endowed with favourable climatic conditions and resources for breeding and rearing ornamental fish for export, a considerable number of ornamental fish producers as well as exporters have given up the industry within a relatively short period of time. This study was conducted to understand the present status of the industry and to identify the problems that have caused these failures. The study was conducted from March to December in the year 2007 and covered Colombo, Kaluthara, Polonnaruwa, Negombo, Wattala, Rathnapura, Avissawella, Kandy, Kegalle, Padukka, and Gampaha areas, where ornamental fish culture is known to be popular. The survey was carried out by interviewing ornamental fish farmers using a structured questionnaire survey that was designed to elicit the required information. Most (75%) of those surveyed were identified as small scale farmers. A majority (56%) of them used only cement tanks for their culture activities. Only 47% of farmers had proper technical knowledge or training on fish culture while 42% directly supplied their fish products to the expo1iers. The most important constraints identified by the study were as follows: (1) the sale price offish not changing in keeping with the increase in the material costs of production - Feed, cement, sand, transport and labour - in recent years. (2) Difficulty to find export markets for newcomers to enter the export market. (3) Lack of quality brooders and information on the most suitable fish varieties for the different climatic and water conditions in different areas in the country (3) Feed availability and cost. (4) Lack of adequate knowledge and technical support with regard to disease control and water quality management. (5) Difficulty to survive in the off season. (6) Difficulty in obtaining credit for expansion and the lack of sufficient involvement of responsible authorities in overcoming all these identified constraints.
  • Reproductive biology of Catla catla in the Udawalawe reservoir, Sri Lanka

    Athukorala, D.A. (2012)
    The reproductive biology of Catla catla (Hamilton-Buchanan) in the Udawalawe reservoir was studied from June 2007 to December 2008. Samples of eggs from Indian major carp C. catla were collected from fish landed in the reservoir and analysed in the laboratory to assess the reproductive characteristics. C. catla. Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic Cichlids and Labeo rohita accounted for 62.2%, 21.0%, 12% and 1.0% respectively of the total landings in the Udawalawe reservoir during the study period. Gonads of C. catla were collected in the field and examined in the laboratory to determine the stage of maturity and fecundity. Data on fish length and gonad weight were collected to estimate the gonado-somatic indices (OSI). Landed catches were also examined in the field to determine the sex ratio of C. catla in the catch and was found to be 1:5.6 male to female. Results of fecundity estimates revealed that C. catla females in the Udawalwe reservoir were fully mature in June and October of the year. From the monthly variation of OSI, two recruitment pulses per year were evident. The length of the body at first maturity in female C. catla in the Udawalwe reservoir was estimated to be 74.2 cm.
  • An assessment of handling and processing methods used for the shrimp fishery by-catch in Kalpitiya, Sri Lanka

    Jayasinghe, C.V.L.; Vinopavan, K.; Fonseka, T.S.G. (2012)
    The by-catch from the shrimp trawl fishery in Kalpitiya is mainly used for the production of dried fish, which provides an additional source of income for fishermen in the area. It has been observed that current handling practices along the value addition chain are responsible for the poor quality and low price of the end product. This study was aimed at identifying the shortcomings in such handling practices by fishermen and dried fish producers and assessing the quality of shrimp fishery by-catch along the processing chain in order to recommend more efficient utilization methods that will improve the quality of the end product. Fresh fish, dried fish and harbour water samples were tested for total coli forms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella in order to assess their microbial quality: In addition, standard plate counts (SPC) of fish samples were also carried out. A survey was carried out from July-October 2006 at Kalpitiya, using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information from individuals who have been engaged in dried fish processing. Average values obtained for freshly landed and dried fish respectively, were, SPC 9.88x10 super(5) CFU/g and 30.43x10 super(5) CFU/g, total coliforms 23.05 and 24.23 MPN/g and fecal coliforms 8.28 and 9.00 MPN/g. These values exceed the recommendations in the SL standards. A quarter of the landed fresh fish and 38% of dried fish from the producers were positive for E. coli and thus failed to show required end product quality. SPC of harbour water was 14.35x10 super(6) CFU/ml and all samples were found to be contaminated with E. coli. None of the fishermen and dried fish producers were satisfied with the quality of the end product. The reasons for poor quality as indicated by them were: limited availability of ice (75%), lack of infrastructure facilities (65%), uncertainty of markets (52%), lack of emphasis on quality (47%) and poor access to available technologies (41%). Respondents to the questionnaire also identified: unavailability of potable water, insulated boxes, good landing jetty, racks for drying fish, poor cold storage facilities and limitations in dried fish storage facilities, as further factors leading to the loss of quality in their products. Results demonstrate that improvements to the infrastructure facilities and conducting of proper awareness programmes on handling practices could lead for improvements in the quality of value added products prepared from the shrimp fishery by-catch at Kalpitiya.
  • Supply of Astaxanthin and its combinations through live feed (Moina micrura) enrichment affects the growth, survival and fatty acid profile of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae

    Parakrama, M.G.I.S.; Rawat, K.D.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Reddy, A.K. (2012)
    A study was carried out with three replicates to determine the effects of feeding Moina micrura enriched with astaxanthin alone (M1) or astaxanthin in combination with either vitamin E (M2), vitamin D (M3) or Cod Liver oil (M4) on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) larvae. Growth rate was expressed as the time taken to the settlement of 95% post larvae. Maximum growth, the lowest time taken to the 95% PL settlement (38.5±0.50 days), was observed in larvae fed with M3 Moina. The highest survival rate (66.0±1.00%) was observed in those fed with M4 Moina and the second highest survival (61.0±1.00%) and growth rates (40.0±0.00 days) were shown with M2 Moina. The minimum values for both growth (42.5±0.50 days) and survival (33.0±1.50%) were observed in the group fed un-enriched Moina. Results also showed that the survival of prawn larvae increased as the quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increased in the dietary Moina. The highest levels of EPA (5.57±0.21%), DHA (3.50±0.21%) and highest total Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFA) (13.87±0.68%) were seen in the Moina fed on astaxanthin and Cod Liver Oil (CLO). The results of the study showed that the nutritive quality of Moina, with respect to important fatty acids, can be increased by enrichment and will influence the growth, survival and the fatty acid composition of fresh water prawn larvae fed on them.
  • Socio-economic and marketing aspects of Laila and Bottom Long Line fisheries in the Kalpitiya peninsula of Sri Lanka

    Wimalasena, H.D.; de Mel, W.D.M. (2012)
    Surrounding Net Fishery (laila) and Bottom Long Line Fishery which operate in the coastal waters of Kalpitiya Peninsula, compete for the same fish resources, resulting in a fishery dispute between the respective fishermen. Both fisheries target demersal as well as mid pelagic fishes, such as travellys (parava), mullets (galmalu) and barracudas (ulava). As the dispute had an adverse impact on the social harmony in the fishing community of the area, a socio-economic survey was conducted to study the underlying factors and to suggest policy measures to resolve the issue. The laila fishermen were resident fishermen in the Kalpitiya Peninsula while bottom long line fishermen were migratory fishermen from Negombo and Chilaw areas in the west coast of Sri Lanka. The Kalpitiya peninsula is located in the North West coast, some 50 km away from the west coast. Although the educational level and literacy rate of the laila community was below that of the bottom long line community, the laila community was economically better off. The net economic returns from laila fishery were superior to that from bottom long line fishery. The boat owner's and crew's share per operation of laila fishery were Rs.3,736 and Rs.947 respectively. The same figures for bottom long line fishery were Rs.588 and Rs.327 respectively. The resource rent from laila fishery was Rs.5,860, however, and much higher than that for bottom long line fishery (Rs.275), showing that the laila fishery exploits the targeted fish resource at a much higher rate compared to bottom long line fishery. This situation badly affects the equitable distribution of resources between the two fishing communities and results in unequal economic gains. Based on the findings of this study, certain input/output controls are proposed to address this problem, among which is the need to increase license fee for laila fishery units to offset the higher exploitation rate of fish resources.
  • Development and shelf life evaluation of Tilapia (Orechromis spp.) marinades

    Rathnayake, M.M.; Prasadi, V.P.N.; Jayasinghe, C.V.L. (2012)
    Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) consumption is limited due to its strong muddy odour and the difficulty of processing. In addition, consumption of tilapia is minimal in urban areas because of the low availability. There are no processed market products of tilapia available in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was designed to develop a new marinade for tilapia and to evaluate the shelf life of the product. Twelve different treatments of varying amounts of vinegar, salt, chili powder, white pepper and garlic powder were applied to filleted tilapia, and three best treatment combinations were selected using a sensory evaluation test. Processed tilapia was stored in the freezer at -4°C. Treated samples were subjected to evaluation of sensory profile: taste, odour, colour, texture and overall acceptability. Analysis of the shelf life was carried out by using the total plate count, faecal coliform test, acidity and pH at weekly intervals. Results revealed that the third treatment (vinegar 75 ml, salt 5 g, chili powder 5 g, white pepper 5 g and garlic powder 5 g) was best in terms of colour, texture, odour, taste and the overall acceptability according to the estimated medians (6, 6, 6 and 6.33 respectively). There was no significant difference between the first and the third treatment in terms of odour and overall acceptability. There was no significant difference between the three vacuum packed treatments for acidity and pH. Acidity and pH of the three treatments were at an acceptable level, which was below pH 5.3 and above 1.95% acidity. Average bacterial count was 10 colonies and 1.33x10 super(6) colonies respectively in vacuum packed treatments and bottled samples after one week. The acceptable level of bacterial colonies is 1.00x10 super(5). Vacuum packed treatments showed a one month shelf life. In conclusion, marinades can be developed from tilapia with a pleasant taste and acceptable texture.
  • Gross clinical signs and haematological changes associated with artifical infection of Edwardsiella tarda in Koi Carp

    Rajapakshe, A.D.W.R.; Prasad, K.P.; Mukharjee, S.C. (2012)
    The occurrence of diseases is a significant setback for successful aquafarming. One of the common fish bacterial disease syndromes, Edwardsiellosis is caused by Edwardsiella tarda, a gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium associated with several diseases of marine and fresh water fish. In this study, an attempt was made to observe and analyze the onset of clinical symptoms and certain haematological parameters in Koi Carp, Cyprinus carpio L., following artificial infection with Edwardsiella tarda. The disease progress was observed and the clinical symptoms were monitored over a period of 15 days following infection. Fish were sampled at three day intervals to analyse the haematological parameters: total erythrocyte counts (RBC), total leucocyte counts (WBC), haemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count. Clinical symptoms observed included: erratic swimming behaviour, loss of appetite, haemorrhages, dropsy and exophthalmia. There was a significant decrease in the total RBC and haemoglobin levels by the 3rd and 6th day post infection, and an increase thereafter. WBC counts were higher in all infected groups in comparison to the control group. A significant increase in the number of neutrophils was found in the infected group up to the 9th day and a decrease thereafter. The lymphocyte number was significantly less up to the 12th day while the monocyte counts were significantly higher up to the 12th day post infection. The results showed that the bacterium, E. tarda, is pathogenic to Koi Carp. The hematological changes and clinical signs in infected fish reported in this paper will be helpful in the identification and the control of this infection.
  • Reservoir fishery resources of south-east Asia

    Fernando, C.H.; Furtado, J.I. (1975)
    Although the reservoir area in south-east Asia is considerable, the fish production is low in the majority of reservoirs. Although high fish production has been recorded in a number of reservoirs in Sri Lanka and Indonesia, high fish production in reservoirs has with few exceptions resulted from the introduction of typical lake species from Africa. Addition of further lake fish species especially into deeper reservoirs will probably increase present fish yields. Diversification of the lake fish fauna can be achieved by introduction of species indigenous to the region like Etroplus suratensis. In this introduction of fish species, three points may be noted with specific reference to Tilapia spp.: (a) Lakes without indigenous cyprinids show marked fluctuation in fish catch with the introduction of Tilapia, and this could be stabilised by the introduction of predators and more diverse species. (b) Lakes with a moderate diversity of fish fauna show a high stabilised production with the introduction of Tilapia, presumably because of the effect of predator pressure on excessive Tilapia breeding. (c) Lowland lakes with a rich diversity of indigenous fish species colonising lakes may not require the introduction of Tilapia. Introduction of invertebrates into reservoirs in south east-Asia has not been done deliberately so far. However, the experience in other parts of the world, notably the Soviet Union, indicates that such introductions are likely to prove beneficial and to increase fish production. The potential for a considerable increase in fish production from reservoirs exists in south-east Asia. Proper management is likely to cost less than what is required for fish culture. Rural areas are likely to benefit most from increased fish production in reservoirs, and this might be a way to provide cheap protein where it is most urgently needed.
  • Taxonomic study of the cephalopods, particularly the Teuthoidea (squids) and Sepoidea [i.e. Sepioidea] (cuttlefish) in the water around Sri Lanka

    Perera, N.M.P.J. (1975)
    A preliminary taxonomic study of the local cephalopods has been undertaken. 8 spp have been identified, and a key to the Sepioidea and Teuthoidea of the Ceylon seas is presented. The spp identified are described and illustrated, with notes on distinctive characters, and on distribution
  • An analysis of the experimental pole and line fishery conducted around Sri Lanka by Nichiro Fishing Company of Japan

    Sivasubramaniam, K. (1975)
    Under a joint agreement the Government of Sri Lanka and the Nichiro Fishing Company of Japan have undertaken an experimental pole and line fishery around Sri Lanka with a view to determining the feasibility of establishing a joint commercial venture. 3 Japanese vessels conducted trials during the period March 1973-October 1974. Details of the vessels and cruises are given. A variety of fish were tried as bait, and the selection of appropriate bait is discussed. Catches and catch and effort statistics are presented, with tables showing distribution of the tuna. The results of the trials were below expectations, and are in part attributed to bait availability, and unfavorable weather conditions. Seasonal variation of the type of fishery is suggested in order to take account of this, and it is concluded that a fishery based on 45/50 ft combined pole and line and drift net fishing vessels might prove feasible.
  • Purse seining for small pelagic fish around Sri Lanka

    Joseph, B.D.L. (1975)
    An attempt has been made to study skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) live bait availability and other small pelagic fish, their seasonal variations with respect to distribution, species and size composition. Exploratory surveys made use of echo sounding and lookout during the day, and light attraction at night. Percentage composition of spp caught at each station is tabulated. Seasonal variations are discussed and monthly variations in some important groups are plotted. Size composition, especially for Sardinella spp, is considered. The availability of 'red bait' would not be adequate to support an extended pole and line fishery for skipjack. The daytime fishing methods were not considered to have been especially successful, and the choice of gear and method of capture is discussed. It is suggested that the present fishery could be improved by the adoption of ring nets by local fishermen in place of the present purse seines when catching bait.
  • Vertical temperature structure of 250 m. water layer around Sri Lanka at the tail-end of the north-east monsoon

    Samarasinghe, J.R. de S. (1975)
    Data collected during cruises of the Hoyo Maru in Jan-Mar 1975 are analysed. Data is tabulated to show vertical temp profile, surface water temp and temp gradient. Each of these features is discussed. Thermoclines are shown to be established off the coast of India, their depth varying according to time of year. Upwelling off the Cochin coast is discussed. This occurs during Oct-Nov. Surface temp is considerably influenced by the north-east monsoon. The 'clockwise current' (or 'transparent current) characterised by high salinity, high transparency, and rich nutrient conchs, and which prevails in Jan-May brings oceanic water into the Bay of Bengal and sweeps along the Ceylon coast.
  • Cultivation of Gracilaria lichenoides in Puttalam Lagoon

    Sivapalan, A. (1975)
    A brief description is given of experimental rearing of the red alga G. lichenoides using a coir net frame method. Frames of 1x1 m were made and tied to bamboo poles which were planted in water; the frame was fixed at a level about 1 ft below the water level. 2 cm fragments were used as propagating material. Plants were found to grow more luxuriantly and were more greenish than using other methods, and in addition were free from extraneous matter such as sand. The regeneration time of the plant is low, and it reaches marketable size in 3-4 months.
  • De-scummer for beche-de-mer processing

    Sachithananthan, K.; Natesan, P.; Alagaratnam, C.; Thevathasan, A.; Philip, L.B. (1975)
    An improved method for processing sea cucumber (beche-de-mer) is described. Details of a machine named de-scummer are presented. The traditional method for preparation is discussed, and the new method outlined; this involves burying boiled sea cucumber in clean sand contained in cement pits for periods of 6-8 h. The animals are then transferred to the de-scummer for mechanical treatment and are boiled again. After this they are dried.
  • Antibacterial properties of some marine algae of Sri Lanka

    Sachithananthan, K.; Sivapalan, A. (1975)
    The authors report on the antibacterial activity of 11 algae, green, brown and red. Prepared extracts were tested, and varying degrees of activity were exhibited. Most activity was shown by Ulva fasciata, Sargassum cervicone and Halimeda macroloba.
  • Occurrence of whale sharks in coastal waters in the Indian Ocean: an interesting coincidence

    Jayakody, D.S. (2000)
    Salinity, temperature and pressure are parameters which govern the oceanographic state of a marine water body and together they make up density of seawater. In this contribution we will focus our interest on one of these parameters, the salinity: accuracy in relation to different purposes as well as observation technique and instrumentation. We will also discuss the definition of salinity. For example most of the Indian Ocean waters are within the salinity range from 34.60-34.80, which emphasize the importance of careful observations and clear definitions of salinity, in such a way that it is possible to define water masses and predict their movements. In coastal waters the salinity usually features much larger variation in time and space and thus less accuracy is sometimes needed. Salinity has been measured and defined in several ways over the past century. While early measurements were based on the amount of salt in a sea water sample, today the salinity of seawater is most often determined from its conductivity. As conductivity is a function of salinity and temperature, determination involves also measurement of the density of seawater is now more precisely estimated and thus the temperature. As a result of this method the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) was developed. The best determination of salinity from conductivity and the temperature measurements gives salinity with resolution of 0.001 psu, while the accuracy of titration method was about ± 0.02‰. Because of that, even calculation of movements in the ocean is also improved.
  • Status of the gill net fishery for the small pelagic fish species in western, south-western and southern coastal waters of Sri Lanka during 1995-1997

    Karunasinghe, W.P.N.; Fernando, P.A.T.; Samaraweera, E.K.V. (2000)
    Small pelagic fish species are mainly caught by gill nets operated by fibre reinforced plastic boats fitted with 8-25hp out board engines, traditional crafts fitted with 8-1hp out board engines and non mechanised traditional crafts. Around 28 to 55% of the small pelagic catch in the study area consisted of trenched sardine Amblygaster sirm during 1995-1997 period. Another 26-36% of the catch composed of other Sardinella species such as Sardinella gibbosa, S. albella, S. sindensis and S. longiceps. Engraulids such as Encrasicholina heteroloba, Stolephorus insularis and Stolephorus indicus and Thryssa spp formed around 3-5% of the catch. The major component of this fishery consisted of Clupeids and Engrauhds and over 65 species ranged between smaller Engraulids to incidental rock fish, sail fish, seer fish, sharks, skates and rays. Around 1.4 to 1.9% of the catch consisted of Chirocentrus dorab, Sphyraenaspp, Scomberomorus spp, Lepturcanthus sp and Megalaspis cordyla. Around 1-11% of the catch consisted of incidentally catches of sharks, rays, skates and sail fish. Another 1.6 to 6% of the catch consisted of Selar crumenophthalamus and Rastrelliger kanagurta. The best fishing season appeared to be from June to October in the west coast and August to December in the south coast.The major components of Amblygaster sirm, Sardinella albella and Sardinella gibbosa were caught within the size ranges of 10.0-22.5 cm, 11.0-13.0 cm and 11.0-15.0 cm respectively. However, smaller sized fish of above species of sizes between 6.9 cm to 9.7 cm total length were incidentally caught in the gill nets operated for small Engraulids with a stretched mesh size of 1.6cm. The overall catch rate for the major fish landing centre at Negombo indicated an increase from 38.5 kg/boat trip during 1984-1990 period to 49.5 kg/boat trip during 1995-1997 period. The catch rate for the dominant species Amblygaster sirm has decreased from 28.17 kg/boat trip during 1983-1990 period to 17.47 kg/boat trip during 1995-1997 period at Negombo. The paper also discusses the changing overall catch rates, change in species abundance and possible management consequences that should be considered.
  • Salinity measurements and use of the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS)

    Arulananthan, K. (2000)
    Salinity, temperature and pressure are parameters which govern the oceanographic state of a marine water body and together they make up density of seawater. In this contribution we will focus our interest on one of these parameters, the salinity: accuracy in relation to different purposes as well as observation technique and instrumentation. We will also discuss the definition of salinity. For example most of the Indian Ocean waters are within the salinity range from 34.60-34.80, which emphasize the importance of careful observations and clear definitions of salinity, in such a way that it is possible to define water masses and predict their movements. In coastal waters the salinity usually features much larger variation in time and space and thus less accuracy is sometimes needed. Salinity has been measured and defined in several ways over the past century. While early measurements were based on the amount of salt in a sea water sample, today the salinity of seawater is most often determined from its conductivity. As conductivity is a function of salinity and temperature, determination involves also measurement of the density of seawater is now more precisely estimated and thus the temperature. As a result of this method the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) was developed. The best determination of salinity from conductivity and the temperature measurements gives salinity with resolution of 0.001 psu, while the accuracy of titration method was about ± 0.02‰. Because of that, even calculation of movements in the ocean is also improved.

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