Recent Submissions

  • Zooplankton patchiness

    George, D.G. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1981)
    This review considers three general aspects of research on zooplankton patchiness: the detection of patchiness, the description of patchiness and the causes of patchiness.
  • Fishing gear experiments in Finland

    Bagenal, T.B. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1981)
    A comparison of some different European methods of estimating the numbers of fish in a lake using different fishing gear is described. The different gears used were 1. surface trawl used by night 2. bottom trawl used by day 3. trammel nets, set in the evening and lifted in the morning 4. surface seine net used by night 5. bottom seine net used by day 6. Fyke nets, emptied each morning and evening 7. gill nets, set in the evening and lifted in the morning. The most variable catches were from those gears used by day on the bottom and the least variable were those used by night at the surface. The work continued by examining the use of acoustic systems for pelagic fish stock assessment. This gear gave reasonable population estimates for pelagic fish 10m and more below the surface. The advantage of the accoustic method is that it is quick and requires little labour. Its disadvantage is that it is not possible to identify the species and so it must be supplemented by another, conventional method.
  • Genetic engineering of microorganisms: free release into the environment

    Morgan, J.A.W. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1990)
    Genetic engineering now makes possible the insertion of DNA from many organisms into other prokaryotic, eukaryotic and viral hosts. This technology has been used to construct a variety of such genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The possibility of accidental or deliberate release of GEMs into the natural environment has recently raised much public concern. The prospect of deliberate release of these microorganisms has prompted an increased need to understand the processes of survival, expression, transfer and rearrangement of recombinant DNA molecules in microbial communities. The methodology which is being developed to investigate these processes will greatly enhance our ability to study microbial population ecology.
  • Experimental design in fluvial ichthyology: getting the most for your money

    Copp, G. H. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1990)
    In field biology, cost efficiency is an essential element of experimental design, with ramifications extending well beyond the basic monetary considerations associated with labour and equipment acquisition. Current economic constraints often require scientists to undertake many technical, secretarial and managerial tasks in addition to those associated with data collection, analysis, interpretation and publication. Because the time spent to process material in the laboratory can rarely be shortened without compromising the integrity of the results, it is imperative that field experiments be well-organised, addressing as many aspects of the problem as possible during the same sampling excursion. The sampling strategy employed should provide a maximum of good field data with a minimum cost of time and effort.
  • Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    Ibbotson, A.T. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1990)
    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the essential habitat variables in the segregation of species; (3) whether species in an assemblage demonstrate resource partitioning with reference to habitat, and (4) the mechanisms behind such resource partitioning.
  • Africa: the FBA connection

    Fryer, G.; Talling , J.F. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1986)
    Since its inception in the 1930's the Freshwater Biological Association at Windermere, England has been involved in research on African lakes and rivers. Research has included general and multidisciplinary surveys of many lakes including Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and Lake George. The hydrobiology of the River Nile has also been studied. Research into physical and chemical limnology, phytoplankton ecology and primary productivity, invertebrate biology, freshwater fish and fisheries.
  • Biological and climatic influences on the dace Leuciscus leuciscus in a southern chalk-stream

    Mann, R.H.K.; Mills, C.A. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1986)
    The dace, Leuciscus leuciscus (L.) is an important cyprinid in terms of population biomass in chalk streams of southern England. Dace recruitment has been shown to vary widely from year to year and it is thought that this variation is largely as a result of the influence of abiotic factors, chiefly water temperature. From 1968 to 1981 there was a thirteen-fold difference in the year class structure index between the minimum index (0.25 in 1972) and the maximum (3.21 in 1976). The problems of such variation, especially those that could ensue from a succession of poor year-classes, are offset by the spread of reproductive effort by each female over several years.
  • The classification and prediction of macroinvertebrate communities in British rivers

    Wright, J.F.; Armitage, P.D.; Furse, M.T.; Moss, D. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1985)
    This article describes the progress of the River Communities Project which commenced in 1977. This project aimed to develop a sensitive and practical system for river site classification using macroinvertebrates as an objective means of appraising the status of British rivers. The relationship between physical and chemical features of sites and their biological communities were examined. Sampling was undertaken on 41 British rivers. Ordination techniques were used to analyze data and the sites were classified into 16 groups using multiple discrimination analysis. The potential for using the environmental data to predict to which group a site belonged and the fauna likely to be present was investigated.
  • 'The highly nervous system of the English Lakes': aquatic ecosystem sensitivity to external changes, as demonstrated by diatoms.

    Haworth, E.Y. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1985)
    The author reviews the stratigraphic diatom profile of Cumbrian lakes since the last glaciation. Knowledge of both present and previous interglacials suggests that a natural cycle of change is imposed on all lakes. The nature of inwashed material is dependant on climatic and natural soilcycles and this affects the water quality and sensitive aquatic biota. Anthropogenic effects are superimposed upon this with forest clearance and pollution. Whilst some Cumbrian diatom profiles extend over the entire post glacial, others cover only detailed sections relating to particular problems. Causes and effect of recent changes in lakes can be studied using indicator species but palaeocology contributes greatly to understanding of long term changes.
  • Physiological ecology of the ciliated protozoon Loxodes

    Finlay, B.J.; Fenchel, T. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1986)
    Loxodes faces special problems in living close to the oxic-anoxic boundary. In tightly-stratified ponds like Priest Pot its optimum environment may be quite narrow and it can be displaced by the slightest turbulence. Loxodes cannot sense an O sub(2) gradient directly but its ability to perceive gravity allows it to make relatively long vertical migrations. It is also sensitive to light and oxygen and it uses these environmental cues to modulate the parameters of its random motility: in the dark, it aggregates at a low O sub(2) tension and in bright light it aggregates in anoxic water. The oxic-anoxic boundary is also a zone where O sub(2) may be a scarce and transient resource, but Loxodes) can switch to nitrate respiration and exploit the pool of nitrate that often exists close to the base of the oxycline.
  • Decomposition in lake sediments: bacterial action and interaction

    Jones, J.G. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1985)
    This review discusses the processes involved in the decomposition of organic carbon derived initially from structural components of algae and other primary producers. It describes how groups of bacteria interact in time and space in a eutrophic lake. The relative importance of anaerobic and aerobic processes are discussed. The bulk of decomposition occurs within the sediment. The role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle and the iron cycle, and in sulphate reduction and methanogenesis as the terminal metabolism of organic carbon are described.
  • Water mites: predators and parasites

    Gledhill, T. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1985)
    The majority of water mites found in freshwater belong to the Hydrachnellae, a group which exhibit striking morphological diversity. This paper reviews work on the structure, morphology and taxonomy. The role of water mites as predators, their life history and their parasitic associations with aquatic insect or freshwater mollusc hosts is discussed along with the distribution of water mites in the British Isles.
  • Long-term natural acidification of upland sites in Cumbria: Evidence from post-glacial lake sediments

    Pennington, W. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1984)
    Studies by the Freshwater Biological Association over the last 25 years have supplied data relevant to the levels of acidity in local soils and water before the onset of industrial pollution and current interest in acid rain. This article reviews published analysis from cores of lake sediments, in or near the catchment of the River Duddon. Electron spin resonance spectra of humic acids and iodine values confirm evidence from pollen analysis for a history of progressive acidification of the source material of lake sediments since before 5000 radiocarbon years, in upland catchments of the Lake District. Processes involved included: removal of basic ions from soils by rainfall, the effects of which were intensified by removal by man of deciduous forest; acidification of soils and waters by decomposition products of Calluna and further acidification of waters by Sphagnum species which colonized habitats where drainage became impeded by paludification processes.
  • The ecology of chalk-stream invertebrates studied in a recirculating stream

    Ladle, M.; Welton, J.S. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1984)
    To study and qualify the factors influencing interactions between various trophic levels in natural hard-water streams, a recirculating artificial stream channel was constructed. This structure has enabled patterns of population change of stream fauna to be observed under partially controlled physical and chemical conditions. Initial colonization of the substratum by invertebrates and subsequent succession was studied along with depth distribution and growth and production studies of invertebrates.
  • Treading in Mortimer's footsteps: the geochemical cycling of iron and manganese in Esthwaite water

    Davison, W.; Tipping, E. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1984)
    A study of the geochemical cycling of iron and manganese in a seasonally stratified lake, Esthwaite water is described. This work is based on speculative ideas on environmental redox chemistry of iron which were proposed by C.H. Mortimer in the 1940's. These observations have been verified and some speculations confirmed, along with a new understanding of the manganese cycle, and detailed information on the particulate forms of both iron and manganese. Details on the mechanisms and transformations of iron have also emerged.
  • Experiments with lake phytoplankton in large enclosures

    Lund, J.W.G. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1978)
    The use of large plastic enclosures, or 'Lund tubes', in lakes as a semi-natural basin for experiments, approximating to lakes within lakes, is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the tubes were studied, and the results of investigations into the validity of studies using such tubes and the effects of fertilisers on phytoplankton are presented.
  • The kinetics of calcite precipation and related processes

    House, W.A. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1984)
    This review is concerned with the kinetics of calcium carbonate formation and related processes which are important in many hard waters.
  • Acid precipitation and its effects on aquatic systems in the English Lake District

    Sutcliffe, D.W. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1983)
    There is no evidence of an increase in the acidity (lower pH or alkalinity) of water-bodies in the Lake District over the last 50 years. Brown trout occur in acid streams and upland tarns where pH is 4.5-5.2 throughout the year. Their occurrence in such waters in Britain and Ireland has been known for most of this century and there is no previous evidence of harmful effects on salmonid fisheries, though numbers of fish are naturally low. However, many benthic invertebrates that are common in hill-streams where pH is above 5.7 do not occur in more acid streams. This phenomenon occurs in the headwaters of several western rivers in Cumbria. It is not a recent response to "acid rain". Harmful effects of pH are undoubtedly more pronounced in waters that are poor in other dissolved ions. Low concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride are especially important and may limit the distributions of some aquatic animals even where pH is above 5.7. The concentration of sulphate ions is usually relatively high but this is not important to the fauna; concentrations are at least two times higher in productive alkaline water-bodies than they are in unproductive acid waters.
  • Experiments using an artificial stream to investigate the seasonal growth of chalk-stream algae

    Marker, A.F.H.; Casey, H. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1983)
    Research into the production ecology of chalk streams using a large artificial recirculating stream is described. Physical chemical processes including calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, and exchange of gaseous carbon dioxide in both a simple closed system and a circulating system with gravel substrate have been monitored in both light and dark conditions. Further experiments were concerned with the seasonal changes in algal growth over the gravel substrate with constant water velocities and replenishment. The algal population, composed mainly of the diatoms Achnanthes minutissima, Meridion circulare, Nitzschia fonticola and Synedra ulna reached a peak in mid May and declined rapidly during June. Concentrations of phosphate phosphorus fell as the diatoms grew but was not thought to limit growth. Silicate concentrations followed the diatom cycle closely but never fell below 0.8 mg/l Si. It is possible that one of the nutrients may have been limiting the rate of growth due to steep diffusion gradients through the algal mat. In the last summer and autumn a hard calcareous crust composed of the green alga Gongrosira incrustans and the blue green alga Homeothrix varians , developed. The channel stream is compared with the natural conditions found in chalk streams.
  • Effects of Cow Green Reservoir upon downstream fish populations

    Crisp, D.T. (Freshwater Biological AssociationAmbleside, UK, 1984)
    Post impoundment observations on the fish populations of the River Tees, downstream from the Cow Green Reservoir were made between 1971 and 1980. Both bullhead (Cottus gobio L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) population densities increased in the river after impoundment but changes in growth rate were small. Investigations into the stomach contents of the two species reflects the results of other work on increases of benthos in the river. Following regulation there was an increase in the quantity of Ephemerella ignita found in trout stomachs while in the bullhead, regulation caused an increase in the importance of Mollusca and a decrease in importance of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera.

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