Recent Submissions

  • Effects of aquatic weed infestations on the fish and wildlife of the Gulf States

    Lynch, J.J.; King, J.E.; Chamberlain, T.K.; Smith, Arthur L., Jr. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, D.C., 1947-02)
    This report presents the findings of the Fish and Wildlife Service with regard to: (1) The nature and extent of damages caused by obnoxious weeds to wildlife and fisheries; (2) the economic losses brought about by this damage; and (3) the effects of mechanical and chemical weed control on wildlife and fisheries. Other phases of the water weed problem, such as the history and extent of infestation, biology of the plants, control methods, and public health significance, have been investigated by the U.S. Engineers, the Department of Agriculture, and the Public Health Service.
  • Review of the problem of birds contaminated by oil and their rehabilitation

    Aldrich, John W. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and WildlifeWashington, DC, 1970-05)
  • Toxicity of phenyl-mercuric lactate for fish

    Ellis, M.M. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, DC, 1947-05)
    Phenyl-mercuric lactate is included in the pulp processing reagents by some paper mills to eliminate slime formation in the pulp. Small quantities of this chemical are added to the wet pulp in the beaters, particularly for the bactericidal action against Aerobacter aerogenes. Subsequently the mecurial is carried away in the wash waters. However, as the highly poisonous nature of many compounds of mercury is well known, questions have been raised concerning the pollution hazards created by phenyl-mercuric lactate in streams receiving effluents from mills using this substance.
  • Water quality studies of the Delaware River with reference to shad migration

    Ellis, M.M.; Westfall, B.A.; Meyer, D.K.; Platner, W.S. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, DC, 1947-02)
    For some time pollution of the waters of the Delaware River by municipal and industrial wastes has been suspected of playing a major role in the decline of the shad fishery. Accordingly, studies were planned to ascertain whether any conditions of water quality caused by stream pollution and harmful or lethal to shad were existant in the waters of the Delaware River during the migration periods of the shad.
  • Mine-waste pollution of Bear Butte Creek, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Ellis, M.M. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceChicago, IL, 1945)
    Effluents leaving the Gilt Edge Mining properties in the Black Hills near Deadwood, South Dakota, were collected during April 1940. Field studies of these effluents and of the streams receiving them were made at the time and subsequently laboratory assays and analyses have been completed. ... Data from this particular case of mine waste pollution are presented here.
  • Breeding populations of seabirds in California, 1989-1991. Volume I - population estimates

    Carter, Harry R.; McChesney, Gerard J.; Jaques, Deborah L.; Strong, Craig S.; Parker, Michael W.; Takekawa, Jean E.; Jory, Deborah L.; Whitworth, Darrell L.; Gilmer, David S. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research CenterDixon, CA, 1992-07)
    In 1989-1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service surveyed breeding populations of seabirds on the entire California coast. This study was sponsored by the Minerals Management Service in relation to outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing. At 483 nesting sites (excluding terns and skimmers in southern California), we estimated 643,307 breeding birds of 21 seabird species including: 410 Fork-tailed Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata); 12,551 Leach's Storm-petrel (O. leucorhoa); 7,209 Ashy Storm-petrel (O. homochroa); 274 Black Storm-petrel (O. melania); 11,916 Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis); 10,037 Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus); 83,394 Brandt's Cormorant (P. penicillatus); 14,345 Pelagic Cormorant (P. pelagicus); 888 Black Oystercatcher (Haemotopus bachmani); 4,764 California Gull (Larus californicus); 61,760 Western Gull (L. occidentalis); 2,838 Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) (excluding southern California); 3,550 Forster's Tern (S. forsteri) (excluding southern California); 272 Least Tern (S. albifrons) (excluding southern California); 351,336 Common Murre (Uria aalge); 15,470 Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba); 1,821 Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus); 1,760 Xantus' Murrelet (Endomychura hypoleuca); 56,562 Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus); 1,769 Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata); and 276 Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata). The inland, historical or hybrid breeding status of American White Pelican (P. erythrorynchus), American Oystercatcher (H. palliatus), Heermann's Gull (L. heermanni), Ring-billed Gull (L. delawarensis), Glaucous-winged Gull (L. glaucescens) and Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) are discussed. Estimates for Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Royal Tern (S. maxima), Elegant Tern (S. elegans) and Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) will be included in the final draft of this report. Overall numbers were slightly lower than reported in 1975-1980 surveys (summarized in Sowls et al. 1980. Catalog of California seabird colonies. U.S. Dept. Int., Fish Wildl. Serv., Biol. Serv. Prog., FWS/OBS 37/80). Recent declines were found or suspected for Fork-tailed Storm-petrel, Leach's Storm-petrel, White Pelican, Black Tern, Caspian Tern, Least Tern, Common Murre and Marbled Murrelet. Recent increases were found or suspected for Brown Pelican, Double-crested cormorant, California Gull, Western Gull, Forster's Tern and Rhinoceros Auklet. Similar numbers were found for other species or trends could not be determined without additional surveys, studies and/or more in-depth comparisons with previous surveys. The status of terns and skimmers in southern California has not yet been finalized.
  • Biology and Management of the American Shad and Status of the Fisheries, Atlantic Coast of the United States, 1960

    Walburg, Charles H.; Nichols, Paul R. (United States Department of the InteriorWashington, D.C., 1967)
    This paper summarizes current information on the American shad, Alosa sapidissima, and describes the species and its fishery. Emphasis is placed on (1) life history of the fish, (2) condition of the fishery by State and water areas in 1960 compared to 1896 when the last comprehensive description was made, (3) factors responsible for decline in abundance, and (4) management measures. The shad fishery has changed little over the past three-quarters of a century, except in magnitude of yield. Types of shad-fishing gear have remained relatively unchanged, but many improvements have been made in fishing techniques, mostly to achieve economy.In 1896 the estimated catch was more than 50 million pounds. New Jersey ranked first in production with about 14 million pounds, and Virginia second with 11 million pounds. In 1960 the estimated catch was slightly more than 8 million pounds. Maryland ranked first in production with slightly more than 1.5 million pounds, Virginia second with slightly less than 1.4 million pounds, and North Carolina third with about 1.3 million pounds.Biological and economic factors blamed for the decline in shad abundance, such as physical changes in the environment, construction of dams, pollution, over-fishing, and natural cycles of abundance, are discussed. Also discussed are methods used for the rehabilitation and management of the fishery, such as artificial propagation, installation of fish-passage facilities at impoundments, and fishing regulations.With our present knowledge, we can manage individual shad populations; but, we probably cannot restore the shad to its former peak of abundance.
  • The blackback flounder and its fishery in New England and New York

    Perlmutter, Alfred (The Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale UniversityNew Haven, CT, 1947)
    A decline in the abundance of blackback flounders, together with the withdrawal of vessels from this fishery, has resulted in a lowered catch in recent years compared to the peak period 1928 through 1931. Data obtained from U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Hatchery catch records and from fishermen's log book records show a drop in abundance of 63 per cent from the early 1930's to the present in the Boothbay Harbor region and of 31 to 40 per cent in the area south of Cape Cod. Information on the early life history and distribution of young blackback flounders and the size and age composition and distribution of fish subject to the commercial and sport fisheries indicates that the young are the product of local spawning and that the sport and commercial fisheries draw on a resident stock of primarily adult fish.
  • Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bay anchovy

    Morton, Timothy (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment StationVicksburg, MS, 1989)
    The bay anchovyoccurs along the Atlantic and Gulfof Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod,Massachusetts, to Yucatan, Mexico(Hildebrand 1963), except for theFlorida Keys where it is apparentlyabsent (Daly 1970). (PDF contains 22 pages)
  • Tunas and tuna fisheries of the World: an annotated bibliography, 1930-1953

    Van Campen, Wilvan G.; Hoven, Earl E. (1956)
    This bibliography attempts to list, with descriptive annotations and a subject index, important literature published between 1930 and 1953 dealing with the tunas and their fisheries in all parts of the world. It is thus a continuation of Corwin's (1930) work, which extended with similar scope through 1929, and an extension of Shimada's (1951), which was limited to the biology of Pacific tunas. The tunas with which it deals are those fishes customarily so-called in commercial parlance and usually classified in the genera Thunnus, Neothunnus, Parathunnus, Germo, Katsuwonus, Euthynnus and Auxis and their various synonyms. All aspects of the biology of the tunas are dealt with, as are descriptions and histories of all types of tuna fisheries, commercial and exploratory tuna fishing methods and results, fishing gear, catch statistics, and fishery management, but processing technology, economics and marketing, folklore, and purely literary references have been excluded.
  • Experiments in the marking of seals and sea-lions

    Scheffer, Victor B. (U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, DC, 1950)
    This report reviews experiments in the marking, for study purposes, of seals, sea-lions, and fur seals in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Antarctic regions. Also discussed are the results of studies of the northern fur seal, especially the series from 1940 to 1049 carried out by U.S. Government agents on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. (PDF contains 38 pages)
  • Fishery resources of the United States of America

    Walford, Lionel A. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Office of War Information, Bureau of GraphicsWashington, DC, 1945)
    The term “fishery resources” is used in this book with a broad application. It includes the populations of the fishes and other organisms useful to men, the environment that makes life possible for them, the industry that exploits and utilizes them, and our knowledge about them by which we can conserve their productivity. This book aims to survey the present status of all these aspects of those fishery resources that are used or are available for use by United States anglers and commercial fishermen. It is planned primarily for the Congress, at its request, with the idea of giving to busy people, in condensed fashion, a perspective on its subject. (pdf contains 142 pages)
  • Water purity standards for fresh-water fishes

    Ellis, M.M. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceWashington, DC, 1944)
  • US Fish and Wildlife Service Fisheries Resources, Panama City Field Office, Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Panama City Field Office (US Fish and Wildlife ServicePanama City, FL, 2008)
    (Document has 45 pages)