Recent Submissions

  • Effects of aquatic weed infestations on the fish and wildlife of the Gulf States

    Lynch, J.J.; King, J.E.; Chamberlain, T.K.; Smith, Arthur L., Jr. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, D.C., 1947-02)
    This report presents the findings of the Fish and Wildlife Service with regard to: (1) The nature and extent of damages caused by obnoxious weeds to wildlife and fisheries; (2) the economic losses brought about by this damage; and (3) the effects of mechanical and chemical weed control on wildlife and fisheries. Other phases of the water weed problem, such as the history and extent of infestation, biology of the plants, control methods, and public health significance, have been investigated by the U.S. Engineers, the Department of Agriculture, and the Public Health Service.
  • Review of the problem of birds contaminated by oil and their rehabilitation

    Aldrich, John W. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and WildlifeWashington, DC, 1970-05)
  • Toxicity of phenyl-mercuric lactate for fish

    Ellis, M.M. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, DC, 1947-05)
    Phenyl-mercuric lactate is included in the pulp processing reagents by some paper mills to eliminate slime formation in the pulp. Small quantities of this chemical are added to the wet pulp in the beaters, particularly for the bactericidal action against Aerobacter aerogenes. Subsequently the mecurial is carried away in the wash waters. However, as the highly poisonous nature of many compounds of mercury is well known, questions have been raised concerning the pollution hazards created by phenyl-mercuric lactate in streams receiving effluents from mills using this substance.
  • Water quality studies of the Delaware River with reference to shad migration

    Ellis, M.M.; Westfall, B.A.; Meyer, D.K.; Platner, W.S. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, DC, 1947-02)
    For some time pollution of the waters of the Delaware River by municipal and industrial wastes has been suspected of playing a major role in the decline of the shad fishery. Accordingly, studies were planned to ascertain whether any conditions of water quality caused by stream pollution and harmful or lethal to shad were existant in the waters of the Delaware River during the migration periods of the shad.
  • Mine-waste pollution of Bear Butte Creek, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Ellis, M.M. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceChicago, IL, 1945)
    Effluents leaving the Gilt Edge Mining properties in the Black Hills near Deadwood, South Dakota, were collected during April 1940. Field studies of these effluents and of the streams receiving them were made at the time and subsequently laboratory assays and analyses have been completed. ... Data from this particular case of mine waste pollution are presented here.
  • Breeding populations of seabirds in California, 1989-1991. Volume I - population estimates

    Carter, Harry R.; McChesney, Gerard J.; Jaques, Deborah L.; Strong, Craig S.; Parker, Michael W.; Takekawa, Jean E.; Jory, Deborah L.; Whitworth, Darrell L.; Gilmer, David S. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research CenterDixon, CA, 1992-07)
    In 1989-1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service surveyed breeding populations of seabirds on the entire California coast. This study was sponsored by the Minerals Management Service in relation to outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing. At 483 nesting sites (excluding terns and skimmers in southern California), we estimated 643,307 breeding birds of 21 seabird species including: 410 Fork-tailed Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata); 12,551 Leach's Storm-petrel (O. leucorhoa); 7,209 Ashy Storm-petrel (O. homochroa); 274 Black Storm-petrel (O. melania); 11,916 Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis); 10,037 Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus); 83,394 Brandt's Cormorant (P. penicillatus); 14,345 Pelagic Cormorant (P. pelagicus); 888 Black Oystercatcher (Haemotopus bachmani); 4,764 California Gull (Larus californicus); 61,760 Western Gull (L. occidentalis); 2,838 Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) (excluding southern California); 3,550 Forster's Tern (S. forsteri) (excluding southern California); 272 Least Tern (S. albifrons) (excluding southern California); 351,336 Common Murre (Uria aalge); 15,470 Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba); 1,821 Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus); 1,760 Xantus' Murrelet (Endomychura hypoleuca); 56,562 Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus); 1,769 Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata); and 276 Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata). The inland, historical or hybrid breeding status of American White Pelican (P. erythrorynchus), American Oystercatcher (H. palliatus), Heermann's Gull (L. heermanni), Ring-billed Gull (L. delawarensis), Glaucous-winged Gull (L. glaucescens) and Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) are discussed. Estimates for Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Royal Tern (S. maxima), Elegant Tern (S. elegans) and Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) will be included in the final draft of this report. Overall numbers were slightly lower than reported in 1975-1980 surveys (summarized in Sowls et al. 1980. Catalog of California seabird colonies. U.S. Dept. Int., Fish Wildl. Serv., Biol. Serv. Prog., FWS/OBS 37/80). Recent declines were found or suspected for Fork-tailed Storm-petrel, Leach's Storm-petrel, White Pelican, Black Tern, Caspian Tern, Least Tern, Common Murre and Marbled Murrelet. Recent increases were found or suspected for Brown Pelican, Double-crested cormorant, California Gull, Western Gull, Forster's Tern and Rhinoceros Auklet. Similar numbers were found for other species or trends could not be determined without additional surveys, studies and/or more in-depth comparisons with previous surveys. The status of terns and skimmers in southern California has not yet been finalized.
  • The ecology of Atlantic white cedar wetlands: a community profile

    Laderman, Aimlee D.; Brody, Michael; Pendleton , Edward (U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research CenterWashington, D.C., 1989)
    This monograph on the ecology of Atlantic white cedar wetlands is one of a series of U.S. Fish and WildlifeService profiles of important freshwater wetland ecosystems of the United States. The purpose of the profile is to describe the extent, components, functioning, history, and treatment of these wetlands. It is intended to provide a useful reference to relevant scientific information and a synthesis of the available literature.The world range of Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) is limited to a ribbon of freshwater wetlandswithin 200 km of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, extending from mid-Maine to mid-Florida and Mississippi. Often in inaccessible sites and difficult to traverse, cedar wetlands contain distinctive suites of plant species. Highly valued as commercial timber since the early days of European colonization of the continent, the cedar and its habitat are rapidly disappearing.This profile describes the Atlantic white cedar and the bogs and swamps it dominates or codominates throughout its range, discussing interrelationships with other habitats, putative origins and migration patterns, substrate biogeochemistry, associated plant and animal species (with attention to those that are rare, endangered, or threatened regionally or nationally), and impacts of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Research needs for each area are outlined. Chapters are devoted to the practices and problems of harvest and management, and to an examination of a large preserve recently acquired by the USFWS, theAlligator River National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina.
  • Biology and Management of the American Shad and Status of the Fisheries, Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1960

    Walburg, Charles H.; Nichols, Paul R. (United States Department of the InteriorWashington, D.C., 1967)
    This paper summarizes current information on the American shad, Alosa sapidissima, and describes the species and its fishery. Emphasis is placed on (1) life history of the fish, (2) condition of the fishery by State and water areas in 1960 compared to 1896 when the last comprehensive description was made, (3) factors responsible for decline in abundance, and (4) management measures. The shad fishery has changed little over the past three-quarters of a century, except in magnitude of yield. Types of shad-fishing gear have remained relatively unchanged, but many improvements have been made in fishing techniques, mostly to achieve economy.In 1896 the estimated catch was more than 50 million pounds. New Jersey ranked first in production with about 14 million pounds, and Virginia second with 11 million pounds. In 1960 the estimated catch was slightly more than 8 million pounds. Maryland ranked first in production with slightly more than 1.5 million pounds, Virginia second with slightly less than 1.4 million pounds, and North Carolina third with about 1.3 million pounds.Biological and economic factors blamed for the decline in shad abundance, such as physical changes in the environment, construction of dams, pollution, over-fishing, and natural cycles of abundance, are discussed. Also discussed are methods used for the rehabilitation and management of the fishery, such as artificial propagation, installation of fish-passage facilities at impoundments, and fishing regulations.With our present knowledge, we can manage individual shad populations; but, we probably cannot restore the shad to its former peak of abundance.
  • The blackback flounder and its fishery in New England and New York

    Perlmutter, Alfred (The Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale UniversityNew Haven, CT, 1947)
    A decline in the abundance of blackback flounders, together with the withdrawal of vessels from this fishery, has resulted in a lowered catch in recent years compared to the peak period 1928 through 1931. Data obtained from U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Hatchery catch records and from fishermen's log book records show a drop in abundance of 63 per cent from the early 1930's to the present in the Boothbay Harbor region and of 31 to 40 per cent in the area south of Cape Cod. Information on the early life history and distribution of young blackback flounders and the size and age composition and distribution of fish subject to the commercial and sport fisheries indicates that the young are the product of local spawning and that the sport and commercial fisheries draw on a resident stock of primarily adult fish.
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico): Bay anchovy and Striped Anchovy

    Robinette, H. Randall (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station.Vicksburg, MS, 1983)
    (PDF contains 24 pages)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Northern anchovy

    Kucas, Stephen T. (United States Fish and Wildlife ServiceVicksburg, MS, 1986)
    Three genetically distinct groups: British Columbia to northern California, Southern California to the northern Baja peninsula, and central and southern Baja California. (PDF contains 21 pages)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Amphipods

    Grosse, Daniel J.; Pauley, Gilbert B.; Moran, David (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment StationVicksburg, MS, 1989)
    (PDF contains 24 pages)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bay anchovy

    Morton, Timothy (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment StationVicksburg, MS, 1989)
    The bay anchovyoccurs along the Atlantic and Gulfof Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod,Massachusetts, to Yucatan, Mexico(Hildebrand 1963), except for theFlorida Keys where it is apparentlyabsent (Daly 1970). (PDF contains 22 pages)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Amphipods

    Grosse, Daniel J.; Pauley, Gilbert B.; Moran, David (United States Fish and Wildlife ServiceVicksburg, MS, 1986)
    This report wi11 focus largely on the subordersGammaridea, Caprellidea, and Hyperiidea because of their importance in coastal areas of the northeast Pacific Ocean. (PDF contains 27 pages)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): American shad

    Facey, Douglas E.; Van Den Avyle, Michael J. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station.Vicksburg, MS, 1986)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic): American shad

    Weiss-Glanz, Lori S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Moring , John R. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station.Vicksburg, MS, 1986)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): American oyster

    Stanley, Jon G.; Sellers, Mark A. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station.Vicksburg, MS, 1986)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico): American oyster

    Stanley, Jon G.; Sellers, Mark A. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station.Vicksburg, MS, 1986)
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): American oyster

    Burrell, Victor G. (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station.Vicksburg, MS, 1986)

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