Recent Submissions

  • Using climate extension to assist coastal decision-makers with climate adaptation

    Whitehead, Jessica; Bacon, Robert; Carbone, Greg; Dow, Kristin; Thigpen, John; Tufford, Daniel (2010)
    Coastal managers need accessible, trusted, tailored resources to help them interpret climate information, identify vulnerabilities, and apply climate information to decisions about adaptation on regional and local levels. Fordecades, climate scientists have studied the impacts that short term natural climate variability and long term climatechange will have on coastal systems. For example, recent estimates based on Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC) warming scenarios suggest that global sea levels may rise 0.5 to 1.4 meters above 1990 levels by2100 (Rahmstorf 2007; Grinsted, Moore, and Jevrejeva 2009). Many low-lying coastal ecosystems andcommunities will experience more frequent salt water intrusion events, more frequent coastal flooding, andaccelerated erosion rates before they experience significant inundation. These changes will affect the ways coastal managers make decisions, such as timing surface and groundwater withdrawals, replacing infrastructure, andplanning for changing land use on local and regional levels. Despite the advantages, managers’ use of scientificinformation about climate variability and change remains limited in environmental decision-making (Dow andCarbone 2007). Traditional methods scientists use to disseminate climate information, like peer-reviewed journalarticles and presentations at conferences, are inappropriate to fill decision-makers’ needs for applying accessible, relevant climate information to decision-making. General guides that help managers scope out vulnerabilities and risks are becoming more common; for example, Snover et al. (2007) outlines a basic process for local and state governments to assess climate change vulnerability and preparedness. However, there are few tools available to support more specific decision-making needs.A recent survey of coastal managers in California suggests that boundary institutions can help to fill the gapsbetween climate science and coastal decision-making community (Tribbia and Moser 2008). The National SeaGrant College Program, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) university-based programfor supporting research and outreach on coastal resource use and conservation, is one such institution working tobridge these gaps through outreach. Over 80% of Sea Grant’s 32 programs are addressing climate issues, and over60% of programs increased their climate outreach programming between 2006 and 2008 (National Sea Grant Office2008). One way that Sea Grant is working to assist coastal decision-makers with using climate information is bydeveloping effective methods for coastal climate extension. The purpose of this paper is to discuss climateextension methodologies on regional scales, using the Carolinas Coastal Climate Outreach Initiative (CCCOI) as anexample of Sea Grant’s growing capacities for climate outreach and extension. (PDF contains 3 pages)
  • Watershed monitoring and the TMDL modeling to assess bacterial loading in estuarine environments to improve management

    White, Nancy; Line, Daniel (2010)
    Shellfish bed closures along the North Carolina coast have increased over the years seemingly concurrent withincreases in population (Mallin 2000). More and faster flowing storm water has come to mean more bacteria, andfecal indicator bacterial (FIB) standards for shellfish harvesting are often exceeded when no source of contamination is readily apparent (Kator and Rhodes, 1994). Could management reduce bacterial loads if the source of the bacteria where known? Several potentially useful methods for differentiating human versus animal pollution sources have emerged including Ribotyping and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) (US EPA, 2005). Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) studies on bacterial sources have been conducted for streams in NC mountain and Piedmont areas(U.S. EPA, 1991 and 2005) and are likely to be mandated for coastal waters. TMDL analysis estimates allowable pollutant loads and allocates them to known sources so management actions may be taken to restore water to its intended uses (U.S. EPA, 1991 and 2005). This project sought first to quantify and compare fecal contamination levels for three different types of land use on the coast, and second, to apply MAR and ribotyping techniques and assess their effectiveness for indentifying bacterial sources. Third, results from these studies would be applied to onewatershed to develop a case study coastal TMDL. All three watershed study areas are within Carteret County, NorthCarolina. Jumping Run Creek and Pettiford Creek are within the White Oak River Basin management unit whereasthe South River falls within the Neuse River Basin. Jumping Run Creek watershed encompasses approximately 320ha. Its watershed was a dense, coastal pocosin on sandy, relic dune ridges, but current land uses are primarilymedium density residential. Pettiford Creek is in the Croatan National Forest, is 1133 ha. and is basicallyundeveloped. The third study area is on Open Grounds Farm in the South River watershed. Half of the 630 ha.watershed is under cultivation with most under active water control (flashboard risers). The remaining portion isforested silviculture.(PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Deciding to evacuate: Gathering the information to make this important decision

    Wilson, Kenneth; Smith, Catherine; Kain, Donna; Drozdowski, Amanda (2010)
    When hazardous storms threaten coastal communities, people need information to decide how to respond to thispotential emergency. NOAA and NC Sea Grant are funding a two-year project (Risk Perceptions and EmergencyCommunication Effectiveness in Coastal Zones) to learn how residents, government officials, businesses and otherorganizations are informed and use information regarding hurricane and tropical storms. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Shoal manipulation as an effective solution to site specific beach management, examples from three South Carolina beaches

    Traynum, Steven (2010)
    Soft engineering solutions are the current standard for addressing coastal erosion in the US. In South Carolina,beach nourishment from offshore sand deposits and navigation channels has mostly replaced construction of seawalls and groins, which were common occurrences in earlier decades. Soft engineering solutions typically provide a more natural product than hard solutions, and also eliminate negative impacts to adjacent areas which are often associated with hard solutions. A soft engineering solution which may be underutilized in certain areas is shoal manipulation. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • To pave or not to pave: A social landscape analysis of land use decision-making in the towns of the lamprey watershed

    Washburn, Erika (2010)
    Population pressure in coastal New Hampshire challenges land use decision-making and threatens the ecologicalhealth and functioning of Great Bay, an estuary designated as both a NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserveand an EPA National Estuary Program site. Regional population in the seacoast has quadrupled in four decadesresulting in sprawl, increased impervious surface cover and larger lot rural development (Zankel, et.al., 2006). All ofGreat Bay’s contributing watersheds face these challenges, resulting in calls for strategies addressing growth,development and land use planning. The communities within the Lamprey River watershed comprise this case study.Do these towns communicate upstream and downstream when making land use decisions? Are cumulative effectsconsidered while debating development? Do town land use groups consider the Bay or the coasts in their decision-making?This presentation, a follow-up from the TCS 2008 conference and a completed dissertation, will discuss a novelsocial science approach to analyze and understand the social landscape of land use decision-making in the towns ofthe Lamprey River watershed. The methods include semi-structured interviews with GIS based maps in a groundedtheory analytical strategy. The discussion will include key findings, opportunities and challenges in moving towardsa watershed approach for land use planning. This presentation reviews the results of the case study and developed methodology, which can be used in watersheds elsewhere to map out the potential for moving towns towards EBM and watershed-scaled, land use planning. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • The development of the South Carolina Coastal Information Network and portal site: Bringing training opportunities and educational resources to coastal community officials and the public

    Turner, April; Bruce, Samantha (2010)
    The South Carolina Coastal Information Network (SCCIN) emerged as a result of a number of coastal outreachinstitutions working in partnership to enhance coordination of the coastal community outreach efforts in SouthCarolina. This organized effort, led by the S.C. Sea Grant Consortium and its Extension Program, includes partnersfrom federal and state agencies, regional government agencies, and private organizations seeking to coordinateand/or jointly deliver outreach programs that target coastal community constituents. The Network was officiallyformed in 2006 with the original intention of fostering intra-and inter- agency communication, coordination, andcooperation. Network partners include the S.C. Sea Grant Consortium, S.C. Department of Health andEnvironmental Control – Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management and Bureau of Water, S.C.Department of Natural Resources – ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve, North Inlet-Winyah BayNational Estuarine Research Reserve, Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service and Carolina Clear,Berkeley-Charleston-Dorchester Council of Governments, Waccamaw Regional Council of Governments, UrbanLand Institute of South Carolina, S.C. Department of Archives and History, the National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration – Coastal Services Center and Hollings Marine Laboratory, Michaux Conservancy, Ashley-CooperStormwater Education Consortium, the Coastal Waccamaw Stormwater Education Consortium, the S.C. Chapter ofthe U.S. Green Building Council, and the Lowcountry Council of Governments. (PDF contains 3 pages)
  • Southeast White Oak River shellfish restoration project

    Tursi, Frank (2010)
    The 42-mile-long White Oak River is one of the last relatively unblemished watery jewels of the N.C. coast. Thepredominantly black water river meanders through Jones, Carteret and Onslow counties along the central N.C. coast,gradually widening as it flows past Swansboro and into the Atlantic Ocean. It drains almost 12,000 acres of estuaries-- saltwater marshes lined with cordgrass, narrow and impenetrable hardwood swamps and rare stands of red cedarthat are flooded with wind tides. The lower portion of the river was so renowned for fat oysters and clams that intimes past competing watermen came to blows over its bounty at places that now bear names like BattlegroundRock. The lower river is also a designated primary nursery area for such commercially important species as shrimp,spot, Atlantic croaker, blue crabs, weakfish and southern flounder.But the river has been discovered. The permanent population along the lower White Oak increased by almost a thirdsince 1990, and the amount of developed land increased 82 percent during the same period. With the growth havecome bacteria. Since the late 1990s, much of the lower White Oak has been added to North Carolina’s list ofimpaired waters because of bacterial pollution. Forty-two percent of the rivers’ oyster and clam beds arepermanently closed to shellfishing because of high bacteria levels. Fully two-thirds of the river’s shellfish beds arenow permanently off limits or close temporarily after a moderate rain. State monitoring indicates that increasedrunoff from urbanization is the probable cause of the bacterial pollution. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Coastal resource planning system: Integrating evaluation of ecological integrity and ecosystem services valuation

    Stone, Harry; McGee, Leslie-Anne (2010)
    Efficient and effective coastal management decisions rely on knowledge of the impact of human activities onecosystem integrity, vulnerable species, and valued ecosystem services—collectively, human impact onenvironmental quality (EQ). Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an emerging approach to address thedynamics and complexities of coupled social-ecological systems. EBM “is intended to directly address the long-termsustainable delivery of ecosystem services and the resilience of marine ecosystems to perturbations” (Rosenberg and Sandifer, 2009). The lack of a tool that integrates human choices with the ecological connections between contributing watersheds and nearshore areas, and that incorporates valuation of ecosystem services, is a critical missing piece needed for effective and efficient coastal management. To address the need for an integrative tool for evaluation of human impacts on ecosystems and their services, Battelle developed the EcoVal™ Environmental Quality Evaluation System. The EcoVal system is an updated (2009) version of the EQ Evaluation System for Water Resources developed by Battelle for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Dee et al., 1972). The Battelle EQ evaluation system has a thirty-year history of providing a standard approach to evaluate watershed EQ. This paper describes the conceptual approach and methodology of the updated EcoVal system and its potential application to coastal ecosystems. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Marine spatial planning approaches at the state level: Similarities and differences between MSP efforts across the country

    Smith, Brian (2010)
    Competing uses, sensitive and valuable marine resources, and overlapping jurisdictions complicate managementdecision making in the marine environment. States are developing marine spatial planning capacity to help makebetter decisions, particularly as demand for ocean space and resources is growing because of emerging human uses(renewable energy, aquaculture) and traditional human uses (commercial fishing, commerce). This paper offersperspectives on marine spatial planning efforts being carried out in four states across the US, and demonstratessimilarities and differences between them. The approach to marine spatial planning in each state is discussed withspecific attention given to issues such as what is driving the effort, data availability, maturity of the effort, and level of resources devoted to it. Highlighting the similarities and differences illustrates state and region specific challenges and the approaches being used to meet them. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Coastal plant growth and CO2 enrichment: Can the productivity of black needle rush keep pace with sea level rise?

    Touchette, Brant; Poole, Marianna; McCullough, Mica; Smith, Gracen; Adams, Emily (2010)
    The rate of sea level change has varied considerably over geological time, with rapid increases (0.25 cm yr-1) at theend of the last ice age to more modest increases over the last 4,000 years (0.04 cm yr-1; Hendry 1993). Due to anthropogenic contributions to climate change, however, the rate of sea level rise is expected to increase between0.10 and 0.25 cm year-1 for many coastal areas (Warrick et al. 1996). Notwithstanding, it has been predicted thatover the next 100 years, sea levels along the northeastern coast of North Carolina may increase by an astonishing 0.8m (0.8 cm yr-1); through a combination of sea-level rise and coastal subsidence (Titus and Richman 2001; Parham etal. 2006). As North Carolina ranks third in the United States with land at or just above sea level, any additional sea rise may promote further deterioration of vital coastal wetland systems. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Long Bay hypoxia study: A collaborative and multidisciplinary approach

    Sanger, Denise; DeVoe, Richard; Hernandez, Debra (2010)
    The nearshore waters along the Myrtle Beach area are oceanographically referred to as Long Bay. Long Bay is thelast in a series of semi-circular indentations located along the South Atlantic seaboard. The Bay extends forapproximately 150 km from the Cape Fear River in North Carolina to Winyah Bay in South Carolina and has anumber of small inlets (Figure 1). This region of the S.C. coast, commonly referred to as the “Grand Strand,” has asignificant tourism base that accounts for a substantial portion of the South Carolina economy (i.e., 40% of thestate’s total in 2002) (TIAA 2003). In 2004, the Grand Strand had an estimated 13.2 million visitors of which 90%went to the beach (MBCC 2006). In addition, Long Bay supports a shore-based hook and line fishery comprised ofanglers fishing from recreational fishing piers, the beach, and small recreational boats just offshore. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Linking public perceptions of socioeconmic change and marine resource management in rural Maine

    Safford, Thomas (2010)
    Rural coastal regions across the United States are coping with dramatic social and environmental changes.Historically, these areas relied heavily on fishing and marine commerce and these economic activities defined thecharacter of coastal communities. However, shifting ocean and climate conditions, together with inadequatemanagement strategies, have led to sharp declines in harvestable marine resources. These trends, along withincreasing competition from aquaculture and international sources of fish, have led to the steady decline of fishingas the central economic activity in many rural coastal communities. (PDF contains 3 pages)
  • The politics of participation: Evaluating stakeholder equity in co-management regimes

    Smith, Sarah Lindley (2010)
    Within natural resource management, there is increasing criticism of the traditional model of top-down managementas a method of governance, as researchers and managers alike have recognized that resources can frequently bebetter managed when stakeholders are directly involved in management. As a result, in recent years the concept ofco-management of natural resources, in which management responsibilities are shared between the government andstakeholders, has become increasingly popular, both in the academic literature and in practice. However, while co-management has significant potential as a successful management tool, the issue of equity in co-management hasrarely been addressed. It is necessary to understand the differential impacts on stakeholders of co-managementprocesses and the degree to which diverse stakeholders are represented within co-management. Understanding theinterests of various stakeholders can be a way to more effectively address the distributional and social impacts ofcoastal policies, which can in turn increase compliance with management measures and lead to more sustainableresource management regimes. This research seeks to take a closer look at the concepts of co-management andparticipation through a number of case studies of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Caribbean. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Challenges in using science-based shoreline setbacks: Examples from South Carolina

    Slagel, Matthew; Davis, Braxton (2010)
    Beachfront jurisdictional lines were established by the South Carolina Beachfront Management Act (SC Code §48-39-250 et seq.) in 1988 to regulate the new construction, repair, or reconstruction of buildings and erosion controlstructures along the state’s ocean shorelines. Building within the state’s beachfront “setback area” is allowed, but is subject to special regulations. For “standard beaches” (those not influenced by tidal inlets or associated shoals), a baseline is established at the crest of the primary oceanfront sand dune; for “unstabilized inlet zones,” the baseline is drawn at the most landward point of erosion during the past forty years. The parallel setback line is then established landward of the baseline a distance of forty times the long-term average annual erosion rate (not less than twenty feet from the baseline in stable or accreting areas). The positions of the baseline and setback line are updated every 8-10 years using the best available scientific and historical data, including aerial imagery, LiDAR, historical shorelines, beach profiles, and long-term erosion rates. One advantage of science-based setbacks is that, by using actual historical and current shoreline positions and beach profile data, they reflect the general erosion threat tobeachfront structures. However, recent experiences with revising the baseline and setback line indicate thatsignificant challenges and management implications also exist. (PDF contains 3 pages)
  • Improving the chances for developing coastal country success in adapting to climate change

    Robadue, Donald; Anderson, Glenn; Furlow, John; Ricci, Glenn; Rubinoff, Pamela; Tobey, James; Volk, Richard (2010)
    There is an unequivocal scientific consensus that increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere drive warmingtemperatures of air and sea, and acidification of the world’s oceans from carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans.These changes in turn can induce shifts in precipitation patterns, sea level rise, and more frequent and severeextreme weather events (e.g. storms and sea surge). All of these impacts are already being witnessed in the world’scoastal regions and are projected to intensify in years to come. Taken together, these impacts are likely to result insignificant alteration of natural habitats and coastal ecosystems, and increased coastal hazards in low-lying areas. They can affect fishers, coastal communities and resource users, recreation and tourism, and coastal infrastructure. Approaches to planned adaptation to these impacts can be drawn from the lessons and good practices from global experience in Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). The recently published USAID Guidebook on Adapting toCoastal Climate Change (USAID 2009) is directed at practitioners, development planners, and coastal managementprofessionals in developing countries. It offers approaches for assessing vulnerability to climate change and climatevariability in communities and outlines how to develop and implement adaptation measures at the local and nationallevels. Six best practices for coastal adaptation are featured in the USAID Guidebook on Adapting to CoastalClimate Change and summarized in the following sections. (PDF contains 3 pages)
  • Encouraging sustainable development in a coastal community: New Hanover County, North Carolina's exceptional design zoning district

    Ralston, Shawn (2010)
    While New Hanover County is the second smallest county in North Carolina, it is also the second most denselypopulated with approximately 850 people per square mile. Nestled between the Cape Fear River and Atlantic Oceanwith surrounding barrier island beach communities, the County’s geographic location provides a prime vacationdestination, as well as an ideal location for residents who wish to live at the water’s edge. Wilmington is the largestcity in the County with a population just under 200,000. Most of the Wilmington metropolitan area is developed,creating intense development pressures for the remaining undeveloped land in the unincorporated County. In orderto provide development opportunities for mixed use or high density projects within unincorporated New HanoverCounty where appropriate urban features are in place to support such projects without the negative effects of urbansprawl, County Planning Staff recently developed an Exceptional Design Zoning District (EDZD). Largely based onthe LEED for Neighborhood Development program, the EDZD standards were scaled to fit the unique conditions ofthe County with the goal of encouraging sustainable development while providing density incentives to entice theuse of the voluntary district. The incentive for the voluntary zoning district is increased density in areas where the density may not be allowed under normal circumstances. The rationale behind allowing for higher density projects is that development can be concentrated in areas where appropriate urban features are in place to support such projects, and the tendency toward urban sprawl can be minimized. With water quality being of high importance, it is perceived that higher density development will better protect water quality then lower density projects. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Concerted action for successful coastal communities in Tanzania: Lessons from the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership (TCMP) 2006-2009

    Robadue, Donald; Crawford, Brian; Daffa, Jeremiah; Mandari, Appa; Tobey, James; Torell, Elin (2010)
    The Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership (TCMP) works to implement the National Integrated Coastal Environmental Management Strategy (ICEMS) in Tanzania’s coastal landscapes and seascapes, funded in large measure by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The overarching goal of the Sustainable Coastal Communities and Ecosystems in Tanzania (SUCCESS Tanzania) initiative is to conserve coastal and marine biodiversity while improving the well being of coastal residents through implementation of the Tanzania ICEMS and related ICM policies and strategies. It does this by focusing on three key results:-Policies and Laws that Integrate Conservation and Development Applied-Participatory Landscape Scale Conservation Practiced-Conservation Enterprises Generate Increased and Equitable Benefits from Sustainable UseAn additional result sought in the program is gender equity and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors promoted throughcommunicating HIV/AIDS, environment, and equity messages. (PDF contains 3 pages)
  • Comparison of resident and tourist preferences for public beach access

    Oh, Chi-Ok; Dixon, Anthony; Draper, Jason (2010)
    As coastal destinations continue to grow, due to tourism and residential expansion, the demand for public beach access and related amenities will also increase. As a resultagencies that provide beach access and related amenities face challenges when considering both residents and visitors use beaches and likely possess different needs, as well as different preferences for management decisions. Being a resident of a coastal county provides more opportunity to use local beaches, but coastal tourism is an important and growing economic engine in coastal communities (Kriesel, Landry, & Keeler, 2005; Pogue & Lee, 1999). Therefore, providing agencies with a comprehensive assessment of the differences between these two groups will increase the likelihood of effective management programs and policies for the provision of public beach access and related amenities. The purpose of this paper was to use a stated preference choice method (SPCM) to identify the extent of both residents’ and visitors’ preferences for public beach management options. (PDF contains 4 pages)
  • Predicting the effects of climate change on sea turtle nesting habitat in Florida

    Poti, Matthew (2010)
    Rising global temperatures threaten the survival of many plant and animal species. Having already risen at anunprecedented rate in the past century, temperatures are predicted to rise between 0.3 and 7.5C in North Americaover the next 100 years (Hawkes et al. 2007). Studies have documented the effects of climate warming onphenology (timing of seasonal activities), with observations of early arrival at breeding grounds, earlier ends to the reproductive season, and delayed autumnal migrations (Pike et al. 2006). In addition, for species not suited to the physiological demands of cold winter temperatures, increasing temperatures could shift tolerable habitats to higher latitudes (Hawkes et al. 2007). More directly, climate warming will impact thermally sensitive species like sea turtles, who exhibit temperature-dependent sexual determination. Temperatures in the middle third of the incubation period determine the sex of sea turtle offspring, with higher temperatures resulting in a greater abundance of female offspring. Consequently, increasing temperatures from climate warming would drastically change the offspring sex ratio (Hawkes et al. 2007). Of the seven extant species of sea turtles, three (leatherback, Kemp’s ridley, and hawksbill) are critically endangered, two (olive ridley and green) are endangered, and one (loggerhead) is threatened. Considering the predicted scenarios of climate warming and the already tenuous status of sea turtle populations, it is essential that efforts are made to understand how increasing temperatures may affect sea turtle populations and how these species might adapt in the face of such changes.In this analysis, I seek to identify the impact of changing climate conditions over the next 50 years on theavailability of sea turtle nesting habitat in Florida given predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. Ipredict that future conditions in Florida will be less suitable for sea turtle nesting during the historic nesting season. This may imply that sea turtles will nest at a different time of year, in more northern latitudes, to a lesser extent, or possibly not at all. It seems likely that changes in temperature and precipitation patterns will alter the distribution of sea turtle nesting locations worldwide, provided that beaches where the conditions are suitable for nesting still exist.Hijmans and Graham (2006) evaluate a range of climate envelope models in terms of their ability to predict speciesdistributions under climate change scenarios. Their results suggested that the choice of species distribution model isdependent on the specifics of each individual study. Fuller et al. (2008) used a maximum entropy approach to modelthe potential distribution of 11 species in the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska under a series of projected climatescenarios. Recently, Pike (in press) developed Maxent models to investigate the impacts of climate change on greensea turtle nest distribution and timing. In each of these studies, a set of environmental predictor variables (including climate variables), for which ‘current’ conditions are available and ‘future’ conditions have been projected, is used in conjunction with species occurrence data to map potential species distribution under the projected conditions. In this study, I will take a similar approach in mapping the potential sea turtle nesting habitat in Florida by developing a Maxent model based on environmental and climate data and projecting the model for future climate data. (PDF contains 5 pages)
  • Wilmington gray to blue

    Prete, Phil (2010)
    Wilmington is situated on the divide of two major watersheds, the Cape Fear River and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. All surface waters in Wilmington drain to one of these two water bodies and are divided into two groups: tidal creeks and Cape Fear River tributaries. Cape Fear River tributaries drain directly to the Cape Fear River and comprise the western portion of Wilmington’s surface waters. Tidal creeks drain directly into the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and make up the eastern portion of Wilmington’s surface waters. (PDF contains 4 pages)

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