Recent Submissions

  • IBM PC Data Acquisition and Processing Software Evaluation

    Reaves, Richard E. (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 1995)
    Commercially available software packages for IBM PC-compatibles are evaluated to use for data acquisition and processing work. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) acquired computers since 1978 to use on shipboard data acquisition (Le. CTD, radiometric, etc.) and data processing. First Hewlett-Packard desktops were used then a transition to the DEC VAXstations, with software developed mostly by the author and others at MLML (Broenkow and Reaves, 1993; Feinholz and Broenkow, 1993; Broenkow et al, 1993). IBM PC were at first very slow and limited in available software, so they were not used in the early days. Improved technology such as higher speed microprocessors and a wide range of commercially available software made use of PC more reasonable today. MLML is making a transition towards using the PC for data acquisition and processing. Advantages are portability and available outside support.
  • Evaluation of the Photometrics CH250 CCD Camera for use in the NOAA/MLML Marine Optics System

    Broenkow, William W.; Reaves, Richard E.; Yarbrough, Mark, A. (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 1995)
    This report summarizes initial work to incorporate Photometries CH250 charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors in the NOAAIMLML Marine Optics System (MOS). The MOS spectroradiometer will be used primarily in the Marine Optics Buoy (MOBY) to surface truth the ocean color satellite, SeaWiFS, scheduled for launch later this year. This work was funded through Contract NAS5-31746 to NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center. (PDF contains 24 pages)
  • A 30-Year History of Tide and Current Measurements in Elkhorn Slough, California

    Broenkow, William W.; Breaker, Laurence, C. (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 2005)
    Elkhorn Slough was first exposed to direct tidal forcing from the waters of Monterey Bay with the construction of Moss Landing Harbor in 1946. Elkhorn Slough is located mid-way between Santa Cruz and Monterey close to the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. It follows a 10 km circuitous path inland from its entrance at Moss Landing Harbor. Today, Elkhorn Slough is a habitat and sanctuary for a wide variety of marine mammals, fish, and seabirds. The Slough also serves as a sink and pathway for various nutrients and pollutants. These attributes are directly or indirectly affected by its circulation and physical properties. Currents, tides and physical properties of Elkhorn Slough have been observed on an irregular basis since 1970. Based on these observations, the physical characteristics ofElkhorn Slough are examined and summarized. Elkhorn Slough is an ebb-dominated estuary and, as a result, the rise and fall of the tides is asymmetric. The fact that lowerlow water always follows higher high water and the tidal asymmetry produces ebb currents that are stronger than flooding currents. The presence of extensive mud flats andSalicornia marsh contribute to tidal distortion. Tidal distortion also produces several shallow water constituents including the M3, M4, and M6 overtides and the 2MK3 and MK3compound tides. Tidal elevations and currents are approximately in quadrature; thus, the tides in Elkhorn Slough have some of the characters of a standing wave system. The temperature and salinity of lower Elkhorn Slough waters reflect, to a large extent, the influence of Monterey Bay waters, whereas the temperature and salinity of the waters of the upper Slough (>5 km from the mouth) are more sensitive to local processes. During the summer, temperature and salinity are higher in the upper slough due to local heating and evaporation. Maximum tidal currents in Elkhorn Slough have increased from approximately 75 to 120 cm/s over the past 30 years. This increase in current speedis primarily due to the change in tidal prism which has increased from approximately 2.5 to 6.2 x 106 m3 between 1956 and 1993. The increase in tidal prism is the result of both 3 rapid man-made changes to the Slough, and the continuing process of tidal erosion. Because of the increase in the tidal prism, the currents in Elkhorn Slough exhibit positive feedback, a process with uncertain consequences. [PDF contains 55 pages]
  • Reconstructing an 83-Year Time Series of Daily Sea Surface Temperature at Pacific Grove, California

    Breaker, Laurence, C.; Broenkow, William W.; Denny, Mark, W.; Beatman, Luke, V. (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 2005)
    Daily sea surface temperatures have been acquired at the Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California since January 20, 1919.This time series is one of the longestoceanographic records along the U.S. west coast. Because of its length it is well-suited for studying climate-related and oceanic variability on interannual, decadal, and interdecadal time scales. The record, however, is not homogeneous, has numerous gaps, contains possible outliers, and the observations were not always collected at the same time each day. Because of these problems we have undertaken the task of reconstructing this long and unique series.We describe the steps that were taken and the methods that were used in this reconstruction. Although the methods employed are basic, we believe that they are consistent with the quality of the data. The reconstructed record has values at every time point, original, or estimated, and has been adjusted for time-of-day variations where this information was available. Possible outliers have also been examined and replaced where their credibility could not be established. Many of the studies that have employed the Hopkins time series have not discussed the issue of data quality and how these problems were addressed. Because of growing interest in this record, it is important that a single, well-documented version be adopted, so that the results of future analyses can be directly compared. Although additional work may be done to further improve the quality of this record, it is now available via the internet. [PDF contains 48 pages]
  • Northern range extension, abundance and distribution of Pacific coastal Bottlenose doplhins (Tursiops truncatus gilli) in Monterey Bay, California

    Maldini, Daniela (San Jose State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 1996)
    Pacific coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gilli) have apparently moved to Monterey Bay as a result of a shift north of their known range. Between 1983 and 1993, 417 sightings were reported off central California. Eighty-four boat-based surveys, between October 1990 and November 1993, resulted in the photo-identification of 68 uniquely marked individuals. School size ranged between 2 and 35 animals (mean = 16.60, S.D. = 7.72). Forty-three (63%) of the dolphins identified were previously photographed in the Southern California Bight before 1989. Jolly-Seber population estimates indicated an increase in the Monterey Bay population from 1990 to 1993. At least 13 of the photo-identified dolphins were present in Monterey Bay throughout the study period. All but two of the calculated coefficients of association were 0.35, indicating a strong bond among resident animals. The occurrence of an El Niño from January 1992 to the end of 1993 may have affected the number of animals present in the bay: mean school size was significantly greater during El Niño.
  • A Baseline Study of the Moss Landing/Elkhorn Slough Environment

    Nybakken, James W.; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Broenkow, William W. (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 1975)
    In July, 1974 we began a baseline study of the Moss Landing-Elkhorn Slough marine environment for PG&E as mandated by the Coastal Commission. This report constitutes results of the first year's program. It is divided into three sections, oceanography, benthic invertebrate ecology, and fish and zooplankton ecology. (PDF contains 226 pages)
  • Patterns of succession in benthic infaunal communities following dredging and dredged material disposal in Monterey Bay

    Oliver, John S; Slattery, Peter N; Hulberg, Larry W; Nybakken, James W (US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 1977)
    This report is the final product of a two-year study conducted for the Office, Chief of Engineers, by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, California, under Contract No. DACW39-74-C-OI51 with the Environmental Effects Laboratory (EEL), U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Yicksburg, Mississippi. (PDF contains 192 pages)
  • Ecologic and hydrographic studies of Elkhorn Slough, Moss Landing Harbor and near coastal waters, July 1974 to June 1976

    Nybakken, James; Cailliet, Gregor; Broenkow, William (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 1977)
    In July 1974, we began a two-year baseline study of the Moss Landing Elkhorn Slough marine environment for Pacific Gas and Electric Company as mandated by the Coastal Commission. The original proposal included strong recommendations for more complete oceanographic studies and a third year of data collection. These further studies were not funded. This report is divided into three sections: oceanography, benthic invertebrate ecology and fish and zooplankton ecology. (PDF contains 480 pages)