• Amino acid content in muscle tissue of the brown ‎meagre, Sciaena umbra Linnaeus, ‎‎1758 (Pisces: ‎Sciaenidae) as candidate species for aquaculture ‎in the Black Sea, ‎Turkey.

      Bilgin, Özlem; Maviş, Murat Emrah; Göksu-Gürsu, Gökçe (2020-06-30)
      In order to understand the nutritive quality focusing on amino acid profiles in the muscle ‎of the brown meagre, Sciaena umbra, and to evaluate the potential of the species as a ‎diet source for both human consumption and as candidate species for aquaculture, the ‎main amino acid components in the muscle of this species were analyzed. Amino acid ‎compositions were determined with the LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem ‎Mass Spectrometer) instrument. Although a total of thirty-nine amino acids were ‎detected / searched by LC-MS/MS instrument, only twenty-four amino acid values were ‎determined. Seven of these amino acids are essential amino acids (EAAs), two are semi-‎essential amino acids (SEAAs) and fifteen are non-essential amino acids (NEAAs). The ‎most abundant amino acids in brown meagre meat were found as glutamic acid ‎‎(13.88%), lysine (10.43%), aspartic acid (9.62%), leucine (8.32%), and glycine (6.87%), ‎respectively. These five amino acids accounted for more than 49% of the total amount ‎of amino acids. The levels of the total amino acids (ΣAA = 24.17 g/100g), total essential ‎amino acids (ΣEAA = 9.42 g/100g), total non-essential amino acids (ΣNEAA = 12.39 ‎g/100g), total semi-essential amino acids (ΣSEAA = 2.36 g/100g) for brown meagre in the ‎Black Sea were higher than those reported in the other areas. This study shows that the ‎brown meagre has high nutritional qualities and the results are also presented as an ‎important criterion for obtaining information on amino acid nutritional requirements for ‎aquaculture and healthy human food source for dietitians.‎
    • Cross-shelf phytoplankton dynamics in the northeastern Levantine ‎Basin.

      Uysal, Zahit (2020-12-31)
      A time series sampling program at monthly intervals was carried out at three stations ‎across the shelf in the northeastern Levantine basin to collect phytoplankton samples ‎and associated physical (temperature, salinity, secchi disc depth) variables over a year. ‎Quality and quantity of phytoplankton varied significantly across the shelf in time. Total ‎‎71 diatom, 40 dinoflagellate, 4 silicoflagellate and 17 coccolithophore species have been ‎identified from the study area. Diatoms’ contribution to total phytoplankton abundance ‎was maximal during autumn and spring in the nearshore and only during spring in the ‎mid shelf. Coccolithophores formed the dominant group almost throughout the year ‎except May and June in the offshore. Dinoflagellates formed the least abundant group in ‎the shelf over the year. Phytoplankton species have been found the most abundant and ‎diverse during spring when the river runoff to the basin was maximal. In general, a ‎decreasing trend in phytoplankton abundance towards offshore was prominent. ‎Phytoplankton has been found most abundant in the entire shelf during spring and early ‎summer reaching a peak level of 2.7 x 106 cells/l during May in the shallowest station. A ‎huge difference in quantity was observed in phytoplankton contents of the nearshore ‎and offshore waters during summer. Multivariate analyses have shown formation of ‎distinct seasonal phytoplankton assemblages throughout the year. Based on Spearman’s ‎rank correlation analysis, a highly significant negative correlation (n=35, rs= -.587, P < ‎‎0.01) was observed between phytoplankton abundance and surface salinity. ‎Superimposed surface temperatures seemed to better illustrate seasonal clusters relative ‎to surface salinity plots.‎
    • First record of Leucothoe spinicarpus (Amphipoda: Leucothoidae) parasite within the ‎Aplysia (varria) cornigera from Pakistan.

      Ghory‎, Farhana S.; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad; Mubarak, Shumaila (2020-12-31)
      A parasitic species of Leucothoe spinicarpus (Abildgaard, 1789) occurred on the ‎ctenidium of Aplysia (Varria) cornigera Sowerby, 1869. The current study describes ‎taxonomic details of the parasitic species (Leucothoe spinicarpus). This is the first record ‎from Pakistan.‎
    • Heavy metal accumulation in sea cucumber ‎Actinopyga mauritiana (Echinodermata-‎‎Holothuroidea) from Cape Monze Beach Karachi, ‎Pakistan‎.

      Ahmed, Quratulan; Benzer, Semra; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad (2020-12-31)
      In the present study sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana, water and sediment samples ‎collected during September to December 2018. Six heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, ‎and Cd) were analyzed in tissues (muscles, tentacles and guts), water and sediment by ‎atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The average measured levels of heavy ‎metals Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in A. mauritiana muscle, tentacle and gut was 42.20 ± ‎‎9.47, 3.14 ± 0.48, 0.38 ± 0.22, 11.42 ± 4.34, 0.03 ± 0.00 and 0.02 ± 0.00; 36.90 ± 8.14, ‎‎3.22 ± 0.60, 0.40 ± 0.27, 10.50 ± 1.70, 0.04 ± 0.05 and 0.03 ± 0.02; 21.54 ± 5.06, 2.32 ± ‎‎0.66, 0.53 ± 0.16, 13.13 ± 2.90, 0.02 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 μg g−1 respectively. It is ‎useful to monitor all metal accumulation in the future.‎
    • Heavy metal levels in elongate sole (Solea ‎elongata Day, 1877) from the Korangi ‎Fish ‎Harbour, Karachi, Pakistan.‎

      Yousuf‎, Farzana; Benzer‎, Semra; Ahmed, Quratulan (2020-06-30)
      In this study, fish samples collected from Elongate Sole (Solea elongata Day, 1877) ‎caught on the Korangi Fish Harbour in 2018 (South-west Monsoon and North-east ‎Monsoon) were analysed to determine concentrations of heavy metals: Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, ‎Mn and Cd by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, expressed per unit of dry weight ‎of each sample. The average measured level of Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Cd for Solea ‎elongata was 38.716±11.321 μg g−1, 16.638±3.344 μg g−1, 1.067±0.404 μg g−1, ‎‎0.022±0.043 μg g−1, 0.273±0.100 μg g−1 and 0.022±0.010 μg g−1, respectively. Although ‎the contamination values obtained from Solea elongata are below the limits, it is ‎important to follow the metal accumulation values.‎
    • Life-history traits of long whisker catfish Mystus gulio (Siluriformes: Bagridae) in the ‎coastal water (Maloncho river) of southern Bangladesh.

      Rahman‎, Obaidur; Hossain‎, Md. Yeamin; Islam‎, Md. Akhtarul; Rahman‎, Md. Ataur; Khatun‎, Dalia; Parvin‎, Most. Farida; Sarmin‎, Most. Shakila; Tanjin, Sumaya; Rahman, Md. Ashekur; Mawa, Zannatul; et al. (2020-12-31)
      This analysis illustrates the life history traits of Long whisker, Mystus gulio (Hamilton, ‎‎1822) including sex ratio, length-weight (LWRs) and length-length relationships (LLRs), ‎condition factors (KA, KF, KR), relative weight (WR) and form factor (a3.0), empirical based ‎size at first sexual maturity length (Lm) and natural mortality (MW, year-1). Total of 407 ‎individuals were scarcely collected from January-December 2017 using different fishing ‎gears. The sex ratio (M/F) was calculated as 1:1.26 (p<0.05). The overall sex ratio did not ‎differ significantly from the expected 1:1(p>0.05). The minimum-maximum total length ‎and body weight were observed as 5.20-15.50 cm and 2.11-33.60g for male, 5.20-17.50 ‎cm and 1.25-57.12g for female. All LWRs were very significant with all coefficients of ‎determination (r2)>0.967. The allometric coefficient indicated negative allometric growth ‎in male (b<3.0), positive allometric growth in female and also in combined (b>3.0). All ‎LLRs were significant with r2 values >0.965. The KF indicated the best condition of this ‎species for their well-being. The WR was not significantly diverse from 100 for males (p = ‎‎0.552) and females (p = 0.249), which indicate suitable condition for habitat. The a3.0 ‎were 0.0103 and 0.0108, and the Lm were 9.13 and 10.46 cm in total length for male and ‎female, respectively. Moreover, MW was 1.16 year-1 for male and 1.02 year-1 for female. ‎The results will be operative for the sustainable conservation of M. gulio in Bangladeshi ‎coastal waters and also nearby countries.‎
    • Ligula intestinalis (L., 1758) infection of ‎euryhaline fish the sand smelt Atherina ‎boyeri ‎Risso, 1810‎.

      Benzer, Semra (2020-06-30)
      Ligula intestinalis was found during the parasitological investigations of Atherina boyeri ‎specimens collected from Hirfanlı Reservoir, Turkey. It was found that 0.004% of all ‎individuals were infected by L. intestinalis including 2 female (0.0011% of all ‎individuals) and 5 male (0.0028% of all individuals). It was determined that the length ‎weight relationship equivalents of infected individuals with population differed from ‎those of non-infected individuals. The b value of the infected individuals was found to ‎be lower than the b value of the non-infected individuals. It is thought that the results ‎obtained in this study will be beneficial in preserving and improving the ecological ‎potential of the water system.‎
    • Preliminary studies on induced asexual ‎reproduction in Holothuria atra and Holothuria ‎pardalis under laboratory ‎conditions.

      Ahmed, Quratulan; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad (2020-06-30)
      Asexual reproduction was observed in H. atra and H. pardalis during 20th November ‎‎2019 to 20th February 2020. Asexual reproduction is a common phenomena in sea ‎cucumbers (class Holothuroidea) and organisms are capable of regenerating completely ‎or partially after fission and evisceration. The present research is a first attempt/trial on ‎induce asexual reproduction in H.atra and H. pardalis under the laboratory conditions in ‎Pakistan. The induced asexual reproduction is of high significance in aquaculture of ‎holothuria and could lead towards commercial production. During the last two decades ‎sea cucumber fishing showed a trend of overexploitation because they are easy to catch ‎besides high market demand. Many countries including Australia, Papua New Guinea, ‎Mauritius and Venezuela have imposed prohibition on sea cucumber fishing due to ‎depletion of population in wild. The findings from present research will be substantive ‎addition to the knowledge in the field of aquaculture and will be valuable to marine ‎scientist and aquaculturist in their future research.‎
    • A primary study on the bioaccumulation of ‎metals in Stereoderma kirschbergi (Heller, ‎‎1868) ‎from Sinop coasts of the southern Black Sea‎.

      Bat‎, Levent; Arici, Elif; Öztekin, Aysah; Şahin, Fatih (2020-06-30)
      The amounts of toxic metals (Pb, Hg and Cd) in tissues of Stereoderma kirschbergi in the ‎Sinop coasts of the south of the Black Sea were measured for the first time. Toxic metal ‎analyses were made by the Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer. The ‎general tendency in all metal concentrations in both sediment and sea cucumber samples ‎were Pb>Hg>Cd. The results demonstrated that the toxic metal concentrations in ‎sediments were higher than organisms. Pb values in the sediment and sea cucumber were ‎higher than Hg and Cd. The bio-sediment accumulation factors for Cd, Hg and Pb were ‎lower than 1. S. kirschbergi is considered as a de-concentrator.‎
    • Some observations on the mass mortality of fish at Ormara (east bay), Balochistan in ‎October 2016‎.

      Moazzam, Muhammad (2020-12-31)
      Mass mortality of fish and shellfish species was recorded from Ormara (East Bay) in ‎October 2016. Initially a few dead fishes were observed to be floating in the open sea in ‎the East Bay area. With the passage of time, mass mortality was observed on the south-‎western part of the East Bay and heaps of fish were found floating in the area. This ‎event of mass mortality was only confined to the Oramara (East Bay) and not spread to ‎other parts of Oramara coast. In order to determine the dynamic of the fish mortality ‎and its spread in the area, sampling of the water of the area was collected on regular ‎intervals. It was observed that Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid & Swezy, 1921 ‎was present in extremely large numbers (highest recorded concentration 13 cells/ml) ‎which led to depletion of oxygen in the area resulting in mortality of large number of ‎fishes. In this fish kill demersal (bottom dwelling) as well as pelagic species (surface ‎dwelling) were found dead in the area in large numbers. Groupers (Epinephelus spp.), ‎Chinese pomfrets (Pampus chinensis), mullets, shrimp (Penaeus spp.) and crabs ‎‎(Portunus spp.) were dominated in the dead fishes and shellfishes. Oxygen depletion was ‎observed to confine to south-western part of the Ormara Bay where highest number of ‎dead fishes were observed. The phenomenon of mortality of fishes continued for 8 days ‎whereas normal condition started prevailing in 15 days and no mortality was observed ‎after 20 days since the start of the mortality phenomenon.‎