Recent Submissions

  • Oceanographic results from the VERTEX 5 particle-trap experiment across the California current May-July 1984

    Broenkow, William W.; Reaves, Richard E. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1985-08)
  • Oceanographic results from the VERTEX 4 Particle-Trap Experiment North of Hawaii July - August 1983

    Broenkow, William W.; Reaves, Richard E. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1985-07)
  • Oceanographic results from the VERTEX II Particle Interceptor Trap Experiment of Manzanillo, Mexico, 26 October to 18 November 1981

    Broenkow, William W.; Krenz, Robert (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1982-05)
  • IBM PC Data Acquisition and Processing Software Evaluation

    Reaves, Richard E. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1995)
    Commercially available software packages for IBM PC-compatibles are evaluated to use for data acquisition and processing work. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) acquired computers since 1978 to use on shipboard data acquisition (Le. CTD, radiometric, etc.) and data processing. First Hewlett-Packard desktops were used then a transition to the DEC VAXstations, with software developed mostly by the author and others at MLML (Broenkow and Reaves, 1993; Feinholz and Broenkow, 1993; Broenkow et al, 1993). IBM PC were at first very slow and limited in available software, so they were not used in the early days. Improved technology such as higher speed microprocessors and a wide range of commercially available software made use of PC more reasonable today. MLML is making a transition towards using the PC for data acquisition and processing. Advantages are portability and available outside support.
  • Oceanographic Profiling Observations from the MOCE-3 Cruise: 27 October to 15 November 1994

    Feinholz, Michael, E.; Flora, Stephanie J.; Gashler, J. Andrew (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1995-06)
    This report contains results from the third cruise of the Marine Optical Characterization Experiment (Fig. 1). A variety of spectroradiometric observations of the upper water column and atmosphere were made by investigators from the University of Miami, NOAA, CHORS and MLML. Data presented here were obtained by oceanographic CTD profiler: salinity, temperatllre, dissolved oxygen, beam attenuation and chlorophyll-a fluorescence; and by water samplers: total suspended matter and suspended organic carbon and nitrogen, salinity, and dissolved oxygen.
  • Oceanographic Profiling Observations from the MOBY-L7 Cruise: 25 to 30 June 1994

    Feinholz, Michael, E.; Flora, Stephanie J.; Gashler, J. Andrew (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1995-04)
    This report contains CTD profiling results from the seventh cruise to the Marine Optics Buoy (MOBY) site near the Island of Lanai. Data presented here were obtained on the University of Hawaii Research Vessel Moana Wave between 26 and 30 June 1994. Two types of data are reported: vertical profile observations of salinity, temperature beam attenuation and chlorophyll-a fluorescence, profiles; and total suspended matter and suspended organic carbon and nitrogen taken from water samplers at those stations.
  • Oceanographic Profiling and Spectroradiometer Observations from the MOCE-2 Cruise: 28 March to 14 April 1993

    Feinholz, Michael, E.; Flora, Stephanie J. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1995)
    This report contains results from the second cruise of the Modis Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE). Data presented here were obtained on the Mexican Research Vessel El Puma between 29 March and 13 April along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California. Three types of data are reported: high spectral resolution radiometry at three depths for 13 stations; salinity, temperature beam attenuation and chlorophyll-a fluorescence, profiles at the same stations; and total suspended matter and suspended organic carbon and nitrogen.(PDF is 90 pages.)
  • Daily MOBY Data Processing

    Flora, Stephanie J.; Broenkow, William W. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1998)
    (PDF contains 57 pages)
  • Oceanographic Profiling Observations MOCE-4 Cruise: 26 January to 12 February 1998

    Flora, Stephanie J.; Broenkow, William W.; Peters, Darryl (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1998)
    This report contains results from the fourth cruise of the MODIS Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE). Also resented are oceanographic data from two MOBY maintenance cruises L-20 and L-25. The MOCE4 cruise was the first NOAAINESDIS-Ied SeaWiFS Initialization cruise during which a variety ofspectroradiometric observations ofthe upper water column and atmosphere were made by investigators from NOAA, the University of Miami, CHORS and MLML. Data presented in this report were obtained by oceanographic CTD profiler: salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, beam attenuation and chlorophyll-a fluorescence~ and by water samplers: total suspended matter and suspended organic carbon and nitrogen, salinity and dissolved oxygen. (PDF contains 142 pages).
  • Shipboard Techniques for Oceanographic Observations

    Broenkow, William W.; Feinholz, Michael, E.; Flora, Stephanie J.; Gashler, J. Andrew (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1995)
    This report gives the details of water sampling methods and chemical analyses used during MLML participation in the EOS MODIS investigations. It is intended to be used as a reference manual for those engaged in shipboard work. (PDF contains 50 pages)
  • Evaluation of the Photometrics CH250 CCD Camera for use in the NOAA/MLML Marine Optics System

    Broenkow, William W.; Reaves, Richard E.; Yarbrough, Mark, A. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1995)
    This report summarizes initial work to incorporate Photometries CH250 charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors in the NOAAIMLML Marine Optics System (MOS). The MOS spectroradiometer will be used primarily in the Marine Optics Buoy (MOBY) to surface truth the ocean color satellite, SeaWiFS, scheduled for launch later this year. This work was funded through Contract NAS5-31746 to NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center. (PDF contains 24 pages)
  • The Circulation of Monterey Bay and Related Processes

    Breaker, Laurence, C.; Broenkow, William W. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1989)
    (PDF contains 114 pages)
  • A 30-Year History of Tide and Current Measurements in Elkhorn Slough, California

    Broenkow, William W.; Breaker, Laurence, C. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 2005)
    Elkhorn Slough was first exposed to direct tidal forcing from the waters of Monterey Bay with the construction of Moss Landing Harbor in 1946. Elkhorn Slough is located mid-way between Santa Cruz and Monterey close to the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. It follows a 10 km circuitous path inland from its entrance at Moss Landing Harbor. Today, Elkhorn Slough is a habitat and sanctuary for a wide variety of marine mammals, fish, and seabirds. The Slough also serves as a sink and pathway for various nutrients and pollutants. These attributes are directly or indirectly affected by its circulation and physical properties. Currents, tides and physical properties of Elkhorn Slough have been observed on an irregular basis since 1970. Based on these observations, the physical characteristics ofElkhorn Slough are examined and summarized. Elkhorn Slough is an ebb-dominated estuary and, as a result, the rise and fall of the tides is asymmetric. The fact that lowerlow water always follows higher high water and the tidal asymmetry produces ebb currents that are stronger than flooding currents. The presence of extensive mud flats andSalicornia marsh contribute to tidal distortion. Tidal distortion also produces several shallow water constituents including the M3, M4, and M6 overtides and the 2MK3 and MK3compound tides. Tidal elevations and currents are approximately in quadrature; thus, the tides in Elkhorn Slough have some of the characters of a standing wave system. The temperature and salinity of lower Elkhorn Slough waters reflect, to a large extent, the influence of Monterey Bay waters, whereas the temperature and salinity of the waters of the upper Slough (>5 km from the mouth) are more sensitive to local processes. During the summer, temperature and salinity are higher in the upper slough due to local heating and evaporation. Maximum tidal currents in Elkhorn Slough have increased from approximately 75 to 120 cm/s over the past 30 years. This increase in current speedis primarily due to the change in tidal prism which has increased from approximately 2.5 to 6.2 x 106 m3 between 1956 and 1993. The increase in tidal prism is the result of both 3 rapid man-made changes to the Slough, and the continuing process of tidal erosion. Because of the increase in the tidal prism, the currents in Elkhorn Slough exhibit positive feedback, a process with uncertain consequences. [PDF contains 55 pages]
  • Reconstructing an 83-Year Time Series of Daily Sea Surface Temperature at Pacific Grove, California

    Breaker, Laurence, C.; Broenkow, William W.; Denny, Mark, W.; Beatman, Luke, V. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 2005)
    Daily sea surface temperatures have been acquired at the Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California since January 20, 1919.This time series is one of the longestoceanographic records along the U.S. west coast. Because of its length it is well-suited for studying climate-related and oceanic variability on interannual, decadal, and interdecadal time scales. The record, however, is not homogeneous, has numerous gaps, contains possible outliers, and the observations were not always collected at the same time each day. Because of these problems we have undertaken the task of reconstructing this long and unique series.We describe the steps that were taken and the methods that were used in this reconstruction. Although the methods employed are basic, we believe that they are consistent with the quality of the data. The reconstructed record has values at every time point, original, or estimated, and has been adjusted for time-of-day variations where this information was available. Possible outliers have also been examined and replaced where their credibility could not be established. Many of the studies that have employed the Hopkins time series have not discussed the issue of data quality and how these problems were addressed. Because of growing interest in this record, it is important that a single, well-documented version be adopted, so that the results of future analyses can be directly compared. Although additional work may be done to further improve the quality of this record, it is now available via the internet. [PDF contains 48 pages]
  • Oceanographic Profiling and Spectroradiometer Observations from the MOCE-1 Cruise: 28 August to 8 October 1992

    Feinholz, Michael, E.; Yarbrough, Mark, A.; Greene, Nancy, T. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1994)
    This report contains the frrst observations made for the Modis Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE). Data presented here were obtained on the R/V DeSteiguer between 28 August and 8 October along the central California coast and in Monterey Bay. Three types of data are reported here: high spectral resolution radiometry at three depths for seven stations; salinity, temperature, fluorescence and beam attenuation profiles at the same stations; and total suspended matter and suspended organic carbon and nitrogen. [PDF contans 164 pages]
  • Processing NOAA Spectroradiometric Data

    Broenkow, William W.; Greene, Nancy, T.; Feinholz, Michael, E. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1993)
    This report outlines the NOAA spectroradiometer data processing system implemented by the MLML_DBASE programs. This is done by presenting the algorithms and graphs showing the effects of each step in thealgorithms. [PDF contains 32 pages]
  • NOAA/MLML Radiometric Data Acquisition and Processing

    Feinholz, Michael, E.; Broenkow, William W. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1993)
    This report is a detailed description of data processing of NOAA/MLML spectroradiometry data. It introduces the MLML_DBASE programs, describes the assembly of diverse data fues, and describes general algorithms and how individual routines are used. Definitions of data structures are presented in Appendices. [PDF contains 48 pages]
  • FORTH for NOAA/MLML Instruments

    Reaves, Richard, E.; Broenkow, William W. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1993)
    This report describes FORTH software written for several instruments used in the NASA-sponsored project to design and build Marine Optical Buoy System (MOBS) and in the NOAA-sponsored project "EOS MODIS Execution: Oceanographic Profiling, Data Acquisition and Management for the Marine Optical Buoy System·'. In the NOAA project MLML and NOAA personnel will participate in quarterly cruises at the MOBS Hawaiian site to validate performance of SeaWiFS and will participate in several extended "process" cruises to provide wide geographic surface truthing investigations similar to those lead by Dennis Clark (NOAA) following the "launch of CZCS in 1979. In the NASA project we are designing and building MOBS, a high resolution spectroradiometer that will operate autonomously in a buoy moored west of Lanai in the Hawaiian Islands. That instrument, the "Marine Optical System" (MOS), will transmit by cellular phone in near real time observations of upwelled radiance and downwelled irradiance from three depths. [PDF contains 90 pages]
  • Introduction to MLML_DBASE Programs

    Broenkow, William W.; Reaves, Richard E. (Moss Landing Marine LaboratoriesMoss Landing, CA, 1993)
    The MLML DBASE family of programs described here provides many of the. algorithms used in oceanographic data reduction, general data manipulation and line graphs. These programs provide a consistent file structure for serial data typically encountered in oceanography. This introduction should provide enough general knowledge to explain the scope of the program and to run the basic MLML_DBASE programs. It is notintended as a programmer's guide. (PDF contains 50 pages)
  • Northern range extension, abundance and distribution of Pacific coastal Bottlenose doplhins (Tursiops truncatus gilli) in Monterey Bay, California

    Maldini, Daniela (San Jose State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 1996)
    Pacific coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gilli) have apparently moved to Monterey Bay as a result of a shift north of their known range. Between 1983 and 1993, 417 sightings were reported off central California. Eighty-four boat-based surveys, between October 1990 and November 1993, resulted in the photo-identification of 68 uniquely marked individuals. School size ranged between 2 and 35 animals (mean = 16.60, S.D. = 7.72). Forty-three (63%) of the dolphins identified were previously photographed in the Southern California Bight before 1989. Jolly-Seber population estimates indicated an increase in the Monterey Bay population from 1990 to 1993. At least 13 of the photo-identified dolphins were present in Monterey Bay throughout the study period. All but two of the calculated coefficients of association were 0.35, indicating a strong bond among resident animals. The occurrence of an El Niño from January 1992 to the end of 1993 may have affected the number of animals present in the bay: mean school size was significantly greater during El Niño.

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