• 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone and fishery development in Sri Lanka

      Joseph, L. (1984)
      Following details of the marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka, prospects for fishery development with respect to the 200-mile Economic Zone are examined, outlining also the 5-year fisheries development plan (1979-83).
    • A comparative study of the morphometrics and the proximate composition of two edible molluscs Crassostrea cuculata (Born) and Perna perna (L.)

      Indrasena, W.M. (1984)
      The morphometrics and the bio-chemical characteristics of Crassostrea cuculata and Perna perna were studied. In the oyster, the length was found to be positively correlated with breadth and total body weight. There was also a positive relationship between the total body weight and the total muscle weight. In the mytilid the total body weight was positively correlated with length and total muscle weight. The muscle weight was also found to be highly correlated with the length. In both animals the relationship between the length and the total body weight was curvilinear. In the oyster, the protein content was found to increase with the total body weight and the total muscle weight. In the mytilid the protein content increased not only with the total body weight but also with the length. In both animals, the relative content of protein is higher than that of carbohydrates, lipids and ash.
    • A study of the constraints affecting ornamental fish production in Sri Lanka

      Heenatigala, P.P.M. (2012)
      Although Sri Lanka is endowed with favourable climatic conditions and resources for breeding and rearing ornamental fish for export, a considerable number of ornamental fish producers as well as exporters have given up the industry within a relatively short period of time. This study was conducted to understand the present status of the industry and to identify the problems that have caused these failures. The study was conducted from March to December in the year 2007 and covered Colombo, Kaluthara, Polonnaruwa, Negombo, Wattala, Rathnapura, Avissawella, Kandy, Kegalle, Padukka, and Gampaha areas, where ornamental fish culture is known to be popular. The survey was carried out by interviewing ornamental fish farmers using a structured questionnaire survey that was designed to elicit the required information. Most (75%) of those surveyed were identified as small scale farmers. A majority (56%) of them used only cement tanks for their culture activities. Only 47% of farmers had proper technical knowledge or training on fish culture while 42% directly supplied their fish products to the expo1iers. The most important constraints identified by the study were as follows: (1) the sale price offish not changing in keeping with the increase in the material costs of production - Feed, cement, sand, transport and labour - in recent years. (2) Difficulty to find export markets for newcomers to enter the export market. (3) Lack of quality brooders and information on the most suitable fish varieties for the different climatic and water conditions in different areas in the country (3) Feed availability and cost. (4) Lack of adequate knowledge and technical support with regard to disease control and water quality management. (5) Difficulty to survive in the off season. (6) Difficulty in obtaining credit for expansion and the lack of sufficient involvement of responsible authorities in overcoming all these identified constraints.
    • An assessment of handling and processing methods used for the shrimp fishery by-catch in Kalpitiya, Sri Lanka

      Jayasinghe, C.V.L.; Vinopavan, K.; Fonseka, T.S.G. (2012)
      The by-catch from the shrimp trawl fishery in Kalpitiya is mainly used for the production of dried fish, which provides an additional source of income for fishermen in the area. It has been observed that current handling practices along the value addition chain are responsible for the poor quality and low price of the end product. This study was aimed at identifying the shortcomings in such handling practices by fishermen and dried fish producers and assessing the quality of shrimp fishery by-catch along the processing chain in order to recommend more efficient utilization methods that will improve the quality of the end product. Fresh fish, dried fish and harbour water samples were tested for total coli forms, faecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella in order to assess their microbial quality: In addition, standard plate counts (SPC) of fish samples were also carried out. A survey was carried out from July-October 2006 at Kalpitiya, using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information from individuals who have been engaged in dried fish processing. Average values obtained for freshly landed and dried fish respectively, were, SPC 9.88x10 super(5) CFU/g and 30.43x10 super(5) CFU/g, total coliforms 23.05 and 24.23 MPN/g and fecal coliforms 8.28 and 9.00 MPN/g. These values exceed the recommendations in the SL standards. A quarter of the landed fresh fish and 38% of dried fish from the producers were positive for E. coli and thus failed to show required end product quality. SPC of harbour water was 14.35x10 super(6) CFU/ml and all samples were found to be contaminated with E. coli. None of the fishermen and dried fish producers were satisfied with the quality of the end product. The reasons for poor quality as indicated by them were: limited availability of ice (75%), lack of infrastructure facilities (65%), uncertainty of markets (52%), lack of emphasis on quality (47%) and poor access to available technologies (41%). Respondents to the questionnaire also identified: unavailability of potable water, insulated boxes, good landing jetty, racks for drying fish, poor cold storage facilities and limitations in dried fish storage facilities, as further factors leading to the loss of quality in their products. Results demonstrate that improvements to the infrastructure facilities and conducting of proper awareness programmes on handling practices could lead for improvements in the quality of value added products prepared from the shrimp fishery by-catch at Kalpitiya.
    • An integrated approach to national marine resources development

      Levy, Jean-Pierre (1984)
      A review is presented of the various marine resources and their potential, concerning fishing, aquaculture, transportation, pollution, hydrocarbons and solid minerals, renewable energy and ocean thermal energy conversion. Administrative problems confronting their rational management in Sri Lanka are examined, considering coastal area management and development, management issues, and alternatives.
    • Development and shelf life evaluation of Tilapia (Orechromis spp.) marinades

      Rathnayake, M.M.; Prasadi, V.P.N.; Jayasinghe, C.V.L. (2012)
      Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) consumption is limited due to its strong muddy odour and the difficulty of processing. In addition, consumption of tilapia is minimal in urban areas because of the low availability. There are no processed market products of tilapia available in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study was designed to develop a new marinade for tilapia and to evaluate the shelf life of the product. Twelve different treatments of varying amounts of vinegar, salt, chili powder, white pepper and garlic powder were applied to filleted tilapia, and three best treatment combinations were selected using a sensory evaluation test. Processed tilapia was stored in the freezer at -4°C. Treated samples were subjected to evaluation of sensory profile: taste, odour, colour, texture and overall acceptability. Analysis of the shelf life was carried out by using the total plate count, faecal coliform test, acidity and pH at weekly intervals. Results revealed that the third treatment (vinegar 75 ml, salt 5 g, chili powder 5 g, white pepper 5 g and garlic powder 5 g) was best in terms of colour, texture, odour, taste and the overall acceptability according to the estimated medians (6, 6, 6 and 6.33 respectively). There was no significant difference between the first and the third treatment in terms of odour and overall acceptability. There was no significant difference between the three vacuum packed treatments for acidity and pH. Acidity and pH of the three treatments were at an acceptable level, which was below pH 5.3 and above 1.95% acidity. Average bacterial count was 10 colonies and 1.33x10 super(6) colonies respectively in vacuum packed treatments and bottled samples after one week. The acceptable level of bacterial colonies is 1.00x10 super(5). Vacuum packed treatments showed a one month shelf life. In conclusion, marinades can be developed from tilapia with a pleasant taste and acceptable texture.
    • Development of soy protein fortified fish sticks from Tilapia

      Malkanthi, H.H.A.; Arampath, P.C.; Jayasinghe, P. (2012)
      The objective of this study was to develop soy protein fortified fish sticks from Tilapia. Two preliminary studies were conducted to select the best fish-soy protein-spice mixture combination with four treatments to develop breaded fish sticks. Developed products were organoleptically assessed using 30 untrained panellists with 7-point hedonic scale. The product developed with new combination was compared with market product. Sixty percent of Tilapia fish mince, 12% of Defatted Textured Soy protein (DTSP), 1.6% of salt and 26.4% of ice water (<5°C) and Spice mixture containing 3g of garlic, 2g of pepper 2g of onion and 1.6g of cinnamon were selected as the best formula to manufacture the product. There was no significant difference when compared with market samples in relation to the organoleptic attributes. Proximate composition of the product was 25.76% of crude protein, 2.38% of crude fat, 60.35% of moisture and2.75% of ash. Products were packaged in Poly Vinyl Chloride clear package (12 gauge) and were stored at -1°C and changes in moisture content, peroxide value, pH value and microbiological parameters were assessed during five weeks of storage. Organoleptic acceptability was not changed significantly in all parameters tested (p>0.05). Total aerobic count and yeast and mould count were in acceptable ranges in frozen storage for 5 weeks. Data were analyzed using AN OVA and Friedman non-parametric test.
    • Estimations of maximum sustainable fish yields and stocking densities of inland reservoirs of Sri Lanka

      Wijeyaratne, M.R.S.; Amarasinghe, U.S. (1984)
      The Maximum Sustainable Yields of all fish species for 9 man-made reservoirs in Sri Lanka were calculated by the simplified version of Schaefer Model. The relationship between the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and Morpho-edaphic Index, (MEI) for Sri Lankan reservoirs was found to be: Log sub(e) MSY = 0.9005 log sub(e) MEI + 1.9220. MSY for these reservoirs were estimated using this relationship. The number of Tilapia) juveniles needed to be recruited to the fisheries of some reservoirs in addition to the present recruitment to increase the fish production to the level estimated by MEI relationship were calculated mathematically.
    • Evaluation of quality of shark livers using bio-chemical properties and organoleptic score sheet

      Jayasinghe, C.V.L.; Perera, W.M.K.; Bamunuarachchi, A.; Jayasooriya, S.P. (2000)
      Shark livers are considered as an important raw material providing a quality fish oil. It has been reported to aid white — blood-cell production and act as an active ingredient in hemorrhoid treatments. It is also reported that liver oil as a good supplement of vitamin A and poly-unsaturated fatty acids which are important to the development of brain cells in human. Freshness of livers is very important to extract better quality oil. In Sri Lanka, the annual shark production amounts to 8000t, however the quality of livers collected from landing sites has not being measured yet. Present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of silky (Charcarninus fakiformis) shark livers available in Negombo and Beruwala landing sites in the West Coast of Sri Lanka and also to study the relationship between organoleptic and bio-chemical correlation on freshness of shark livers. Liver samples which were collected from landing sites in the West coast of Sri Lanka, were evaluated for external and internal colour, texture and odour. Total volatile nitrogen (TVN), pH value, free fatty acid (FFA%) and peroxide (PV) values of livers were also determined to assess quality. According to the organoleptic scoring system 4.3% of liver samples were categorized as best in quality while 30.4%, 56.5% and 8.7% rated as good, medium and poor in quality respectively at the Negombo and Beruwala landing sites. Bio-chemical analysis showed that the better quality livers had the highest score for sensory evaluation and low values for TVN, FFA and peroxide value while low quality livers gave low score for sensory evaluation and high TVN, FFA, peroxide values. Correlation coefficient of organoleptic scores against total volatile nitrogen value, pH value, free fatty acid % and peroxide value of shark livers were determined by statistical analysis. Organoleptic score of shark livers was found to be highly.
    • Fecundity, morphometry post embryonic growth and development of Caridina simoni Bouvier (Decapoda: Atyidae)

      Weerakkody, J.S.; Costa, H.H. (1984)
      The fecundity, morphometry and the post embryonic development of Caridina simoni which is the commonest atyid shrimp in Sri Lanka were studied. The fecundity values ranged from 12-55. There was a linear relationship between the logarithmic values of fecundity and body length and the same relationship was obtained for body length and weight. It was seen that the developmental period of this species was less than six days and during development it passed through six zoeal stages.
    • Gross clinical signs and haematological changes associated with artifical infection of Edwardsiella tarda in Koi Carp

      Rajapakshe, A.D.W.R.; Prasad, K.P.; Mukharjee, S.C. (2012)
      The occurrence of diseases is a significant setback for successful aquafarming. One of the common fish bacterial disease syndromes, Edwardsiellosis is caused by Edwardsiella tarda, a gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium associated with several diseases of marine and fresh water fish. In this study, an attempt was made to observe and analyze the onset of clinical symptoms and certain haematological parameters in Koi Carp, Cyprinus carpio L., following artificial infection with Edwardsiella tarda. The disease progress was observed and the clinical symptoms were monitored over a period of 15 days following infection. Fish were sampled at three day intervals to analyse the haematological parameters: total erythrocyte counts (RBC), total leucocyte counts (WBC), haemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count. Clinical symptoms observed included: erratic swimming behaviour, loss of appetite, haemorrhages, dropsy and exophthalmia. There was a significant decrease in the total RBC and haemoglobin levels by the 3rd and 6th day post infection, and an increase thereafter. WBC counts were higher in all infected groups in comparison to the control group. A significant increase in the number of neutrophils was found in the infected group up to the 9th day and a decrease thereafter. The lymphocyte number was significantly less up to the 12th day while the monocyte counts were significantly higher up to the 12th day post infection. The results showed that the bacterium, E. tarda, is pathogenic to Koi Carp. The hematological changes and clinical signs in infected fish reported in this paper will be helpful in the identification and the control of this infection.
    • Note on the occurrence of Artemia in Sri Lanka

      Sunderam, R.I.M.; Royan, J.P. (1984)
      A brief account is given of the Artemia populations occurring in Sri Lanka with respect to inland and brackishwater aquaculture activities.
    • Nutritional evaluation of some small coastal fish in Sri Lanka

      Edirisinghe, E.M.R.K.B.; Perera, W.M.K.; Bamunuarachchi, A. (2000)
      Small pelagic fish play a very important role in human nutrition and health. Lipids of these fish differ remarkably from plant and other animal lipids. The aim of the study was to describe the proximate composition of thirty-three small pelagic fish species commonly available in Sri Lanka. Fish species were collected from Negombo and Chillaw fish landing sites and subjected to analysis for moisture, ash, protein and total lipid content. Tiger tooth croaker (Otolithus ruber) was found to have the highest moisture percentage (80.0%) followed by Clarias sp. (78.9%), Indian anchovy (Steloporus indicus) and Comerson's anchovy (Stelophorus commersonii), (78%). The lowest percentage of moisture, 69.4%, was recorded in white sardinella (Sardinella albella). Indian ilisha (Ilisha melastoma) was found to have the highest amount of ash (10.1%) followed by Otolithus sp. (8%) and big-eye barracuda contained the least amount (2.5%). Carassius Carassius, pick handle barracuda (Sphyraena jello) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) contained higher amounts of protein, 24.3, 20.6 and 19.2% respectively. The lowest protein content (10.1%) was found in Indian scad (Decapterus russelli). The protein content of the fish was in the range of 13-15%. The results revealed that the small fish are moderate protein sources. The total lipid content varied between 0.6-8%. White sardinella recorded the highest percentage of lipid (8%) where tiger tooth croaker contained the lowest percentage (0.6 %). The study showed high fatty species to contain low amount of moisture and vice versa establishing an inverse relation between fat and moisture quantitatively.
    • Occurrence of whale sharks in coastal waters in the Indian Ocean: an interesting coincidence

      Jayakody, D.S. (2000)
      Salinity, temperature and pressure are parameters which govern the oceanographic state of a marine water body and together they make up density of seawater. In this contribution we will focus our interest on one of these parameters, the salinity: accuracy in relation to different purposes as well as observation technique and instrumentation. We will also discuss the definition of salinity. For example most of the Indian Ocean waters are within the salinity range from 34.60-34.80, which emphasize the importance of careful observations and clear definitions of salinity, in such a way that it is possible to define water masses and predict their movements. In coastal waters the salinity usually features much larger variation in time and space and thus less accuracy is sometimes needed. Salinity has been measured and defined in several ways over the past century. While early measurements were based on the amount of salt in a sea water sample, today the salinity of seawater is most often determined from its conductivity. As conductivity is a function of salinity and temperature, determination involves also measurement of the density of seawater is now more precisely estimated and thus the temperature. As a result of this method the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) was developed. The best determination of salinity from conductivity and the temperature measurements gives salinity with resolution of 0.001 psu, while the accuracy of titration method was about ± 0.02‰. Because of that, even calculation of movements in the ocean is also improved.
    • Remote sensing of the oceans from space with special reference to marine resources

      Jasentuliyana, N. (1984)
      A number of ocean science fields have profitted, either directly or indirectly from satellite remote sensing, including physical, biological and geological oceanography. User oriented applications include fishing, shipping, offshore drilling and mining, coastal engineering and coastal hydrology. Following a brief account of the technology involved, areas in oceanography benefitting from satellite information are detailed. Examples are given of satellite data applications to marine resources.
    • Reproductive biology of Catla catla in the Udawalawe reservoir, Sri Lanka

      Athukorala, D.A. (2012)
      The reproductive biology of Catla catla (Hamilton-Buchanan) in the Udawalawe reservoir was studied from June 2007 to December 2008. Samples of eggs from Indian major carp C. catla were collected from fish landed in the reservoir and analysed in the laboratory to assess the reproductive characteristics. C. catla. Cirrhinus mrigala, exotic Cichlids and Labeo rohita accounted for 62.2%, 21.0%, 12% and 1.0% respectively of the total landings in the Udawalawe reservoir during the study period. Gonads of C. catla were collected in the field and examined in the laboratory to determine the stage of maturity and fecundity. Data on fish length and gonad weight were collected to estimate the gonado-somatic indices (OSI). Landed catches were also examined in the field to determine the sex ratio of C. catla in the catch and was found to be 1:5.6 male to female. Results of fecundity estimates revealed that C. catla females in the Udawalwe reservoir were fully mature in June and October of the year. From the monthly variation of OSI, two recruitment pulses per year were evident. The length of the body at first maturity in female C. catla in the Udawalwe reservoir was estimated to be 74.2 cm.
    • Restricted water exchange in the Negombo Lagoon on the west coast of Sri Lanka

      Rajapaksha, J.K.; Jayasiri, H.B. (2000)
      Salinity, fresh water and sea level data from the Negombo Lagoon with respect to oceanic sea level and salinity data were considered. The open ocean spring tidal range was 0.57 m, whereas the neap tidal range was 0.10 m. In lagoon, the corresponding spring tidal range was 0.13 m and neap tidal range is 0.05 m. The lagoon tide was strongly choked because of the restricted inlet channel, through which only a limited water exchange could take place over a tidal cycle. Mean water exchange and the residence times for variable fresh water supplies were calculated. These calculations were based on fortnightly measurements of salinity and river discharges in 1993. During this year, salinity varied from 30-5‰ depending on the river inputs which were 20-225 m³ sˉ¹. Corresponding residence times varied from 11-2 days and the tide is dominated the exchangeduring low discharges of freshwater.
    • Salinity measurements and use of the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS)

      Arulananthan, K. (2000)
      Salinity, temperature and pressure are parameters which govern the oceanographic state of a marine water body and together they make up density of seawater. In this contribution we will focus our interest on one of these parameters, the salinity: accuracy in relation to different purposes as well as observation technique and instrumentation. We will also discuss the definition of salinity. For example most of the Indian Ocean waters are within the salinity range from 34.60-34.80, which emphasize the importance of careful observations and clear definitions of salinity, in such a way that it is possible to define water masses and predict their movements. In coastal waters the salinity usually features much larger variation in time and space and thus less accuracy is sometimes needed. Salinity has been measured and defined in several ways over the past century. While early measurements were based on the amount of salt in a sea water sample, today the salinity of seawater is most often determined from its conductivity. As conductivity is a function of salinity and temperature, determination involves also measurement of the density of seawater is now more precisely estimated and thus the temperature. As a result of this method the Practical Salinity Scale (PSS) was developed. The best determination of salinity from conductivity and the temperature measurements gives salinity with resolution of 0.001 psu, while the accuracy of titration method was about ± 0.02‰. Because of that, even calculation of movements in the ocean is also improved.
    • Salt and water balance in the Mundel Lake: a strongly choked coastal lagoon

      Jayasiri, H.B.; Rajapaksha, J.K. (2000)
      The Mundel Lake is an extremely shallow lagoon on the west coast of Sri Lanka. It is connected to the Puttalam Lagoon through 15 km long Dutch Canal. Salinity measurements and daily sea level data were obtained fortnightly from January 1993 to March 1994 and they were used to quantify the salt and water budget along with precipitation, evaporation and freshwater runoff. Extreme fluctuations of salinity and sea level are striking features of the system. Salinity of the Mundel Lake and Dutch Canal varied from 5-46.5 and 6 61 ppt respectively while the sea level ranged from -0.25 to +1.2 m. Tidal variations were not seen in the lagoon due to its long narrow canal system. Salt budget showed that the deposition of salt on the lagoon bottom during periods of decreasing water level. During increasing water level, salt is dissolved again. Flow of water through the Dutch Canal between the Puttalam Lagoon and Mundel Lake is driven by the changes in sea level. These changes are mainly due to seasonal changes of net freshwater supply and, to a lesser degree, to seasonal changes in sea surface height. As the flow rates are small due to the long and narrow canal, the residence time ranges between two months and several months in the Mundel Lake, except during season of high freshwater supply. As the water exchange is weak, the Mundel Lake becomes hyper saline with strong fluctuations in salinity. This implies a stress to all lagoon dwelling aquatic organisms and also to aquaculture practices in the area.
    • Socio-economic and marketing aspects of Laila and Bottom Long Line fisheries in the Kalpitiya peninsula of Sri Lanka

      Wimalasena, H.D.; de Mel, W.D.M. (2012)
      Surrounding Net Fishery (laila) and Bottom Long Line Fishery which operate in the coastal waters of Kalpitiya Peninsula, compete for the same fish resources, resulting in a fishery dispute between the respective fishermen. Both fisheries target demersal as well as mid pelagic fishes, such as travellys (parava), mullets (galmalu) and barracudas (ulava). As the dispute had an adverse impact on the social harmony in the fishing community of the area, a socio-economic survey was conducted to study the underlying factors and to suggest policy measures to resolve the issue. The laila fishermen were resident fishermen in the Kalpitiya Peninsula while bottom long line fishermen were migratory fishermen from Negombo and Chilaw areas in the west coast of Sri Lanka. The Kalpitiya peninsula is located in the North West coast, some 50 km away from the west coast. Although the educational level and literacy rate of the laila community was below that of the bottom long line community, the laila community was economically better off. The net economic returns from laila fishery were superior to that from bottom long line fishery. The boat owner's and crew's share per operation of laila fishery were Rs.3,736 and Rs.947 respectively. The same figures for bottom long line fishery were Rs.588 and Rs.327 respectively. The resource rent from laila fishery was Rs.5,860, however, and much higher than that for bottom long line fishery (Rs.275), showing that the laila fishery exploits the targeted fish resource at a much higher rate compared to bottom long line fishery. This situation badly affects the equitable distribution of resources between the two fishing communities and results in unequal economic gains. Based on the findings of this study, certain input/output controls are proposed to address this problem, among which is the need to increase license fee for laila fishery units to offset the higher exploitation rate of fish resources.