• The nature of the aerobic gastrointestinal bacteria of cichlid fish Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters) and Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus) grown under captivity

      Silva, S.K.H.; Widanapathirana, S. (1984)
      Bacteriological examination of the gastrointestinal microflora of 2 freshwater cichlid fish species (Sarotherodon mossambicus and Tilapia nilotica ) was performed, resulting in the bacteria enumeration of total viable counts of 1.06x10⁷/g and 7.75x10⁷/g of gastro-bacteria intestinal tract plus contents (wet weight) respectively, by aerobic incubation at 30+1°C. The majority (78%) of the total gut isolates from both fish species was Gram positive mesophilic which is characteristic of the higher ambient temperature in the tropics. These isolates were fastidious in their nutritional requirements and together with the rest are isogenous to bacteria autochthonous to soil and water. The occurrence of such organisms is attributed to the feeding habits of these fish. The gastrointestinal bacteria isolated in this study are transient residents but not "indigenous" in these cichlid fish.
    • Sri Lanka: is it a mid-plate platelet?

      Curray, J.R. (1984)
      Two observations suggest the possibility that Sri Lanka is acting as a small-mid-plate platelet moving very slowly within and relative to the larger Indian plate. First, sediments of the Bengal Deep-Sea Fan off the SSE continental margin are folded and uplifted in a manner similar to the deformation from front of accretionary prisms where thick sediment columns are passing into subduction zones. And second, subsidence rates in the area of presumed spreading or continuing stretching of continental crust, the Cauvery-Palk Strait-Gulf of Mannar Basin, have not decreased during the Cenozoic as would be predicted by an aborted rift or aulacogen model, but instead appear to have accelerated during the Neogene. Information available on other phenomena which re predicted by the model is at the present time inadequate for evaluation.
    • Estimations of maximum sustainable fish yields and stocking densities of inland reservoirs of Sri Lanka

      Wijeyaratne, M.R.S.; Amarasinghe, U.S. (1984)
      The Maximum Sustainable Yields of all fish species for 9 man-made reservoirs in Sri Lanka were calculated by the simplified version of Schaefer Model. The relationship between the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and Morpho-edaphic Index, (MEI) for Sri Lankan reservoirs was found to be: Log sub(e) MSY = 0.9005 log sub(e) MEI + 1.9220. MSY for these reservoirs were estimated using this relationship. The number of Tilapia) juveniles needed to be recruited to the fisheries of some reservoirs in addition to the present recruitment to increase the fish production to the level estimated by MEI relationship were calculated mathematically.
    • The storage of red snapper (Lutjanus spp.) in ice, chilled sea water and chilled fresh water

      Jayaweera, V.; Poulter, R.G. (1984)
      The results are given of trials conducted to determine the effect on quality of holding fish (Lutjanus species) in chilled freshwater and also to compare the quality loss of fish stored in chilled seawater and chilled freshwater and in ice. No adverse effects were observed when storing in chilled freshwater apart from loss of external appearance after 6 days storage; taste panel tests showed acceptable conditions up to 15 days. Chilled seawater is unsuitable for storage as it spoils the intake of salt from the medium, making the flesh unpalatable.
    • The morphometrics and the proximate composition of the edible fresh water mussel Lamellidens lamellatus (Lea) from Bathalagoda tank, a man made reservoir in Sri Lanka

      Costa, H.H.; Indrasena, W.M. (1984)
      Morphometric characteristics of Lamellidens lamellatus were studied using a random sample of 138 individuals collected from Bathalagoda reservoir in Kurunegala district. The largest number of individuals in the collection was between 40-50 mm in length. They had a body weight between 60-80 gm. The most abundant bio-chemical component in the adductor and in the foot was protein. Carbohydrate and lipid quantities were almost equal while ash showed the least value. The total protein content ranged from 48.8% to 73.4%; the carbohydrate content from 12.64% to 23.8%; and lipid content from 12.0% to 28.1% of their dry weight. It was found that there were significant relationships between the length and the body weight; and between length and volume.
    • The National Aquatic Resources Agency of Sri Lanka

      Jayewardene, H.W. (1984)
      A general discussion on the establishment of the National Aquatic Resource Agency, its functions and activities, is presented under the following major headings: objects and functions; the institutional framework: policy-making and interaction and coordination, and implementation; the Agency; and the activities of the Agency.
    • A comparative study of the morphometrics and the proximate composition of two edible molluscs Crassostrea cuculata (Born) and Perna perna (L.)

      Indrasena, W.M. (1984)
      The morphometrics and the bio-chemical characteristics of Crassostrea cuculata and Perna perna were studied. In the oyster, the length was found to be positively correlated with breadth and total body weight. There was also a positive relationship between the total body weight and the total muscle weight. In the mytilid the total body weight was positively correlated with length and total muscle weight. The muscle weight was also found to be highly correlated with the length. In both animals the relationship between the length and the total body weight was curvilinear. In the oyster, the protein content was found to increase with the total body weight and the total muscle weight. In the mytilid the protein content increased not only with the total body weight but also with the length. In both animals, the relative content of protein is higher than that of carbohydrates, lipids and ash.
    • Note on the occurrence of Artemia in Sri Lanka

      Sunderam, R.I.M.; Royan, J.P. (1984)
      A brief account is given of the Artemia populations occurring in Sri Lanka with respect to inland and brackishwater aquaculture activities.
    • An integrated approach to national marine resources development

      Levy, Jean-Pierre (1984)
      A review is presented of the various marine resources and their potential, concerning fishing, aquaculture, transportation, pollution, hydrocarbons and solid minerals, renewable energy and ocean thermal energy conversion. Administrative problems confronting their rational management in Sri Lanka are examined, considering coastal area management and development, management issues, and alternatives.
    • Remote sensing of the oceans from space with special reference to marine resources

      Jasentuliyana, N. (1984)
      A number of ocean science fields have profitted, either directly or indirectly from satellite remote sensing, including physical, biological and geological oceanography. User oriented applications include fishing, shipping, offshore drilling and mining, coastal engineering and coastal hydrology. Following a brief account of the technology involved, areas in oceanography benefitting from satellite information are detailed. Examples are given of satellite data applications to marine resources.
    • 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone and fishery development in Sri Lanka

      Joseph, L. (1984)
      Following details of the marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka, prospects for fishery development with respect to the 200-mile Economic Zone are examined, outlining also the 5-year fisheries development plan (1979-83).
    • Fecundity, morphometry post embryonic growth and development of Caridina simoni Bouvier (Decapoda: Atyidae)

      Weerakkody, J.S.; Costa, H.H. (1984)
      The fecundity, morphometry and the post embryonic development of Caridina simoni which is the commonest atyid shrimp in Sri Lanka were studied. The fecundity values ranged from 12-55. There was a linear relationship between the logarithmic values of fecundity and body length and the same relationship was obtained for body length and weight. It was seen that the developmental period of this species was less than six days and during development it passed through six zoeal stages.
    • Restricted water exchange in the Negombo Lagoon on the west coast of Sri Lanka

      Rajapaksha, J.K.; Jayasiri, H.B. (2000)
      Salinity, fresh water and sea level data from the Negombo Lagoon with respect to oceanic sea level and salinity data were considered. The open ocean spring tidal range was 0.57 m, whereas the neap tidal range was 0.10 m. In lagoon, the corresponding spring tidal range was 0.13 m and neap tidal range is 0.05 m. The lagoon tide was strongly choked because of the restricted inlet channel, through which only a limited water exchange could take place over a tidal cycle. Mean water exchange and the residence times for variable fresh water supplies were calculated. These calculations were based on fortnightly measurements of salinity and river discharges in 1993. During this year, salinity varied from 30-5‰ depending on the river inputs which were 20-225 m³ sˉ¹. Corresponding residence times varied from 11-2 days and the tide is dominated the exchangeduring low discharges of freshwater.
    • Evaluation of quality of shark livers using bio-chemical properties and organoleptic score sheet

      Jayasinghe, C.V.L.; Perera, W.M.K.; Bamunuarachchi, A.; Jayasooriya, S.P. (2000)
      Shark livers are considered as an important raw material providing a quality fish oil. It has been reported to aid white — blood-cell production and act as an active ingredient in hemorrhoid treatments. It is also reported that liver oil as a good supplement of vitamin A and poly-unsaturated fatty acids which are important to the development of brain cells in human. Freshness of livers is very important to extract better quality oil. In Sri Lanka, the annual shark production amounts to 8000t, however the quality of livers collected from landing sites has not being measured yet. Present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of silky (Charcarninus fakiformis) shark livers available in Negombo and Beruwala landing sites in the West Coast of Sri Lanka and also to study the relationship between organoleptic and bio-chemical correlation on freshness of shark livers. Liver samples which were collected from landing sites in the West coast of Sri Lanka, were evaluated for external and internal colour, texture and odour. Total volatile nitrogen (TVN), pH value, free fatty acid (FFA%) and peroxide (PV) values of livers were also determined to assess quality. According to the organoleptic scoring system 4.3% of liver samples were categorized as best in quality while 30.4%, 56.5% and 8.7% rated as good, medium and poor in quality respectively at the Negombo and Beruwala landing sites. Bio-chemical analysis showed that the better quality livers had the highest score for sensory evaluation and low values for TVN, FFA and peroxide value while low quality livers gave low score for sensory evaluation and high TVN, FFA, peroxide values. Correlation coefficient of organoleptic scores against total volatile nitrogen value, pH value, free fatty acid % and peroxide value of shark livers were determined by statistical analysis. Organoleptic score of shark livers was found to be highly.
    • Salinity measurements and use of the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS)

      Arulananthan, K. (2000)
      Salinity, temperature and pressure are parameters which govern the oceanographic state of a marine water body and together they make up density of seawater. In this contribution we will focus our interest on one of these parameters, the salinity: accuracy in relation to different purposes as well as observation technique and instrumentation. We will also discuss the definition of salinity. For example most of the Indian Ocean waters are within the salinity range from 34.60-34.80, which emphasize the importance of careful observations and clear definitions of salinity, in such a way that it is possible to define water masses and predict their movements. In coastal waters the salinity usually features much larger variation in time and space and thus less accuracy is sometimes needed. Salinity has been measured and defined in several ways over the past century. While early measurements were based on the amount of salt in a sea water sample, today the salinity of seawater is most often determined from its conductivity. As conductivity is a function of salinity and temperature, determination involves also measurement of the density of seawater is now more precisely estimated and thus the temperature. As a result of this method the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) was developed. The best determination of salinity from conductivity and the temperature measurements gives salinity with resolution of 0.001 psu, while the accuracy of titration method was about ± 0.02‰. Because of that, even calculation of movements in the ocean is also improved.
    • Occurrence of whale sharks in coastal waters in the Indian Ocean: an interesting coincidence

      Jayakody, D.S. (2000)
      Salinity, temperature and pressure are parameters which govern the oceanographic state of a marine water body and together they make up density of seawater. In this contribution we will focus our interest on one of these parameters, the salinity: accuracy in relation to different purposes as well as observation technique and instrumentation. We will also discuss the definition of salinity. For example most of the Indian Ocean waters are within the salinity range from 34.60-34.80, which emphasize the importance of careful observations and clear definitions of salinity, in such a way that it is possible to define water masses and predict their movements. In coastal waters the salinity usually features much larger variation in time and space and thus less accuracy is sometimes needed. Salinity has been measured and defined in several ways over the past century. While early measurements were based on the amount of salt in a sea water sample, today the salinity of seawater is most often determined from its conductivity. As conductivity is a function of salinity and temperature, determination involves also measurement of the density of seawater is now more precisely estimated and thus the temperature. As a result of this method the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) was developed. The best determination of salinity from conductivity and the temperature measurements gives salinity with resolution of 0.001 psu, while the accuracy of titration method was about ± 0.02‰. Because of that, even calculation of movements in the ocean is also improved.
    • Status of the gill net fishery for the small pelagic fish species in western, south-western and southern coastal waters of Sri Lanka during 1995-1997

      Karunasinghe, W.P.N.; Fernando, P.A.T.; Samaraweera, E.K.V. (2000)
      Small pelagic fish species are mainly caught by gill nets operated by fibre reinforced plastic boats fitted with 8-25hp out board engines, traditional crafts fitted with 8-1hp out board engines and non mechanised traditional crafts. Around 28 to 55% of the small pelagic catch in the study area consisted of trenched sardine Amblygaster sirm during 1995-1997 period. Another 26-36% of the catch composed of other Sardinella species such as Sardinella gibbosa, S. albella, S. sindensis and S. longiceps. Engraulids such as Encrasicholina heteroloba, Stolephorus insularis and Stolephorus indicus and Thryssa spp formed around 3-5% of the catch. The major component of this fishery consisted of Clupeids and Engrauhds and over 65 species ranged between smaller Engraulids to incidental rock fish, sail fish, seer fish, sharks, skates and rays. Around 1.4 to 1.9% of the catch consisted of Chirocentrus dorab, Sphyraenaspp, Scomberomorus spp, Lepturcanthus sp and Megalaspis cordyla. Around 1-11% of the catch consisted of incidentally catches of sharks, rays, skates and sail fish. Another 1.6 to 6% of the catch consisted of Selar crumenophthalamus and Rastrelliger kanagurta. The best fishing season appeared to be from June to October in the west coast and August to December in the south coast.The major components of Amblygaster sirm, Sardinella albella and Sardinella gibbosa were caught within the size ranges of 10.0-22.5 cm, 11.0-13.0 cm and 11.0-15.0 cm respectively. However, smaller sized fish of above species of sizes between 6.9 cm to 9.7 cm total length were incidentally caught in the gill nets operated for small Engraulids with a stretched mesh size of 1.6cm. The overall catch rate for the major fish landing centre at Negombo indicated an increase from 38.5 kg/boat trip during 1984-1990 period to 49.5 kg/boat trip during 1995-1997 period. The catch rate for the dominant species Amblygaster sirm has decreased from 28.17 kg/boat trip during 1983-1990 period to 17.47 kg/boat trip during 1995-1997 period at Negombo. The paper also discusses the changing overall catch rates, change in species abundance and possible management consequences that should be considered.
    • Status of the beach seine fishery in the Hambantota District during 1995-97

      Fernando, P.A.T.; Cumaranatunga, P.R.T. (2000)
      Beach seine fishery is one of the oldest fishing methods practiced in Sri Lanka. In the recent past several modifications were observed in the structure of the net and the material used in the construction of nets. beach seine nets made of nylon material were also reported at 4 operating sites out of 17-beach seine landing centers in the Hambantota District. However, traditional beach seine nets made of coir and kuralon were the common nets used in the area. Fishing season extends from September to April of the following year. However, beach seining at Mawella was carried out throughout the year. The estimated average annual effort for the entire study area was about 4250 operations. The mean annual catch rate at Mawella, Kalametiya and Welipatanwila were estimated as 81.8, 290.7, and 167.3 kg/operation respectively. The mean annual catch rate for the entire study area was estimated as 157.3 kg/operation. The beach seines recorded an estimated annual production of 662mt in the Hambantota district. Stoleophorous sp. has made the major contribution to the beach seine catches and it was about 31.7% of the total beach seine production. Leiognathus sp. Carangids and Trichuras sp. have produced 11.5%, 9.5% and 8.5% respectively while Amblygaster sirm and other Sardinella sp. have produced 5.5% and 4.9% respectively. A sirm was found during the months of November, February, March and July. The size range of A. sirm caught by beach seine during February –March period was in the range of 5-12cm (total length). Contribution by Rastrelliger sp. and Sphyreana sp. were 2.9% and 2.6% by each category. Average income of a beach seine operation at Mawella, Kalametiya and Welipatanwila were Rs. 3330/=, 10250/= and 6222/= per operation respectively.
    • Survey on the quality of Jaadi available [in] Sri Lankan market

      Jayasinghe, P.S.; Bamunuarachchi, A.; Fonseka, T.S.G. (2000)
      A quality of survey was conducted at the fish curing yards in a northwest coast and the southern coast in Sri Lanka. A total of 40 samples different varieties of fishes were collected from the market and jaadi curing yards and all were evaluated for the quality, fungal and insect infestation. Samples were analyzed for proximate composition chemical, microbiological and sensory quality. Thirty percent of the total analyzed samples of fish were found to be unfit for consumption. Samples collected from Negombo were found to the infected with maggots. Only 42% samples had dry matter above 50%. All the samples showed a protein content above 20%. The highest protein content was 27.92% in hurulla. Over 90% of the samples had TVN at acceptable quality limits (>40). The TBC for 33% of the samples were in the range 104-105/g range, while 48% were in the range of 107-108/g due to contamination of maggots and fungi. The Survey showed jaadi had a high level of protein in its composition. But defects of curing process such on imperfect cleaning inadequate salting resulted inlow (Chemical and microbiological) quality of the product.
    • Nutritional evaluation of some small coastal fish in Sri Lanka

      Edirisinghe, E.M.R.K.B.; Perera, W.M.K.; Bamunuarachchi, A. (2000)
      Small pelagic fish play a very important role in human nutrition and health. Lipids of these fish differ remarkably from plant and other animal lipids. The aim of the study was to describe the proximate composition of thirty-three small pelagic fish species commonly available in Sri Lanka. Fish species were collected from Negombo and Chillaw fish landing sites and subjected to analysis for moisture, ash, protein and total lipid content. Tiger tooth croaker (Otolithus ruber) was found to have the highest moisture percentage (80.0%) followed by Clarias sp. (78.9%), Indian anchovy (Steloporus indicus) and Comerson's anchovy (Stelophorus commersonii), (78%). The lowest percentage of moisture, 69.4%, was recorded in white sardinella (Sardinella albella). Indian ilisha (Ilisha melastoma) was found to have the highest amount of ash (10.1%) followed by Otolithus sp. (8%) and big-eye barracuda contained the least amount (2.5%). Carassius Carassius, pick handle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) contained higher amounts of protein, 24.3, 20.6 and 19.2% respectively. The lowest protein content (10.1%) was found in Indian scad (Decapterus russelli). The protein content of the fish was in the range of 13-15%. The results revealed that the small fish are moderate protein sources. The total lipid content varied between 0.6-8%. White sardinella recorded the highest percentage of lipid (8%) where tiger tooth croaker contained the lowest percentage (0.6 %). The study showed high fatty species to contain low amount of moisture and vice versa establishing an inverse relation between fat and moisture quantitatively.