• Functional properties of enzymatically modified protein from fish waste

      Ali, R.; Sayeed, A.S.; Hasnain, A.; Barlow, P.J. (1992)
      Fish flour from dried waste consisting of head, tail, fins and entrails was enzimatically hydrolysed using various proteases and the hydrolysate was spray dried. The functional properties such as water-fat absorption ratio, foaming and solubility index of the hydrolysates and fish flour revealed that some of the products might find significant uses in the food and/or cosmetics industry. Electrophoretic separation of the proteins from the fish flour and of the hydrolysates indicated that almost all the flour proteins are susceptible to proteolytic cleavage with the exception of one or two. The extent of degree of hydrolysis from 43-70.3% with a simultaneous decrease in unpleasant smell suggest an economical tool for minimizing odour pollution due to fish industry waste deterioration.
    • Occurrence of four Xanthid (Brachyura) crabs in Karachi waters (northern Arabian Sea)

      Ghani, N.; Tirmizi, N.M. (1992)
      Four Xanthid crabs, namely Euxanthus exsculptus (Herbst), Halimede ochtodes (Herbst), Medaeops edwardsi Guinot, and Neolimera intermadia Odhner, previously not known from the northern Arabian Sea are being reported. Each species is briefly described and illustrated.
    • Sterol composition of marine algae from Karachi coast of Arabian Sea

      Ahmad, V.U.; Perveen, S.; Shaiq Ali, M.; Uddin, S.; Rehman, A.; Shameel, M. (1992)
      During the course of chemical investigation of marine algae collected from Karachi coast of Arabian Sea, five sterols named as sarangosterol(1), 23-methyl cholesta-5, 25-dien-3ß-ol(2) from Endarachne binghamiae (brown alga), sargasterol(3) from Dictyota indica (brown alga), cholesterol(4) from Laurencia obtusa (red alga) and clerosterol(5) from Codium iyengarii (green alga) have been isolated. Their structures were elucidated with the help of spectroscopic means.
    • Intraspecific variation of isozymes in Arenicola marina (Polychaeta: Annelida)

      Mustaquim, J. (1992)
      Six enzyme systems, namely acid phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, phosphoglucose isomerase, tetrazolium oxidase, esterases and malate dehydrogenase were studied electrophoretically in Arenicola marina from various localities in United Kingdom. Out of 13 presumed loci, ten were found monomorphic. The three loci which appeared to be polymorphic are LAP-1, EST-2 and TO-1. Due to small sample size allele frequencies and genetic identity were not calculated. However, results indicate genetic difference among the population of A. marina.
    • Coping with excess salt in their growth environments: osmoregulation and other survival strategies deployed by the mangroves

      Ahmed, S.I. (1992)
      Mangroves are defined as a collection of woody plants and the associated fauna and flora that use a coastal depositional environment. Here the specific effects of salinity changes in mangroves have been examinated.
    • Rediscovery of Philyra verrucosa Henderson, 1893 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Karachi waters (northern Arabian Sea)

      Tirmizi, N.M.; Ghani, N. (1992)
      Philyra v. was established as a new species by Henderson in 1893 and later recorded by Alcock in 1896. A detailed description is presented.
    • Two most abundant species of Ulva and Enteromorpha from coast of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

      Saifullah, S.M.; Nizamuddin, M. (1992)
      The present paper reports mass occurrence of two algal species Ulva grandis Saifullah and Nizamuddin and Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Link in a protected coastal area in Jeddah, heavily polluted with domestic sewage. They seem to prefer low salinity eutrophic waters for their maximum growth.
    • Two genera and species of Isopoda new to the fauna of the northern Arabian Sea

      Javed, W.; Yasmeen, R. (1992)
      The paper is based on the new records of two genera - Lanocira Hansen and Paranthura Bate and Westwood and species L. gardineri Stebbing and P. latipes Barnard from the rocky intertidal zone of Karachi coast. Synonymes, diagnoses and geographical distribution of the genera are given. A list of known species of the genus Lanocira is provided. Both the species are described and illustrated in detail.
    • Some aspects of reproductive biology of two sciaenids, Otolithes cuvieri Trewavas and Johnius elongatus Mohan: maturation, spawning, sex ratio and fecundity

      Shamsul Hoda, S.M.; Ajazuddin, S. (1992)
      The gonads of Otolithes cuvieri and Johnius elongatus are described in seven maturity stages. O. Cuvieri spawns once a year from April to September as evidence by ova diameter frequency distribution and GSI values. 50% maturity is attained at 210mm TL in males and 200mm TL in females. Fecundity ranged from 2387 to 104379 with a mean value of 33502. Log-Log relationship between fecundity and total lenght, body weight and ovary weight were determined. An overall sex ratio of 1.54:1.00 was unequal in favour of males.Johnius elongatus spawns twice a year from January-February to Aprile-May and from August to October as evidence by ova diameter frequency distribution and GSI values. 50% maturity is attained at 140-143mm TL in both sexes. Fecundity ranged from 4238 to 167669 with a mean value of 42818. Log-Log relationship between fecundity and total lenght, body weign and ovary weight were determined. An overall sex ratio of 1.00:1.20 was unequal in favour of females.
    • Textural and compositional variations in beach sands along Karachi coast

      Ibrahim, N.; Muhammad, M.J.; Zaidi, S.M.S. (1992)
      The texture of clastic sediments is a fairly reliable index of the erosional history and energy conditions of the depositional environment, while its mineralogy reflects the composition of the source rocks. The beach sands of Clifton, Sandspit, Hawkesbay and Paradise Point were studied to determine their erosional history, depositional environment and their source
    • Note on additional material of Neballa dahli Kazmi and Tirmizi, 1989 (Leptostraca: Crustacea) from Karachi (northern Arabian Sea)

      Kazmi, Q.B.; Tirmizi, N.M. (1992)
      The first leptostracans Nebalia dahli (Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1989) from the Arabian Sea in mangrove planktonic collection near Karachi were two males, the sex of the juvenile paratype could not be determined at that time.A brief description is given in this paper.
    • Three new records of mysids (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from the northern Arabian Sea

      Nayeem, I.; Rafi, S.; Tirmizi, N.M. (1992)
      This paper with the systematic study of three species of mysids, collected by R/V "Dr. Fridtjof Nansen", which are new to the northern Arabian Sea. The three species described and illustrated are: Siriella affinis Hansen, Afromysis macropsis Tattersal and Acanthomysis quadrispinosa Nouvel.
    • Heavy metals pollution in the coastal environment of Karachi

      Beg, M.A.A.; Mahmood, S.N.; Yousufzai, A.H.K. (1992)
      The marine environment near Karachi, particularly the Baba channel, Chari Kundi channel and Manora channel have been found contaminated with industrial effluents discharged by Malir and Lyari rivers, since they carry a high concentration of toxic heavy metals viz. Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn emanating from the industrial area and are received and discharged by the Lyari river. Out of 60 seawater samples collected from the above mentioned areas, Pb was present in 55 samples and Zn in 58 samples. The concentration of Pb was between 0.04 and 59.2ppm and the concentration of Zn was between 0.05 and 1.9ppm. Similarly all the 60 sludge samples collected from Lyari outfall and its adjoining area have been found to contain Pb and Zn in alarmingly high concentratios, which for Pb was between 15.4 and 3209.9ppm while for Zn was between 87 and 111.3ppm. Cu and Mn were also found in all the above samples.
    • Observations on the mating behavior, spawn mass and larval development of Hydatina physis Linne, 1758 (Cephalaspidea: Hydatinidae) from Karachi

      Zehra, I.; Perveen, R. (1992)
      Reproduction of Hydatina physis was studied in a population from Karachi, Pakistan, including mating and egg laying behavior, spawn characteristics and development.Individuals first appear in the field in October and remain until March. The spawning occurs from mid-November till mid-February with a peak in December. During this period the individuals were also observed pairing. In captivity, mating lasts for 30 minutes, second mating occurs two days later. Oviposition occurs in a very interesting and unusual manner. The mother turns "up-side-down" with its food fully expanded and the shell completely hidden underneath, the expanded foot serves as protective cover to the eggs. Eggs are deposited in a complexly folded mass with a short stem and an adhesive disc. Capsules, arranged in a single layer, contain 4-6 eggs each of wich is 70 um in diameter. Development is planktotrophic and veligers hatch after 14 days at a temperature of 26-28 degrees Celsius.
    • Sex ratios of Metapenaeus kutchensis George, George and Rao, 1963 and Parapenaeopsis sculptilis (Heller, 1862) in the Gulf of Kachchh, Western India

      Pravez, R.; Krishnan, S.; Mansuri, A.P. (1992)
      Sex ratio data of two species of penaeid prawns Metapenaues kutchensis George, George and Rao, 1963 and Parapenaeopsis sculptilis (Heller, 1862), occurring in the Gulf of Kachchh, were statistically analysed. A preponderance of females was observed in both the species and the ratio of male to female for both years combined for M. kutchensis and P. sculptilis was found to be 1:15 and 1:2.7, respectively. Chi-square analysis revealed significant difference in the sex ratio of the two species.
    • Fatty acid composition of three species of Hypnea (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from Karachi coast

      Hayee-Memon, A.; Shameel, M.; Usmanghani, K.; Ahmad, V.U. (1992)
      Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lamour., H. pannosa J. Ag. and H. valentiae (Turn.) Mont., collected from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan, have been investigated for their fatty acid compositions through GC-MS. Palmitic acid was present in largest quantity (55-57%) and oleic was the major (7.6-8.4%) unsaturated fatty acid. Pentacosanoic and hexacosenoic acids are being reported for the first time from any species of Hypnea. The three species differed remarkably due to their habitat ecology.
    • Nicotinamide in some seaweeds

      Qasim, R. (1992)
      The food value of marine algae lies mainly in their minerals and vitamins content (Chapman and Chapman, 1980).They are good source of vitamins like A,D,E,B series and C. Pakistan has a rich marine flora, so far more than 200 species of seaweeds have been reported (Shameel and Tanaka, 1992).
    • The marked reduction of the Indus river flow downstream from the Kotry barrage: can the mangrove ecosystems of Pakistan survive in the resulting hypersaline environment?

      Ahmed, S.I. (1992)
      This report deals with the application of knowledge of mangrove ecosystems from around the world to the understanding of the present status of mangroves ecosystems in Pakistan.
    • A new distributional record of Zozymodes cavipes (Dana, 1852) (Crustacea; Decapoda) from the coastal waters of Pakistan

      Tirmizi, N.M.; Ghani, N. (1992)
      One male and one female of Zozymodes cavipes (Dana, 1852) have revently been collected from the rocky shores near Karachi; the species is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. It is, however, being reported for the first time from the pakistani coast of the northern Arabian Sea and thus fills the gap in the known distribution of the species. The pakistani material is housed in the Marine Reference Collection Centre, University of Karachi. The specimens are briefly descibed below. Only restricted synonym is given.