Central Institute of Fisheries Technology Cochin Publications
Energy efficiency in trawling operationsDiurnal variation in trawl catches and its influence on energy efficiency of trawler operations are discussed in this paper, based on data on landings of a Japanese factory trawler which operated in the Indian waters during 1992-93. The factory vessel equipped for stern trawling had a length overall of 110 m, GT of 5460 and installed engine power of 5700 hp. Operations were conducted off west coast of India between 31 and 278 m depth contours, using a 80.4 m high opening bottom trawl with an adjusted vertical opening of 7.60.9 m. The catch data was grouped according to the median towing hour, by the time of the day. CPUE obtained was 3713.4 kg.h-1 for day time operations and 1536.6 kg.h-1 for night-time operations. Mean daily catches were 31367 kg.day-1 (SE: 2743) for day time operations and 9430 kg.day-1 (SE: 966) for night-time operations. Fuel consumption were 0.399 and 0.982 kg fuel.kg fish-1, respectively for day and night-time operations. Total catch and catch components such as threadfin bream, bulls eye, hairtails, trevelly, lizard fish showed significant improvement during day-time operations while swarming crabs showed a significant improvement in the night-time operations. The difference in catch rates between day and night could be attributed to diurnal variation in the spatial distribution and schooling behaviour of the catch categories, their differential behaviour in the vicinity of trawl systems under varying light levels of day and night and consequent effect on catching efficiency and size selectivity at different stages in the capture process. The results obtained in addition to its importance in the operational planning of trawling in order to realise objectives of maximising catch per unit effort and minimising fuel consumption per unit volume of fish caught, has added significance in the use of bottom trawl surveys in stock abundance estimates.
Fishing capacity managementExcess fishing capacity has been identified as one of the most pernicious problems affecting long-term sustainability and biodiversity of fishery resources and economic viability of fishing operations. Significant economic gains could be achieved by eliminating excess capacity, in addition to attaining objectives of resource sustainability. In this paper, approaches to fishing capacity management are reviewed in the context of Indian fisheries. A rights based regulated access system under a co-management regime based on a strong inclusive cooperative movement of stakeholders with built-in transferable quota system and buy-back or rotational right of entry schemes seems to hold potential for capacity management in the shelf fisheries of Indian states, which need to be implemented in collaboration with the Union Government and the neighboring states with confluent ecosystems and shared fishing grounds. A key advantage of the use of rights based approaches for managing fishing capacity is that they provide a mechanism through which stakeholders can more easily and actively participate in the management process.