includes the former title “Florida Marine Research Institute. Technical Report.”

Recent Submissions

  • Updated statewide abundance estimates for the Florida manatee

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Edwards, Holly H.; Martin, Julien; Schueller, Paul (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2018)
    Knowing how many manatees live in Florida is critical for conservation and management of this threatened species. Martin and others flew aerial surveys in 2011–2012 and estimated abundance in those years using advanced techniques that incorporated multiple data sources. We flew additional aerial surveys in 2015–2016 to count manatees and again applied advanced statistical techniques to estimate their abundance. We also made several methodological advances over the earlier work, including accounting for how sea state (water surface conditions) and synchronous surfacing behavior affect the availability of manatees to be detected and incorporating all parts of Florida in the area of inference. We estimate that the number of manatees in Florida in 2015–2016 was 8,810 (95% Bayesian credible interval 7,520–10,280), of which 4,810 (3,820–6,010) were on the west coast of Florida and 4,000 (3,240–4,910) were on the east coast. These estimates and associated uncertainty, in addition to being of immediate value to wildlife managers, are essential new data for incorporation into integrated population models and population viability analyses.
  • Oyster Integrated Mapping and Monitoring Program report for the State of Florida

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Geiger, Stephen P.; Moyer, Ryan P. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2019)
    Oysters provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to coastal communities in Florida. They improve water quality and clarity as they filter feed, lessen shoreline erosion, and provide a habitat or food source for a wide variety of birds, fish, and invertebrates. Oysters are commercially valuable as a harvested food source, and historically their shell has been mined extensively for construction material. The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is the only reef-building oyster in Florida and forms both subtidal and intertidal reefs. Numerous other species of non-reef-building oysters are less frequent. This report focuses primarily on the eastern oyster, because it is the most abundant oyster in Florida and because it is important as both a keystone species and an ecosystem engineer.
  • Coastal Habitat Integrated Mapping and Monitoring Program report for the State of Florida

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Powell, Christina E.; Moyer, Ryan P. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2017)
    Mangrove swamps and salt marshes provide valuable ecological services to coastal ecosystems in Florida. Coastal wetlands are an important nursery for many ecologically and commercially important fish and invertebrates. The vegetation stabilizes shorelines, protecting the coast from wave energy, storm surge, and erosion. Coastal wetlands are also able to filter surface water runoff, removing excess nutrients and many pollutants. Peat deposits sequester large amounts of carbon, making coastal wetlands a key sink in global carbon cycles.Mangroves and salt marshes, however, are vulnerable to both direct and indirect threats from human development. Current threats include continued habitat loss, hydrologic alteration of surface and groundwater, sea-level rise, and invasive vegetation. ... Coastal wetland monitoring programs are often short-lived and vary widely in methodology. Monitoring most commonly occurs on protected public lands or at wetland mitigation or restoration sites. These monitoring projects are rarely long-term due to a lack of funding; restoration sites are generally monitored for only a few years. Although long-term funding is difficult to secure, monitoring over long time scales is increasingly important due to regional uncertainties as to how coastal wetland vegetation and substrate accretion will respond to sea-level rise, altered freshwater hydrology, and other disturbances. While periodic land cover mapping programs can capture large-scale changes in habitat extent, smaller-scale species shifts among mangrove and salt marsh vegetation are best captured by on-the-ground monitoring.The chapters in this report summarize recent mapping and monitoring programs in each region of Florida. Content of each chapter includes a general introduction to the region, location-specific threats to salt marshes and mangroves, a summary of selected mapping and monitoring programs, and recommendations for protection, management, and monitoring. Land cover maps in this report generally use data from the most recent water management district land use/land cover (LULC) maps.
  • Development of microsatellite markers for Permit (Trachinotus falcatus), cross-amplification in Florida Pompano (T. carolinus) and Palometa (T. goodei), and species delineation using microsatellite markers

    Seyoum, Seifu; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Guindon, Kathryn Y.; Gardinal, Christopher M.; Denison, Steve H.; Tringali, Michael D. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2016)
    Three of the 20 species in the genus Trachinotus, in the jack family, Carangidae, are found in Florida waters. These are Florida Pompano (T. carolinus), Permit (T. falcatus), and Palometa (T. goodei). Florida Pompano is a coastal pelagic species found in estuarine and marine waters; it spawns in multiple batches in offshore waters. Permit is the largest and longest lived of the three species and also spawns offshore in multiple batches, near reefs. As adults, Permit can be found nearshore and offshore and are often associated with reefs, but as juveniles they are common estuarine inhabitants. Palometa is a marine species, similar in size to Florida Pompano, and has the widest latitudinal distribution of the three species. Palometa spawn in offshore waters throughout the year with two peaks of activity. All three species support commercial or recreational fisheries on both the Gulf of Mexico coast and Atlantic coast of Florida. Very little has been done to evaluate movement patterns of Trachinotus species. Based on a few tagging studies, it appears that Pompano do not travel far from coastal waters. The only preliminary investigation of genetic stock structure for the Florida Pompano population from Tampa Bay, FL, and Puerto Rico was based on microsatellite markers developed for the Pompano. The report’s key conclusion was that Pompano from Puerto Rico and from Florida belong to two highly distinct genetic stocks. This study was conducted to re-examine, using different microsatellite markers, the genetic status of Pompano stocks in Florida and Puerto Rico. The objectives of this study, therefore, were the following: 1) to develop microsatellite markers for Permit; 2) to cross-amplify the markers in Pompano and Palometa; and 3) to use these markers to confirm the status of Puerto Rico Pompano as a novel genetic stock using the methods of Bayesian population assignment, phylogenetic clustering, and factorial correspondence analysis. ... Three methods were used to investigate the relationship among the taxa using the microsatellite genotype data obtained from the samples. The results from the three analytical methods, based on Bayesian population assignment tests, phylogenetic clustering, and factorial correspondence analysis of genetic relationships among the four Trachinotus samples, showed that Florida and Puerto Rico Pompano samples belong to two highly distinct gene pools. But other multiple molecular tools, particularly nuclear-DNA sequences from many introns, and nonmolecular tools, such as morphological and meristic data, should be used together to determine species-level categorical designation for the Puerto Rico Pompano.
  • Aerial surveys of manatee distribution in Florida, 1984–2004

    Edwards, Holly H.; Ackerman, Bruce B. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2016)
    This Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission–Fish and Wildlife Research Institute (FWC-FWRI) Technical Report describes and summarizes the FWC-FWRI aerial-survey projects conducted from 1984 to 2004 to document manatee distribution in Florida and it provides details of the methods used in the studies. Surveys reported here were conducted by FWC or in conjunction with other agencies. This report is intended for use by local, state, and federal agencies and others involved in assessing the impacts of human activities on manatees and their habitat. It provides basic summaries of these surveys, their methods, the resulting data, and includes maps showing where manatees were sighted. Aerial survey data (manatee sightings and flight routes) from this technical report are available in a Geographic Information System (GIS) computer mapping format (shapefiles) on the FWC–FMRI Atlas of Marine Resources CD–ROM or on the FWC website. The analyses reported do not address in detail the environmental and habitat factors that may influence aerial surveys. The data and analyses described in this report provide a starting point for researchers who want to further investigate the seasonal distribution and habitat use of manatees in Florida. Other available data sets pertaining to manatee management and protection are also described. The information presented in this document is current to 2004 and does not include projects or surveys conducted after 2004.
  • Stock boundaries for spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) in Florida based on population genetic structure

    Seyoum, Seifu; Tringali, Michael D.; Barthel, Brandon L.; Villanova, Vicki; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Davis, Michelle C.; Alvarez, Alicia C. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2014)
    The Spotted Seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus (Sciaenidae) is an estuarine fish of economic importance, commercially and recreationally, in Florida. Harvesting of this fish has been steadily decreasing since the 1950s. In the late 1980s, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) implemented a major effort to stop the decline in landings and classified the species as restricted, regulating the importation, transportation, and possession of these fish. Over the period 1981-2012, combined recreational and commercial landings of Spotted Seatrout have been flat, primarily because of regulation of the fishery. In the absence of a well-resolved population genetic structure for the Spotted Seatrout, the FWC has relied on coastal watershed features and reproductive differences among estuaries to demarcate regions for management purposes. ... In the present study we identify three genetic stocks of Spotted Seatrout in Florida waters, each with a unique range: 1) from the western border of Florida to Apalachicola Bay, 2) east of Apalachicola Bay through Biscayne Bay, and 3) from Sebastian Inlet to the northeast border of the state. The genetic patterns observed indicate that little if any contemporaneous reproductive exchange takes place between these stocks and that recruitment usually occurs in the natal estuary. The geographic boundaries that frame the FWC’s periodic stock assessments and other demographic evaluations of Spotted Seatrout are not a perfect match with those of the genetically identified stocks. We recommend that, in its assessments of Florida stock of the Spotted Seatrout, the FWC use the genetic stock boundaries that we describe here.
  • Seagrass Integrated Mapping and Monitoring Program: Mapping and monitoring report no. 2

    Yarbro, Laura A.; Carlson, Paul R., Jr. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2016)
    This is the second edition of the Seagrass Integrated Mapping and Monitoring (SIMM) report, providing mapping and monitoring information for seagrasses throughout Florida’s coastal waters. Each regional chapter has been updated, and we have added information on management programs and water quality and clarity. For most regions, seagrass maps nowshow data gathered between 2010 and 2014. Exceptions include the Big Bend, Cedar Keys, Waccasassa Bay, the Charlotte Harbor region, Estero Bay, the Ten Thousand Islands, and Biscayne Bay; however, imagery was acquired in 2014 or 2015 with photo-interpretation underway for these remaining regions except Cedar Keys, Waccasassa Bay, and Biscayne Bay.The primary indicators derived from mapping projects are seagrass areal coverage and habitat texture (i.e., continuous or patchy). Secondary indicators of seagrass condition and health determined by mapping projects are estimates of gains and losses in cover and changes in texture determined from analyses of two most recent sets of imagery having the same spatial extent. Where successive imagery data sets are available, we have updated changes in seagrass acreage.
  • Response of estuarine nekton to the regulated discharge of treated phosphate-production process water

    Switzer, Theodore S.; Tyler-Jedlund, Amanda J.; Rogers, Kristen R.; Grier, Harry; McMichael, Robert H., Jr.; Fox, Sondra (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2011)
    Florida is one of the world’s leading producers of phosphate. The mining and processing of phosphate produce a large volume of nutrient-rich, highly acidic process water that must either be stored or be treated and then discharged into the environment. Environmental effects of the regulated discharge of treated phosphate-production process water have not been well studied; however, eutrophication has been shown to negatively affect estuarine systems. We characterized the nekton community in Bishop Harbor during the discharge of treated process water (November 2003–October 2004) and compared these data with data collected during a nondischarge period (January 1993–December 1993) to identify possible effects of the discharged water on nekton communities. Overall fish community structure and species composition during the nondischarge and discharge time periods did not markedly differ. Several taxa exhibited subtle shifts in spatial distribution in Bishop Harbor; these shifts may be partially attributable to altered salinity from the combined effects of wastewater discharge and enhanced precipitation during the active 2004 hurricane season. Although we did not discern any effects of the discharge of treated process water on nekton communities, regulated discharges might have contributed to a large macroalgal bloom, which was harvested to reduce the possibility of decomposition-related hypoxia. Such an approach was practical only because Bishop Harbor is relatively small (~ 200 ha), and would not have been cost-effective for a larger system. Given the importance of Florida’s phosphate industry, it is critical that better alternatives to the treatment and disposal of process water be developed.
  • Wildlife habitat conservation needs in Florida: updated recommendations for strategic habitat conservation areas

    Endries, Mark; Stys, Beth; Mohr, Gary; Kratimenos, Georgia; Langley, Susan; Root, Karen; Kautz, Randy (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2009)
    In 1994, researchers from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) completed a report, entitledClosing the Gaps in Florida’s Wildlife Habitat Conservation System, assessing the security of rare and imperiled species on existing conservation lands in Florida. The biologists that authored this report used species occurrence data, habitat data, and the analytical capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess the protection afforded to 62 focal species on lands managed for conservation and to identify important habitat areas in Florida that have no conservation protection. These areas, known as Strategic Habitat Conservation Areas (SHCA), depict areas needed for protection and serve as a foundation for conservation planning in Florida. Since 1994, landscape-level habitat changes, transfer of land from private to public ownership, and changes in land use have reduced the appropriateness of using the findings from the 1994 report to accurately assess Florida’s current biodiversity and wildlife conservation status. Advances in technological capabilities, revised habitat data, and more extensive species-occurrence data allowed us to reassess Florida’s biodiversity protection status. Additionally, advances in population-viability modeling techniques allowed us to examine the security of species given their current distribution, habitat needs, and the amount and distribution of habitats currently protected. We identified SHCA for a new selection of focal species, including many species that were in the original report. This project will help determine how habitat-protection needs have changed since 1994 and where protection efforts should be focused to ensure the long-term conservation of Florida’s wildlife.
  • Use of least-cost pathways to identify key road segments for Florida panther conservation

    Swanson, Kathleen; Land, Darrell; Kautz, Randy; Kawula, Robert (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2008)
    Roads fragment wildlife habitat, and the vehicles that travel them are often a source of wildlife mortality. Often, wildlife populations can absorb this unnatural mortality without suffering declines, but for endangered large mammals like the Florida panther, if their remaining habitat is fragmented or their mortality is increased in other ways (e.g., roadkill), their existence may be imperiled. A landscape approach is critical to identifying key road segments that are important for maintaining unimpeded panther movement. Least-cost pathway (LCP) modeling considers elements within the landscape that facilitate movement and minimize impediments when an animal travels from one area to another. Our analyses identified the most likely LCPs for panthers to use in moving between six major use areas in southwest Florida, and we identified 16 key road segments where these LCPs intersected improved roadways. These intersections correlated well with documented panther roadkill locations and overlapped fixed-kernel panther home ranges. One of our LCPs coursed through an area dominated by citrus groves; this area is strategically located between large blocks of panther habitat, which explains the cluster of panther roadkills at this location. Our analyses supported the habitat stewardship areas of the 2002 Collier County Rural Lands Stewardship Plan; however, we recommend additional protection for the pathway north of County Road 858 and west of State Road 29. We believe that by using a landscape approach, panthers and their habitat can be protected as current road networks are improved, new roads are constructed, and existing panther habitat is altered or disturbed. We did not attempt to map all possible panther–road conflict areas; however, this technique could be applied to other areas, such as possible panther reintroduction areas, as needs arise.
  • Resource guide for public health response to harmful algal blooms in Florida: based on recommendations of the Florida Harmful Algal Bloom Task Force Public Health Technical Panel

    Abbott, G. Meghan; Landsberg, Jan H.; Reich, Andrew R.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Ketchen, Sharon; Blackmore, Carina (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2009)
  • Mercury levels in marine and estuarine fishes of Florida

    Adams, Douglas H.; McMichael, Robert H., Jr. (Florida Marine Research Institute, 2001)
    Because mercury, a toxic metallic element, has been shown to bioaccumulate in fish tissue, humans consuming fish can potentially consume significant levels of mercury. Limited information is available on mercury levels in Florida’s marine and estuarine fish species. We examined the concentration of mercury in 2,832 fish representing 81 species from 32 families. Species represented all major trophic groups, from primary consumers to apex predators. Mercury concentrations in individual fish varied greatly within and among species. However, the majority of individuals we examined contained low concentrations. Species with very low mean or median mercury concentrations tended to be planktivores, detritivores, species that feed on invertebrates, or species that feed on benthic invertebrates and small fish. Apex predators typically had the highest mercury concentrations. In most species, mercury concentration increased as fish size increased. Sampling in Florida waters is continuing, and future research relating mercury levels to fish age, feeding ecology, and the trophic structure of Florida’s marine and estuarine ecosystems will help us to further identify important sources of variation.
  • Movements of radio-tagged manatees in Tampa Bay and along Florida’s west coast, 1991–1996

    Weigle, Bradley L.; Wright, Irene E.; Ross, Monica; Flamm, Richard O. (Florida Marine Research Institute, 2001)
    Manatees wintering in Tampa Bay, Florida, were captured and fitted with satellite- and radio-telemetry equipment during a research project conducted from 1991 to 1996. Forty-four manatees were tagged after their capture in Tampa Bay; an additional 15 animals were tagged at other west coast locations. Locations of individual animals were estimated via satellite up to eight times per day, and observations of manatee locations were made in the field one or more times per week. These data were entered into a relational database and converted to a format accessible as points within a geographic information system (GIS). Seasonal densities of satellite locations were mapped for 33 manatees tagged in Tampa Bay. Within the bay, manatees aggregated at or near warm-water locations during winter. In other seasons, manatee density was highest in areas that had abundant sea grass and were close to fresh-water sources. Sequential data points for individual manatees were transformed into probable travel routes by using a GIS-based cost-path analysis. A map was created for each tagged manatee depicting estimated travel paths, and detailed descriptive information summarized major movements, tagging history, and physical characteristics. The travel patterns of male manatees were characterized by almost continual movement, often along predictable routes or circuits. Most males larger than 265 cm ranged 100 km or more away from Tampa Bay during non-winter months whereas smaller males remained in or near the bay. As males matured, their travel ranges appeared to expand. Female manatees used two general movement patterns. Small females and females with calves would use specific areas within a day’s travel of the warm-water sources for extended periods before moving to similar nearby areas for protracted stays. Females without calves and females longer than 330 cm with calves added long migrations between areas chosen for foraging.The ranges of some females extended south to Charlotte Harbor,the Caloosahatchee River,and the Everglades. Two tagged females traveled from Florida’s west coast to the east coast: one traveled south around the peninsula, and the other apparently moved east through Lake Okeechobee and the lock system.
  • Checklists of selected shallow-water marine invertebrates of Florida

    Camp, David K.; Lyons, William G.; Perkins, Thomas H. (Florida Marine Research Institute, 1998)
    The initial draft of this list was based, in part, on information in American Seashells, second edition (Abbott,1974) and on lists of mollusks prepared by the Councilof Systematic Malacologists and the American MalacologicalUnion for the American Fisheries Society (Turgeon et al., 1988; Turgeon et al., 1998).The Florida list was created by selecting from those larger lists the estuarine and marine species known from eastern North America and then by reducing that set of names, first by deleting the names of species not known from Florida and then by deleting the names of several hundred species known only from intermediate and deepwater regions of the continental shelf off Florida.
  • A review of the biology and management of horseshoe crabs, with emphasis on Florida populations

    Gerhart, Susan D. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2007)
    In Florida, some horseshoe crabs are fished for eel bait, but they are fished principally by the marine-life industry, which collects the animals live for resale as aquarium, research, or educational specimens. The regulations for the horseshoe crab fisheries are developed by each state in compliance with the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) Horseshoe Crab Management Plan. This report was written to provide information on the biology,stock status, and management of horseshoe crabs andthe implications relevant to the request for an increasedbag limit by harvesters in the marine-life industry.
  • Florida Bay Science Program: a synthesis of research on Florida Bay

    Hunt, John; Nuttle, William (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2007)
    This report documents the progress made toward theobjectives established in the Strategic Plan revised in1997 for the agencies cooperating in the program. These objectives are expressed as five questions that organized the research on the Florida Bay ecosystem: Ecosystem History What was the Florida Bay ecosystem like 50, 100, and 150 years ago? Question 1—Physical Processes How and at what rates do storms, changing freshwater flows, sea level rise, and local evaporation and precipitation influence circulation and salinity patterns within Florida Bay andexchange between the bay and adjacent waters? Question 2—Nutrient Dynamics What is the relative importance of the influx of external nutrients and of internal nutrient cycling in determining the nutrient budget for Florida Bay? What mechanisms control the sources and sinks of the bay’s nutrients? Question 3—Plankton Blooms What regulates the onset, persistence, and fate of planktonic algal bloomsin Florida Bay? Question 4—Seagrass Ecology What are the causes and mechanisms for the observed changes in the seagrass community of Florida Bay? What is the effect of changing salinity, light, and nutrient regimes on thesecommunities? Question 5—Higher Trophic Levels What is the relationship between environmental and habitat changeand the recruitment, growth, and survivorship of animals in Florida Bay?Each question examines different characteristics of the Florida Bay ecosystem and the relation of these to the geomorphological setting of the bay and to processes linking the bay with adjacent systems and driving change.This report also examines the additional question of what changes have occurred in Florida Bay over the past 150 years.
  • A Regional Assessment of Florida Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and the Caloosahatchee River, Florida

    McDonald, Sara L.; Flamm, Richard O. (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, 2006)
  • Mercury Levels in Marine and Estuarine Fishes of Florida 1989–2001. 2nd edition revised

    Adams, Douglas H.; McMichael, Robert H., Jr.; Henderson, George E (Florida Marine Research Institute, 2003)
    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission’s Florida Marine Research Institute (FWC-FMRI) hasexamined total mercury levels in muscle tissue from a variety of economically and ecologically important speciesas part of an ongoing study to better understand mercury contamination in marine fishes.The FWC-FMRI MercuryProgram is one of the most comprehensive programs in the United States for monitoring mercury levels inmarine and estuarine fishes. Because mercury, a toxic metallic element, has been shown to bioaccumulate in fishtissue, humans consuming fish can potentially consume significant levels of mercury.We examined the concentrationof total mercury in 6,806 fish, representing 108 species from 40 families. Species represented all major trophicgroups, from primary consumers to apex predators.The majority of individuals we examined contained low concentrationsof mercury, but concentrations in individual fish varied greatly within and among species. Specieswith very low mean or median mercury concentrations tended to be planktivores, detritivores, species that feedon invertebrates, or species that feed on invertebrates and small fish prey.Apex predators typically had the highestmercury concentrations. In most species, mercury concentration increased as fish size increased. Samplingin Florida waters is continuing, and future research relating mercury levels to fish age, feeding ecology, and thetrophic structure of Florida’s marine and estuarine ecosystems will help us better understand concentrations ofthis element in marine fishes. (64pp.)
  • State of Florida Conservation Plan for Gulf Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi)

    Wakeford, Anne (Florida Marine Research Institute, 2001)
    Gulf sturgeon are anadromous. They spend thecooler months (October or November through Marchor April) in estuarine or marine habitats, where theyfeed on benthic organisms such as isopods, amphipods,lancets, molluscs, crabs, grass shrimp, and marineworms (Mason and Clugston, 1993). In the spring, gulfsturgeon return to their natal river, where the sexuallymature sturgeon spawn, and the population spendsthe next 6–8 months there (Odenkirk, 1989; Foster,1993; Clugston et al., 1995; Fox et al., 2000). The conservation plan detailed in this documentwill be used to aid recovery of gulf sturgeon populationsthroughout the state of Florida and could be amodel for other gulf states to use. (106pp.)
  • Florida’s Shad and River Herrings (Alosa species): a review of Population and Fishery Characteristics

    McBridge, Richard S. (Florida Marine Research Institute, 2000)
    Of the six shad and river herring species (Clupeidae:Alosa species) found in North America, five occur inFlorida (Figure 1), more than in any other state in theU.S. These species, with one possible exception, areanadromous (i.e., they move from salt water to freshwater to spawn). On Florida’s Atlantic coast, there arethree species: American shad (Alosa sapidissima), hickoryshad (A. mediocris), and blueback herring (A.aestivalis). Two species are present on Florida’s gulfcoast: Alabama shad (A. alabamae) and skipjack herring(A. chrysochloris).The Atlantic species range northwardfrom Florida to as far as Canada, and the gulf speciesrange westward to Louisiana. This document summarizes information about Florida’s populations of Alosa speciesand discusses the status and trends of those populations. (26pp.)

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