Dépôts récents

  • Illegal fishing of inland water bodies of Nigeria: Kainji experience

    Raji, A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Omorinkoba, W.; Bwala, R.L. (2012)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    It is a common knowledge that illegal fishing which includes use of wrong gears, explosives, excessive exploitation of choice stocks, enhancement and stocking of water body and pollution has devastating effects on the critical biomass of fish biodiversity and livelihood activities associated with fishing. Efforts worldwide to arrest these menace are significant because it has been found that illegal fishing has made fishing non sustainable, resulted in poor fishermen catches, and exacerbated the use of illegal gears in an effort to a must catch. Conflict between fisher folk and policies has continued to generate different strategies in the control of illegal fishing. Some of these strategies at regional and National levels include creation and implementation of fisheries laws, fishing edicts, code of conduct for responsible fisheries, policing of inland water bodies, capacity building and capability through training of fishermen, creating necessary awareness, arrest and punishment of offenders. There are also other initiative on conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems which have interrelation with illegal fishing. This paper examines efforts in promoting and boosting the fisheries of Lake Kainji, through creating necessary awareness, campaign visits, radio programmes, gear control, reward systems, integration and diversification of livelihood activities, community based management and policing. It further analyses what is working, problems, and prospect of fisheries laws, the need to integrate factors of political policies, other global initiative on water management for people and nature. Recommendations on strategies including protection of fishing grounds, establishment of catch data base, integration of other intervention as alternative source of income to enhance livelihood, reduce fishing pressure, and capacity building of fisher folks, development of rules and regulations that is community based are highlighted.
  • The review of recent advances in fish genetics and biotechnology

    Mgbabu , Christopher Nwokwa (2012-09-19)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Great advances have been, and are being made in our knowledge of the genetics and molecular biology (including genomics, proteomics and structural biology). Global molecular profiling technologies such as microassays using DNA or oligonucleotide chip, and protein and lipid chips are being developed. The application of such biotechnological advances are inevitable in aquaculture in the areas of improvement of aquaculture stocks where many molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLDs and RAPD are now available for genome analysis, finger printing and genetic linkage mapping. Transgenic technology has been developed in a number of fish species and research is being pursed to produce transgenic fish carrying genes that encode antimicrobial peptides such as lysozyme thereby achieving disease resistance in fish. Also it is a short cut to achieving genetic change for fast growth and other desirable traits like early sexual maturity, temperature tolerance and feed conversion efficiency. KEYWORDS: Fish genetics, transgenesis, monoploidy, diploidy, polyploidy,gynogenesis, androgenesis, cryopreservation.
  • Technical efficiency in artisanal fisheries (AF) in Badagry local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria

    Ogunniyi, L.T.; Ajao, , A.O.; Sanusi , W.A. (2012)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    This study examined the technical efficiency in artisanal fisheries in Lagos State of Nigeria. The study employed a two stage random sampling procedure for the selection of 120 respondents. The analytical techniques involved descriptive statistics and estimation of technical efficiency following maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure available in FRONTIER 4.1. The MLE result of the stochastic frontier production function showed that hired labour, cost of repair and capital items are critical factors that influences productivity of artisanal fishermen with the coefficient of hired labour being highly elastic. This implies that employing more labour will significantly increase the catch in the study area. The predicted farm efficiency with an average value of 0.92 showed that there is a marginal potential of about 8 percent to increase the catch, hence the income of the fishermen. The study further examined the factors that influence productivity of fishermen in the study area. Year of education, mode of operation and frequency of fishing have important implication on the technical efficiency of fishermen in the study area.
  • A field agronomic evaluation of Typha grass in Tomas dam Kano State Nigeria

    Birnin Yauri, Y.A.; Balarabe, M.L.; Mohammed, H.A.; Owotunse, S.O. (2008)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    The study was carried out by measuring plant height, length of leaves, width of the leaves, length of inflorescent, length of inflorescent tip were also measured with a measuring tape. Number of tillers per plants was counted. Soil auger was used to take soil samples randomly from ten different locations in Tomas Dam Kano states Nigeria. At the depths of 0-5cm, 5cm 13 10cm, 10cm 13 15cm. The soil samples were put into polyethylene bags and labelled according to their depth for mineral analyses. In the two season calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus constitute the highest concentration of the minerals at 0 155 cm depth. There is no significant differences in terms of mineral composition between wet season and dry season. (P<0.005).There is significance differences between plant Length of inflorescent and length of inflorescent tip when the two season are compared. KEYWORDS: Typha grass, field, agronomic evaluation,
  • Evaluation of processed groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) cake meals in the feeding of Clariid catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fingerlings

    Fapohunda, O.O. (2008)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Groundnut cake (GNC) meal is an important source of dietary protein for domestic animals with a cost advantage over the conventional animal protein sources used in aquaculture feed production. It would be useful to evaluate the effects of GNC processing methods on the density and nutritional values of processed GNC meals. The use of processed GNC meals in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was evaluated. Seven iso-proteic and iso-caloric diets were formulated, replacing fish meal with roasted and boiled GNC meals, each at three inclusion levels of 30%, 35%, and 40%. Diet I is 100% fishmeal, Diet II is 30% roasted GNC meal, Diet III is 35% roasted GNC meal, Diet IV is 40% roasted GNC meal, Diet V is 30% boiled GNC meal, Diet VI is 35% boiled GNC meal and Diet VII is 40% boiled GNC meal. Results showed that the crude protein content of GNC meals was 40.5% and 40.8% in boiled and roasted GNC meals respectively; the lower protein content for processed GNC meals might be due to heat denaturation of the seed protein, with boiled GNC meal being more adversely affected. The mean weight gain of fingerlings fed roasted GNC meals ranged between 5.29 – 5.64 while for boiled GNC meals, it was between 4.60 – 5.22. Generally, fish performed better when fed diets containing roasted GNC meals, than boiled GNC meals, and compared favorably with fish fed fish meal based diet. Body mass increase, total feed increase, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate by C. gariepinus fingerlings in all diets, showed no significant differences, suggesting that processed GNC meals could partially replace diets for C. gariepinus fingerlings without adverse consequences. This study showed that processed GNC meals could partially replace fish meal up to 30% without significantly influencing fingerling growth and health. It is recommended that the use of fish meal as the main basal ingredient for fingerlings could be discontinued, since GNC meal was a cheaper alternative, and could replace fish meal up to 35%, without any significant adverse effects on the fingerling performance. KEYWORDS: Clarias gariepinus, Fingerlings, Groundnut cake meal, Nutrient utilization, Performance.
  • Production efficiency in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Burchell, 1822 in Cross River State , Nigeria

    Adinya, I.B.; Ikpi, G.U. (2008)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    In the study, the production efficiency of catfish in Cross River State was determined. Data was obtained from 120 fish farmers were randomly selected from Cross River Agricultural Zones, using a multistage random sampling technique. Multiple regression analysis model was the main tool of data analysis where different functions were tried. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglass production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of catfish and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2 = 0.61) indicates that sixtyone percent of the variability in output of catfish is explained by the independent variables. The results also indicate that farmers’ educational level positively influence their level of efficiency in catfish production in the study area. The F-value of 16.427 indicates the overall significance of the model at 1 percent level, indicating that there is a significant linear relationship between the independent variables taken together and the yield of catfish produced in Cross River State. The marginal value products of fish pond size (farm size), labour and feed (diet) were N67.50, N 178.13 and N 728.00 respectively, while allocative efficiency for (farm size), labour and feed (diet) were (0.09 over utilized, 2.85 under utilized and 0.99 over utilized), respectively, there existed allocative in-efficiency, there is a high potential for catfish farmers to increase their yields and income. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that fish farmers should expand fish farms, improving on production efficiency and adopting new technologies. Regular awareness campaign about new technologies in fish farming should be embarked by extension agents to make fish farmers know the importance of adopting new technologies. KEYWORDS: Production efficiency, Catfish, Cobb-Douglass, Production function, Cross River State
  • A mesocosm analytical study on the impact of freshwater mussel (Lamellidens marginalis Lamarck) mediated bioturbation and biodeposition on some ecological factors of a freshwater lake

    Jayakumar, P.; Jothivel, N.; Thimmappa, A.; Paul, V.I. (2008)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    The biotic potential of the benthic filter feeding freshwater bivalve mollusc Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) influencing the nutrient dynamics of the bottom sediments of the lake by means of biodeposition and bioturbation activities were analysed using a lake mesocosm experiment. Five control as well as experimental mesocosms was maintained up to 60 days (d). The factors studied included the percentage of water content of the sediment, percentage of total nitrogen, percentage of organic matter along with the total phosphorus and humic acid content. While total phosphorus and humic acid content of the experimental mesocosoms showed gradual and significant increases from 30d of the experiment to reach the maximum levels after 60d, the percentage of organic matter registered significant increases right from 15d onwards and reached the maximum values after 60d. On the other hand, while the percentage of water content of the sediments of the experimental mesocosoms increased only up to 30d experiment, percentage of nitrogen was increased during the first half and at the fag end of the experiment. All the investigated ecological factors were found to be significantly influenced by the presence of L. marginalis in the experimental mesocosms. The study indicated that the mussel influence the nutrient dynamics of the inhabitant ecosystem through the processes of excretion, biodeposition of pseudofaeces and faeces, along with the bioturbation of the sediments brought about by their ploughing movements. KEYWORDS: freshwater mussel, Lamellidens marginalis, bioturbation, biodeposition, mesocosms.
  • Diet seasonality and overlap of Chrysichthys species on Lake Kainji, Nigeria

    Yem, I.Y.; Ago, N.D.; Ugoala, E. (2007)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    Seasonality and overlap of diet of Chrysichthys species in Kainji Lake was studied for a period of one year. A total of two hundred and forty five Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and one hundred and nineteen Chrysichthys auratus longifilis were used during the study. Chrysichthys species food items ranged from plant to animal materials. Seasonal variations of diet showed that plant material dominated the diet of both species in rainy and dry seasons. While zygoptera and Lumbiculus were absent in the diet of Chrysichthys auratus longifilis in rainy season, zygoptera and nematode were absent in dry season. There was significant correlation (p< 0.01) of the items between the two species. There was also high level of association between their diets, which indicated that both species have similar diet. Lake Kainji is a good environment for the survival of Chrysichthys species.KEYWORDS: Chrysichthys species, overlap, diet, seasonality, Kainji Lake, Nigeria
  • Length-weight relationship of benthic bivalves of the Andoni Flats, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Ansa, E.J.; Allison, M.E. (2008)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    The length weight relationship of three benthic bivalves namely, Senilia (= Anadara) senilis (bloody cockle), Tagelus adansonii (knife clam), Tellina nymphalis (soft shell clam) from the Andoni Flats were determined. The bivalves which are of ecological importance were obtained from the intertidal areas of the Andoni Flats. Shell lengths of the bivalves were measured and corresponding dry weight measurements were also taken. The data obtained were then subjected to regression analysis using the FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT). The length weight relationships obtained from the FiSAT analysis indicated isometric growth for Senilia (= Anadara) senilis, with slope (b) value of 2.942; positive allometric growth for Tagelus adansonii, with a ‘b’ value of 3.395 and negative allometric growth for Tellina nymphalis with ‘b’ value of 2.633.KEYWORDS: bivalves, length-weight, isometric growth, allometric growth, cockle, clam.
  • Sub lethal mercuric chloride toxicity induced stress related alterations in the epithelial lining of foot of the freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck)

    Thimmappa, A.; Jothivel, N.; Paul, V.I. (2007)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Sub lethal (0.2 ppm) mercuric chloride induced stress related histopathological alterations in the epithelial linings of foot (podium) of the edible freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) were studied using histochemical techniques up to 60 days of exposure. The histomorphological changes were manifested only slowly and its intensity was somewhat proportional to the duration of exposure. The immediate response of the exposed mussels was the altered mucous secretion. There was a progressive incorporation of sulphated glycoproteins into the secretory contents of the mucous cells especially in the first half of the experiment. Marked histopathological changes including necrosis, appearance of pyknotic nuclei, sloughing of epithelial cells and appearance of non-tissue spaces, etc., started appearing during the later half of the experiment. The fag end of the experiment, which witnessed prominent histomorphological changes, was accompanied by highly decreased mucous secretion.KEYWORDS: heavy metal toxicity, mercuric chloride, Lamellidens marginalis, freshwater mussel, histopathology.
  • Aspects of mineral composition of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis adults exposed to different concentrations of Bonny-light crude oil

    Ugwu, L.L.C.; Valdon, B.S.; Adesiyan, A.F.; Nwani,, C.D. (2007)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Studies were carried out to assess some macro and trace elements of mineral composition of the male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis adults exposed to graded concentrations (1.00-8.00m/L-1) of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). The experiment was monitored for 4 days (toxicity) and 42days (recovery) periods. Significant decreases (P < 0.05)in the sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), vanadium (Va), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) contents of the male H. bidorsalis corresponded with the increasing concentrations of BLCO. In contrast, the female fishes recorded significant increases (P < 0.05) in the values of the above elements in their tissues as the concentrations of BLCO increased. Furthermore, the values of Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Zn, Fe, Va, Pb and Mn recorded in the male fishes where generally lower than those of their female counterparts and the control fish. Increased values of these elements were also recorded during the recovery periods (days 14, 28 and 42) of this study in the magnitudes of 15% at day 14, 20% at day 28 and 20% at day 42. This implied that the removal of crude oil stress during this period improved the quantity of these minerals deposited in the fish tissues. The highest percent proportion of Zn and the lowest proportion of Pb recorded in both male and female H. bidorsalis adults agreed with the report of other workers for other fish species. KEYWORDS: Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Mineral composition, Bonny-light crude oil, Toxicity, Recovery.
  • Skeletal malformations among the Clarias species from fish mongers in Ekiti State

    Fagbuaro, Omotayo; Oso, James Abayomi (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Clarias species purchased from fish mongers from Ado – Ekiti, Ikun Ekiti, Itapaji – Ekiti Nigeria were examined for possible deformities in any part of their body. A total number of 360, 140, and 40 fish samples were from Ado – Ekiti, Ikun – Ekiti, and Itapaji – Ekiti respectively. Deformities of various types were observed only from Ado – Ekiti collection. The deformities observed are malformed mouth, big head, stumpy body, and multiple vertebral deformities. The possible cause (s) of the deformities may be as a result of stress, pollution from human activities or other factors such as poor nutrition, hereditary, diseases, etc. but these causes has not been properly determined
  • Comparative evaluation of the proximate composition of smoked and salted-dried Oreochromis niloticus

    Ndakatu, M.A.; Oyero, J.O.; Mamsa , A.M. (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the shelf life of smoked and salted-dried Oreochromis niloticus over a relative time period. Improved traditional smoking kiln and salting were employed respectively. The smoking kiln was constructed with iron metal with a dimension of 120cm x 70cm and consisting of three smoking racks with dimension of 30 x 30cm each. Table salt was used for preservation of some of the specimens. A total of 30 samples weighing 7.1kg were used. Fifteen (15) samples each were used respectively for smoking and salting. Satisfactory smoking was achieved in two days while salting to dryness was accomplished in four days. The initial percentage proximate compositions of the smoked products were 7.94%, 66. 97%, 8.`84% and 2.96% for moisture, protein, lipid and ash respectively, while that of the salted products were 8.37%, 63.93%, 12.91% and 3.95% for moisture, protein, lipid and ash. Preliminary results of the proximate compositions of the two products at the end of the fifth week of storage were as follows; 8.23%, 65.70%, 10.63% and 2.23% for moisture, protein, lipid and ash respectively of the smoked products, while 6.33%, 64.25%, 11.28% and 2.38% represent the values of moisture, protein, lipid and ash of the salted-dried products. By the individual product proximate characterization, it was discovered that both products were still relatively in good and acceptable condition. However, the protein and moisture values of the smoked products were relatively greater than those of the salted-dried products, while on the other hand, lipid and ash were relatively greater in salted-dried products. The prevailed relative higher moisture in the smoked products constitutes a predisposing condition for microbial activity and spoilage of the products, while the relative higher percentage lipid in the salted-dried products predisposes the products to lipid oxidation and rancidity.
  • Environmental friendly aquaculture key to sustainable fish farming development in Nigeria

    Akinrotimi, O.A.; Abu, O.M.G.; Aranyo, A.A. (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Aquaculture production in Nigeria has increased tremendously in recent times; along with this increase is the rise in the level of waste outputs from aquaculture practices. The discharge of waste from aquaculture operations on continuous basis leads to eutrophication and destruction of natural ecosystem in receiving water body. Controlled wastes production strategies is necessary to maintain sustainable aquaculture growth into the future, as long-term sustainability of fish culture systems depends on their ability to reduce their waste outputs. The release of solid wastes is mainly a function of the digestibility of various dietary components while the release of dissolved wastes is mainly a function of the metabolism of nutrients by the fish. This paper critically reviews the impacts of aquaculture wastes on the environment and the strategies to mitigate the effect of these impacts. Future trends and research needs on aquaculture induced effluents are outlined. As the amount of nutrient discharge is typically site and operation specific, effective farm management has been identified as the most important factor to avoid effluent pollution.
  • The relationship between aquatic macrophytes and water quality in Nta-Wogba Stream, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Uedeme-Naa, B.; Gabriel, U.U.; Akinrotimi, O.A. (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    An empirical survey of macrophytes distribution and biomass from four stations, along Nta-wogba stream in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, was conducted between April and December 2007, to quantify the relationship between biomass, in stream nutrients and dissolved ions. The correlation analysis indicated that the biomass of the aquatic macrophytes under consideration, Einochloa pyramidalis; Diplazum sammatii; Cyperus difformis; Alternathera sessilis and Ludwigia decurrens were significantly (P<0.05) related to the nutrients: sulphate, ammonium; nitrate, and phosphate in all the stations. The measurement of total dissolved solid, which is correlated to ionic concentrations and turbidity, provided a rough indication of in stream light availability.
  • The abiotic ecology of breeding ground of Palaemonid prawns in the Ilaje Estuary, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Eniade, Abiodun Adeyemi; Bello-Olusoji, A. Oluayo (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    In situ ecological assessment of the breeding grounds of palaemonid prawns was conducted in some selected locations around Ondo state coastal area between the months of April and September. Data obtained were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics. Three species of Palaemonid prawns were identified in four different locations within the study area with relative abundance ratio of 4:3:1. Macrobrachium macrobrachion, Nematopalaemon hastatus and Palaemon maculatus respectively. Sex ratio of 1 male to 5 females for M. macrobrachion, and 1 male to 2 females for N. hastatus and P. maculatus were observed with result showing significant relationships (P < 0.05) in distribution patterns across collection sites. Population distribution within the water column showed that palaemons are sub-lithoral prawns inhabiting maximum mean depth of 0.67m ± 0.025. Surface macro-phytes such as Eichhornia crassipies, Paspalum vaginatum, and Pistia stratiotes are common providing hiding spots for the prawn at the breeding ground. The mean soil pH across the sites stands at 6.67± 0.399 with the soil textural class that range from silty-loam to silty-clay. Also, the water quality parameters of study areas suggest that captive culture and rearing of Palaemons may be feasible outside the breeding areas.
  • Evaluation of the nutrient composition of some unconventional feedstuffs

    Elezuo, K.O.; Akalonu, M.N.; Eboigbe, J.J. (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    A trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient composition of some unconventional feedstuffs to ascertain their suitability for incorporation into fish feed. Pawpaw seed, mudskipper meal, water melon seed, almond kernel and groundnut husk were processed and analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition using internationally established procedure. The results obtained showed that the experimental feed stuffs had percentage crude protein that ranged from 7.38% to 55.85%. The highest level (55.85%) was found in mudskipper meal while the lowest (7.38%) was found in groundnut husk. The experimental feed stuffs had appreciable levels of calcium, potassium and phosphorus ranging from 0.29% to 1.87%, 0.17 to 1.26 and 0.06 to 0.97 respectively. Almond kernel can be used to replace soybean meal in aqua feed. Also, mudskipper meal can be used to replace fish meal in order to produce a cheaper fish feed; but it was recommended that feeding trials should be conducted to ascertain the inclusion level at which they can be effectively incorporated. The potentials of some of these feedstuffs in fish feed formulation seem high.
  • Estimation of the growth curve parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Nagulu, Banoth; Satyanarayana, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, P.; Gopal, Krishna (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Growth is one of the most important characteristics of cultured species. The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of linear, log linear, polynomial, exponential and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii obtained by using weekly records of live weight, total length, head length, claw length, and last segment length from 20 to 192 days of age. The models were evaluated according to the coefficient of determination (R2), and error sum off square (ESS) and helps in formulating breeders in selective breeding programs. Twenty full-sib families consisting 400 PLs each were stocked in 20 different hapas and reared till 8 weeks after which a total of 1200 animals were transferred to earthen ponds and reared up to 192 days. The R2 values of the models ranged from 56 – 96 in case of overall body weight with logistic model being the highest. The R2 value for total length ranged from 62 to 90 with logistic model being the highest. In case of head length, the R2 value ranged between 55 and 95 with logistic model being the highest. The R2 value for claw length ranged from 44 to 94 with logistic model being the highest. For last segment length, R2 value ranged from 55 – 80 with polynomial model being the highest. However, the log linear model registered low ESS value followed by linear model for overall body weight while exponential model showed low ESS value followed by log linear model in case of head length. For total length the low ESS value was given by log linear model followed by logistic model and for claw length exponential model showed low ESS value followed by log linear model. In case of last segment length, linear model showed lowest ESS value followed by log linear model. Since, the model that shows highest R2 value with low ESS value is generally considered as the best fit model. Among the five models tested, logistic model, log linear model and linear models were found to be the best models for overall body weight, total length and head length respectively. For claw length and last segment length, log linear model was found to be the best model. These models can be used to predict growth rates in M. rosenbergii. However, further studies need to be conducted with more growth traits taken into consideration
  • The role of probiotics in aquaculture in Nigeria - a review

    Kolndadacha, O.D.; Adikwu, I.A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Atiribom, R.Y.; Mohammed, A.; Musa, Y.M. (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    Aquaculture is beset by many problems especially diseases caused by bacteria as the major deteriorating factors. The use of vaccines and antimicrobial agents have been centered on disease control, but are associated with problems The development of antibiotic resistance among the microorganisms have become a global concern as a result of indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Several alternative suggestions for disease prevention have been on probiotics for its efficacy, low cost, less side effects and accessible to farmers. Probiotics is gaining a high priority in the developed countries with the aim of replacing conventional drugs. The principal bacterial groups tested as probiotic bacteria in culture of shrimps, crabs, oysters, fish and humans are Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Bifidobacteria and several Lactobacilli. Experiments have mainly been conducted with fish larvae, adult fish, crustaceans and animals where significant reduction in mortalities has been obtained. The purpose of this review is to create awareness of the role of probiotics in disease control in aquaculture as alternative to antibiotics.
  • Trends in nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in Ebonyi river, Nigeria

    Ude, E.F; Ugwu, L.L.C.; Mgbenka, B.O.; Nwani, C.D. (2011)
    Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
    A baseline study of the limnological integrity of Ebonyi River, a tropical lotic system in south-eastern Nigeria was conducted between September 2006 and February 2008 to assess its potential in enhancing fisheries production for the benefit of the rural poor, who depend on the resources of the river for survival. The parameters measured were nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. Results show that nitrate varied between 40.43mg/L in September 2006 and 1.73mg/L in December 2007, Showing significant difference (P<0.01) among months. The values recorded for nitrites varied between 0.2mg/L in September 2006 and 0.4mg/L in February 2008, showing significant (P<0.01) variation among months. Values recorded for phosphorus was highest (0.05mg/L) in the month of October 2006 while the least mean value (0.32mg/L) was recorded in the month of May 2007 and showed significant (p<0.01) variation in monthly means. It was concluded that the values of the measured parameters falls within tolerable range for enhanced fisheries development in the area. KEYWORDS: Limnology, Tropical, River, Monthly, Mean, Variation

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