Recent Submissions

  • A review of IATTC research on the early life history and reproductive biology of scombrids conducted at the Achotines Laboratory from 1985 to 2005

    Margulies, Daniel; Scholey, Venon P.; Wexler, Jeanne B.; Olson, R.A.; Suter, Jenny M.; Hunt , Sharon L. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommisionLa Jolla, CA, 2007)
    English:For nearly a century, fisheries scientists have studied marine fish stocks in an effort to understand how theabundances of fish populations are determined. During the early lives of marine fishes, survival isvariable, and the numbers of individuals surviving to transitional stages or recruitment are difficult topredict.The egg, larval, and juvenile stages of marine fishes are characterized by high rates of mortality andgrowth. Most marine fishes, particularly pelagic species, are highly fecund, produce small eggs andlarvae, and feed and grow in complex aquatic ecosystems. The identification of environmental orbiological factors that are most important in controlling survival during the early life stages of marinefishes is a potentially powerful tool in stock assessment.Because vital rates (mortality and growth) during the early life stages of marine fishes are high andvariable, small changes in those rates can have profound effects on the properties of survivors andrecruitment potential (Houde 1989). Understanding and predicting the factors that most stronglyinfluence pre-recruit survival are key goals of fisheries research programs.Spanish:Desde hace casi un siglo, los científicos pesqueros han estudiado las poblaciones de peces marinos en unintento por entender cómo se determina la abundancia de las mismas. Durante la vida temprana de lospeces marinos, la supervivencia es variable, y el número de individuos que sobrevive hasta las etapastransicionales o el reclutamiento es difícil de predecir.Las etapas de huevo, larval, y juvenil de los peces marinos son caracterizadas por tasas altas demortalidad y crecimiento. La mayoría de los peces marinos, particularmente las especies pelágicas, sonmuy fecundos, producen huevos y larvas pequeños, y se alimentan y crecen en ecosistemas acuáticos complejos. La identificación los factores ambientales o biológicos más importantes en el control de lasupervivencia durante las etapas tempranas de vida de los peces marinos es una herramientapotencialmente potente en la evaluación de las poblaciones.Ya que las tasas vitales (mortalidad y crecimiento) durante las etapas tempranas de vida de los pecesmarinos son altas y variables, cambios pequeños en esas tasas pueden ejercer efectos importantes sobrelas propiedades de los supervivientes y el potencial de reclutamiento (Houde 1989). Comprender ypredecir los factores que más afectan la supervivencia antes del reclutamiento son objetivos clave de losprogramas de investigación pesquera.
  • Workshop on turtle bycatch mitigation for longline fisheries: experimental design and data analysis, 7-8 November 2007, San Ramón de Alajuela, Costa Rica

    Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommisionLa Jolla, CA, 2008)
    Large numbers of fishing vessels operating from ports in Latin America participate in surfacelongline fisheries in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO), and several species of sea turtles inhabitthe grounds where these fleets operate. The endangered status of several sea turtle species, andthe success of circle hooks (‘treatment’ hooks) in reducing turtle hookings in other ocean areas,as compared to J-hooks and Japanese-style tuna hooks (‘control’ hooks), prompted the initiationof a hook exchange program on the west coast of Latin America, the Eastern Pacific RegionalSea Turtle Program (EPRSTP)1. One of the goals of the EPRSTP is to determine if circle hookswould be effective at reducing turtle bycatch in artisanal fisheries of the EPO withoutsignificantly reducing the catch of marketable fish species. Participating fishers were providedwith circle hooks at no cost and asked to replace the J/Japanese-style tuna hooks on theirlonglines with circle hooks in an alternating manner. Data collected by the EPRSTP showdifferences in longline gear and operational characteristics within and among countries. Theseaspects of the data, in addition to difficulties encountered with implementation of the alternating-hookdesign, pose challenges for analysis of these data.
  • An Evaluation of the area stratification used for sampling tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean and implications for estimating total annual catches

    Suter, Jenny M. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommisionLa Jolla, CA, 2010)
    The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) staff has been sampling thesize distributions of tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) since 1954, and the species composition of the catches since 2000. The IATTC staff use the data from the species composition samples, in conjunction with observer and/or logbook data, and unloading data from the canneries to estimate the total annual catches of yellowfin (Thunnus albacares),skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and bigeye (Thunnus obesus) tunas. These sample data arecollected based on a stratified sampling design. I propose an update of the stratification of the EPO into more homogenous areas in order to reduce the variance in the estimates of thetotal annual catches and incorporate the geographical shifts resulting from the expansion of the floating-object fishery during the 1990s.The sampling model used by the IATTC is a stratified two-stage (cluster) random sampling design with first stage units varying (unequal) in size. The strata are month, area, and set type. Wells, the first cluster stage, are selected to be sampled only if all of the fish were caught in the same month, same area, and same set type. Fish, the second cluster stage, are sampled for lengths, and independently, for species composition of the catch. The EPO is divided into 13 sampling areas, which were defined in 1968, based on the catch distributions of yellowfin and skipjack tunas. This area stratification does not reflect the multi-species, multi-set-type fishery of today. In order to define more homogenous areas, I used agglomerative cluster analysis to look for groupings of the size data and the catch and effort data for 2000–2006. I plotted the results from both datasets against the IATTC Sampling Areas, and then created new areas. I also used the results of the cluster analysis to update the substitution scheme for strata with catch, but no sample. I then calculated the total annual catch (and variance) by species by stratifying the data into new Proposed Sampling Areas and compared the results to thosereported by the IATTC. Results showed that re-stratifying the areas produced smaller variances of the catch estimates for some species in some years, but the results were not significant.
  • Estimating relative abundance from catch and effort data, using neural networks

    Maunder, Mark N.; Hinton, Michael G. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 2006)
    We develop and test a method to estimate relative abundance from catch and effort data usingneural networks. Most stock assessment models use time series of relative abundance as theirmajor source of information on abundance levels. These time series of relative abundance arefrequently derived from catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) data, using general linearized models(GLMs). GLMs are used to attempt to remove variation in CPUE that is not related to the abundanceof the population. However, GLMs are restricted in the types of relationships between theCPUE and the explanatory variables. An alternative approach is to use structural models basedon scientific understanding to develop complex non-linear relationships between CPUE and theexplanatory variables. Unfortunately, the scientific understanding required to develop thesemodels may not be available. In contrast to structural models, neural networks uses the data toestimate the structure of the non-linear relationship between CPUE and the explanatory variables.Therefore neural networks may provide a better alternative when the structure of the relationshipis uncertain. We use simulated data based on a habitat based-method to test the neuralnetwork approach and to compare it to the GLM approach. Cross validation and simulation testsshow that the neural network performed better than nominal effort and the GLM approach. However,the improvement over GLMs is not substantial. We applied the neural network model toCPUE data for bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Organization, functions, and achievements of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

    Bayliff, William H. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 2001)
    This report is a description of the organization, functions, and achievements of the IATTC. It hasbeen prepared to provide, in a convenient format, answers to requests for information concerning theIATTC. It replaces similar, earlier reports (Carroz, 1965; IATTC Spec. Rep., 1 and 5), which are nowlargely outdated. In order to make each section of the report independent of the others, some aspects ofthe IATTC are described in more than one section. For example, work on the early life history of tunasfinanced by the Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation of Japan is mentioned in the subsection entitledFinance, the subsection entitled Biology of tunas and billfishes, and the section entitledRELATIONS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. Due to space constraints, however, it is not possibleto describe the IATTC's activities in detail in this report. Additional information is available in publicationsof the IATTC, listed in Appendix 6, and in its web site, www.iattc.org. Many abbreviations areused in this report. The names of the organizations or the terms are written out the first time they areused, and, for convenience, they are also listed in the Glossary.
  • Technical workshop on calculating Nmin for the dolphin stocks of the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 2006)
    ENGLISH: This report based on the minutes of a technical workshop carried out under the auspices of theAgreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program, which took place in La Jolla,California, USA, on August 2-5, 2005. It is reproduced as an IATTC Special Report to make itmore widely available to the general public. Some minor changes in formatting have been made,but nothing of scientific importance has been deleted from or added to the report.SPANISH: El presente informe se basa en el acta de una reunión técnica que se celebró en La Jolla,California (EE.UU.) del 2 al 5 de agosto de 2005, bajo los auspicios del Acuerdo sobre elPrograma Internacional para la Conservación de los Delfines. Se reproduce como InformeEspecial de la CIAT para difundirlo más ampliamente al público general. Se han cambiado unosdetalles del formato, pero no se ha añadido ni sustraido nada de importancia científica.
  • Ballenas, delfines y marsopas del Pacifico nororiental y de las aguas árticas adyacentes

    Leatherwood, Stephen; Reeves, Randall R.; Perrin, William F.; Evans, William E. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1988)
    Esta guía de campo se ha diseñado para que los observadores puedan identificar los cetáceos (ballenas, delfines y marsopas) que vean en las aguas del Pacifico nororiental, incluyendo el Golfo de California, Hawaii y el Ártico occidental de Norteamérica. Los animales descritos no se agrupan por sus relaciones científicas sino por las similitudes de su apariencia en el campo. Las fotografías de los animales en su ambiente natural son la principal ayuda para su identificación. Los anexos describen como y a quienes se debe reportar la información sobre cetáceos vivos y muertos y proveen detalles para ayudar en la identificación de los cetáceos varados.
  • Organization, functions, and achievements of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

    Peterson, Clifford L.; Bayliff, William H. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1985)
    ENGLISH: The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) operates under the authority and direction of a Convention originally entered into by the governments of Costa Rica and the United states. The Convention, which came into force in 1950, is open to the adherence by other governments whose nationals participate in the fisheries for tropical tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The member nations of the Commission now are France. Japan, Nicaragua. Panama, and the United States. This report is a description of the organization, functions. and achievements of the Commission. It has been prepared to provide in a convenient format answers to requests for information concerning the Commission. It replaces similar, earlier reports (Carroz, 1965; Spec. Rep., 1), which are now largely outdated. SPANISH: La Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical (CIAT) funciona bajo la autoridad y dirección de un Convenio firmado originalmente por los gobiernos de Costa Rica y los Estados Unidos de America. El Convenio, Que entre en vigencia en 1950, se encuentra libre para Que otros gobiernos cuyos ciudadanos participan en la pesca de los atunes tropicales en el Océano Pacifico oriental se afilien a 61. Las naciones actuales que son miembros de la Comisión son: Francia, Japón, Nicaragua, Panamá y los Estados Unidos. Este informe es una descripci6n de la organización, funciones y resultados de la Comisión. Se ha preparado para suministrar en forma conveniente, informaci6n sobre la Comisión. Este informe renueva otros anteriores similares (Carroz, 1965; CIAT, Inf. Esp., 1) que en su mayor parte determinados.
  • Symposium on World tuna fisheries: commemorating the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

    Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 2001
    The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (lA TTC) came into existence in 1950, after its convention,signed by representatives ofCosta Rica and the United States in 1949, was ratified. It was the first international tuna organization, and only the third international fisheries organization, whose staff has had the responsibility for performing scientific research, the others being the International Pacific Halibut Commission, established in 1923, and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, established in 1937. The current members of the IATTC are Costa Rica, Ecuador, EI Salvador, France, Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, the United States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. The first Director ofthe IATTC was Dr. Milner B. Schaefer, who was in that position from 1950 to 1963. He was followed by Dr. John L. Kask (1963-1969), Dr. James Joseph (1969-1999), and Dr. Robin L. Allen (1999-present). The success ofthe IATIC showed that it was possible to carry out research and management on an international, high-seas fishery successfully. Since then other international organizations for tuna management, including the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (1969), the Forum Fisheries Agency (1979), the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (1994), and the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (1996), were established. Appropriately, the 50th anniversary celebration was held in Costa Rica, one of the two charter members of the IATTC. Persons who have held important positions in international fishery management in various parts ofthe world spoke at the celebration. Their presentations, except for that describing the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, are reproduced in this volume.
  • Report on the workshop of tuna-dolphin interactions

    Hammond, P. S. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1981)
    ENGLISH: In April 1981 the IATTC convened a working group of scientists in Managua, Nicaragua to discuss the tuna-dolphin association and to suggest priorities for future research which would enable the effects of any interaction to be detected or quantified. The yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, fishery in the eastern tropicalPacific is unique in that a significant proportion of the catch is of fish found in association with one or more species of dolphins. This association has never been fully understood but for many years tuna fishermen have used the more visible and more easily herded dolphin schools to help them locate and capture the tuna. In recent years, the concept of managing renewable resources in relation to their environments has been more fully developed. Any renewable resource is closely linked to other components in its general system and it is becoming increasingly more apparent that the harvesting of one resource affects another. This is the case with yellowfin tuna and dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific, although the dolphins are killed incidental to the fishery and are not harvested. There would seem to be obvious advantages in managing the tuna-dolphin complex as a whole. To do this it is necessary to understand the effect that tuna and dolphins have on each other and the causal mechanisms of the interactions. SPANISH: En abril de 1981, la CIAT convoco un grupo de trabajo de investigadores en Managua (Nicaragua), para deliberar sobre la asociación atún-delfín e indicar prioridades referentes a una investigación futura que pueda facilitar la cuantificación o el reconocimiento de los efectos de cualquier interacción. La pesca del atún aleta amarilla Thunnus albacares en el Pacifico oriental tropical, es única, ya que una proporción importante de su captura es de peces encontrados en asociación con una o mas especies de delfines. No se ha logrado comprender cabalmente esta asociación, pero por varios anos los pescadores atuneros han utilizado los cardúmenes de delfines que son mas visibles y que pueden agruparse mas fácilmente para poder localizar y capturar los atunes. En los últimos anos, el concepto de administrar los recursos renovables con relación a su ambiente, ha tenido mas auge. Cualquier recurso renovable se vincula estrechamente a otros componentes en el sistema general y actualmente es mas evidente que la explotación de un recurso afecta otro. Este es el caso del atún aleta amarilla y de los delfines en el Pacifico oriental tropical aunque los delfines mueren incidentalmente con relación a la pesca y no son explotados. Parece que se obtendr1an ventajas evidentes si se administrara como un todo el conjunto atún-delfín. Para realizar esto es necesario comprender los efectos que tienen los atunes y delfines los unos sabre los otros y los mecanismos causantes de la interacción.
  • Exploratory fishing for tunas and tuna tagging in the Marquesas, Tuamotu, Society, Pitcairn, and Gambier Islands

    Bayliff, William H.; Hunt, Gary A. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1981)
    The Marquesas Islands are located in the Pacific Ocean at about 9 degrees south latitude and 140 degrees west longitude (Figure 1). It has been demonstrated by tagging (Anonymous, 1980b) that skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, which occur in the northeastern Pacific Ocean have migrated to the Hawaiian Islands and Christmas Island in the central Pacific and also to the area between the Marshall and Mariana islands in the western Pacific. The Tuamotu, Society, Pitcairn, and Gambier islands, though the first two are not as close to the principal fishing areas of the eastern Pacific Ocean as are the Marquesas Islands, and the last two are small and isolated, are of interest for the same reasons that the Marquesas Islands are of interest, and thus skipjack should be tagged in those islands for the same reason that they should be tagged in the Marquesas Islands. The organizations which participated in the Marquesas Islands tagging and other scientific activities were the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), the South Pacific Commission (SPC), the Centre National pour l'Exploitation des Oceans (CNEXO), the Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), the Service de la Peche de la Polynesie Francaise (SPPF), and the Service de l'Economie Rural (SER).
  • Synopses of biological data on eight species of scombrids

    Bayliff, William H. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, California, 1980)
    In 1979 at the request of the Comision Permanente del Pacifico Sur, staff members of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission prepared synopses of eight species of scombrid fishes. These are to be published in Spanish in Revista de la Comision Permanente del Pacifico Sur, number 11, in 1980. This volume contains English versions of those synopses. The Spanish and English versions are not identical, however, the latter having been updated and somewhat modified after the Spanish versions were submitted for publication. These synopses follow closely the format prepared by Rosa (1965) for the synopses to be published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and cooperating organizations. However, instead of preparing detailed taxonomic reviews of the individual species, the taxonomic information for all of the scombrids and billfishes has been put into a separate chapter.
  • Organization, functions, and achievements of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

    Bayliff, William H. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1975)
    ENGLISH: The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) operates under the authority and direction of a Convention originally entered into by the governments of Costa Rica and the United States. The Convention, which came into force in 1950, is open to the adherence by other governments whose nationals participate in the fisheries for tropical tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The membernations of the Commission now are t in addition to Costa Rica and the United States, Canada, France, Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.This report is a description of the organization, functions, and achievements of the Commission. It has been prepared to provide in a convenientformat answers to requests for information concerning the Commission. It replaces a similar, earlier report (Carroz, 1965), which is now largely outdated. SPANISH: La Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical (CIAT) funciona bajo la autoridad y dirección de un Convenio firmado originalmente por los gobiernos de Costa Rica y los Estados Unidos de America. El Convenio, que entro en vigencia en 1950, seencuentra libre para que otros gobiernos cuyos ciudadanos participen en la pesca de atunes tropicales en el Océano Pacifico oriental se afilien a el. Las naciones miembros de la Comisión, además de Costa Rica y los Estados Unidos, son Cañada, Francia, Japón, México, Nicaragua y Panamá. Este informe es una descripción de la organización, funciones y resultados de la Comisión. Ha sido preparado para suministrar en forma conveniente respuestas a preguntas sobre la Comisión. Reemplaza un informe anterior similar (Carroz 1965), que ya es anticuado en su mayor parte.
  • Proceedings of the international workshop on the ecology and fisheries for tunas associated with floating objects

    Scott, Michael D.; Bayliff, William H.; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Schaefer, Kurt M. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1999)
    It has long been known that tunas frequently associate with floating objects, such as trees washed out to sea during periods of heavy rainfall, and fishermen have taken advantage of this behavior to facilitate the capture of fish. In some coastal areas, such as the Philippines, artisanal fishermen construct anchored fish-aggregating devices (FADs) to attract fish. More recently, large numbers of free-floating FADs have been constructed for deployment by large purse seiners on the high seas. The FADs often can be interrogated by the seiner and located at great distances using radio telemetry and/or GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies. In some cases a fleet of fishing vessels has a tender vessel which deploys and maintains the FADs, and notifies the fishing vessels when fish are seen around them. This workshop was convened by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission and sponsored by Bumble Bee Seafoods, Inc., for the purpose of bringing together scientists and fishermen who have studied the association of tunas with floating objects. Special efforts were made to get participants from all the areas in which tunas associated with floating objects are the targets of fisheries. Thus the "regional review papers" include contributions for the eastern Atlantic, the southern Caribbean Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the eastern and western Pacific Oceans. Many of these reviews and other contributed papers are published in this proceedings volume. Other papers discussed in the workshop were published elsewhere; these papers are cited in the list of background documents in the Report of the Workshop.
  • Proceedings of the first world meeting on bigeye tuna

    Deriso, Richard B.; Bayliff, William H.; Webb, Nicholas J. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1998)
    The annual catches of big eye are exceeded by those of only two other species of tuna, skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis, and yellowfin, Thunnus albacares. However, because most of the bigeye caught are consumed fresh, whereas most of the skipjack and yellowfin caught are canned, the economic value of big eye exceeds that of any other species of tuna. Despite its importance, less is known of the biology of bigeye than of the biology of any of the other principal market species of tunas. Historically, bigeye have been harvested mostly by longlines, which take only medium to large fish. During recent years, however, greater amounts of small bigeye have been caught by purse seines and other surface gear. This is a matter of concern for several reasons. First, long line fishermen are concerned that the harvesting of small bigeye will decrease the amounts of medium to large bigeye available to them. Second, since small bigeye are canned, rather than eaten fresh, consumers are concerned about the possible decrease in the supply of high-quality fresh fish. Third, economists are concerned about the possible economic loss associated with harvesting fish at less than their maximum economic value. Fourth, biologists are concerned about the possibility that harvesting of small bigeye could decrease the overall catches of that species. These concerns cannot be properly addressed until more knowledge of the biology of big eye is available. The purposes of the meeting were to review and discuss the information available and to make recommendations for further research.
  • Estimating the underwater shape of tuna longlines with micro-bathythermographs

    Mizuno, Keisuke; Okazaki, Makoto; Nakano, Hideki; Okamura, Hiroshi (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1999)
    An estimation method for the three-dimensional underwater shape of tuna longlines is developed, using measurements of depth obtained from micro-bathythermographs (BTs) attached to the main line at equally spaced intervals. The shape of the main line is approximated by a model which consists of a chain of unit length lines (folding-rule model), where the junction points are placed at the observed depths. Among the infinite number of possible shapes, the most likely shape is considered to be the smoothest one that can be obtained with a numerical optimization algorithm. To validate the method, a series of experimental longline operations were conducted in the equatorial region of the eastern Pacific Ocean, using 13 or 14 micro-BTs per basket of main line. Concurrent observations of oceanographic conditions (currents and temperature structure) were obtained. The shape of the main line can be calculated at arbitrary times during operations. Shapes were consistent with the current structure. On the equator, the line was elevated significantly by the Equatorial Undercurrent. It is shown that the shape of main line depends primarily upon the vertical shear and direction of the current relative to the gear. Time sequences of calculated shapes reveals that observed periodic (1-2 hours) oscillations in depth of the gear was caused by swinging movements of the main line. The shortening rate of the main line is an important parameter for formulating the shape of the longline, and its precise measurement is desirable.
  • World meeting on stock assessment of bluefin tunas: strengths and weaknesses

    Deriso, Richard B.; Bayliff, William H. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1991)
    The Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) hosted a meeting, sponsored jointly by the IATTC and the Australian Fisheries Service, to discuss and report on the strengths and weaknesses of stock assessment techniques used on bluefin tuna stocks in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. The meeting was held in La Jolla, California, on Mat 25-31, 1990.
  • An indexed bibliography of papers on tagging of tunas and billfishes

    Bayliff, William H. (Inter-American Tropical Tuna CommissionLa Jolla, CA, 1993)
    Two working parties, the Working Party on Tuna Tagging in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Working Party on Tuna Tagging in the Atlantic and Adjacent Seas, were formed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAD) of the United Nations in 1966 (Anonymous, 1966c). The conveners of these working parties were Dr. James Joseph of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and Mr. FrankJ. Mather, III, of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). In 1969 it was recommended that the working parties direct their attention toward billfishes, as well as tunas (Anonymous, 1969h: 5). One report (Joseph and working party, 1969) was published by the Pacific and Indian Oceans group and two (Mather and working party, 1969 and 1972) were published by the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas group. Each of the three working party reports included a bibliography of tuna and billfish tagging. The compiler of this bibliography, beginning in 1970, prepared numerous memoranda to the members of the working party, most of which included lists of papers on tuna and billfish tagging which had come to his attention, either directly or through members of the working party. The bibliographies in the three working party reports and the lists of references in the memoranda form the basis for the present bibliography.