• Marine Fisheries History: The 50th Anniversay Issue of the Marine Fisheries Review

      Hobart, Willis L. (1988)
      The 1980's seems to have been the decade for conservation anniversaries. Celebrating centennials have been theU.S. Fishery Bulletin (1981), NMFS Woods Hole Laboratory (1985), Journal of the Marine Biological Association (1987) and the Association itself (1984), Pacific halibut fishery (1988), Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. (1988), and England's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (1989).While the U. S. Department of Commerce turned 75 (1988), 50th anniversaries were nlarked by the NMFS Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center (1981), The Wildlife Society and itsJournal ofWildlife Management (1987), National Wildlife Federation (1986), International Game Fish Association (1989), and, of course, the Marine Fisheries Review (1988), which provided the raison d'etre for this special issue being devoted to "Marine Fisheries History."
    • Centennial Lecture I: History and Contributions of the Woods Hole Fisheries Laboratory

      Edwards , Robert L. (1988)
      The genesis and the early history of the Woods Hole Laboratory (WHL), to a lesser extent the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), and to some degree the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), were elegantly covered by Paul S. Galtsoff (1962) in his BCF Circular "The Story of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts." It covers the period from the beginning in 1871 to 1958. Galtsoffs more than 35-year career in the fishery service was spent almost entirely in Woods Hole. I will only briefly touch on that portion of the Laboratory's history covered by Galtsoff.Woods Hole, as a center of marine science, was conceived and implemented largely by one man, Spencer Fullerton Baird, at that time Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian and who was also instrumental in the establishment of the National Museum and Permanent Secretary of the newly established American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1871 as the first U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries. Fisheries research began here as early as 1871, but a permanent station did not exist until 1885.
    • The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985: A Century of Service

      United States National Marine Fisheries Service (1988)
    • Foreword and Acknowledgments: Woods Hole Laboratory Centennial

      Theroux, Roger B. (1988)
      The year 1985 was one of celebration for the Woods Hole Laboratory of the National Marine Fisheries Service'sNortheast Fisheries Center. The reason was the one hundredth anniversary of the completion and occupation of the first facility in the world dedicated to marine fisheries research.Spencer Fullerton Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and newly appointed first Commissioner of the nascent U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries visited Woods Hole in the summer of 1871 to establish a base from which to begin the investigationsmandated by Congress when they established the "Fish Commission." During the following three summers (1872-74), operations were conducted from several other localities along the New England coast. During the course of those four years Baird determined that Woods Hole offered the most suitable natural and physical amenities for the investigations being conducted by the Fish Commission at that time, and for those envisioned for the future. The base for Commission operations was returned to Woods Hole in the summer of 1875 and has remained there ever since, through times fair and foul and several agency changes.
    • U.S. Fisheries Management and Foreign Trade Linkages: Policy Implications for Groundfish Fisheries in the North Pacific EEZ

      Terry, Joseph M.; Queirolo, Lewis E. (1989)
      The groundfish resources of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska, dominated by Alaska or walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, and flatfishes, Pleuronectidae, can sustain annual commercial harvests well in excess of 2 million metric tons (t). As recently as 1979, foreign fisheries took 99 percent of the annual harvest supported by these resources. This has changed dramatically during the 1980's. The foreign fisheries have received rapidly decreasing allocations, first as joint venture fisheries expanded and, more recently, as the domestic fisheries have grown. Joint venture fisheries are fisheries in which domestic fishing vessels deliver their catch directly to foreign processing vessels in the EEZ. By 1986, the joint venture and domestic fisheries accounted for 66 percent and 8 percent, respectively, of the annual harvest. The preliminary corresponding figures for 1987 are 78 and 18 percent.
    • Research in Global Groundfish Markets: An Exercise in International Cooperation

      Queirolo, Lewis E.; Johnston , Richard S. (1989)
      Over roughly the last decade, most of the fishery resources of the continental shelf and nearshore areas of the world's oceans have come under the control of coastal nations. One consequence of this extension of fisheries jurisdiction (EFJ) by any individual state has been the expansion of its production possibilities. That is, with strengthened property rights in the ocean resources off its shores, a coastal nation experiences increased opportunities to produce goods and services from its newly enlarged pool of resources. Such a nation, then, would appear to be a potential gainer from EFJ.
    • Toward a Rational Seafood Trade Policy

      Lipton, Douglas W.; Siegel, Robert A. (1989)
      With a record trade deficit of almost $146 billion in 1986, and continued high deficits in 1987, there is growing concern about how continued deficits will affect the U. S. economy. Because fishery products had a record $6.3 billion deficit in 1986, the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has made the reduction of the fisheries trade deficit one of its top priorities. A recent NMFS trade objective was to "increase exports and domestic consumption of U.S. fishery products" which would lead to a reduction in the trade deficit. In this paper we explore this policy in terms of practicality and desirability.
    • Economic and Trade Strategies in World Fisheries

      Siegel, Robert A.; Johnston , Richard S. (1989)
      This special section of the Marine Fisheries Review contains the edited proceedings of a symposium held on 16 September 1987 at the annual meetings of the American Fisheries Society in Winston-Salem, N.C. The symposium was sponsored by the National Marine Fisheries Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade. The aim of this session was to provide an overview of several international trade issues that affect the development of fisheries economic policy. Thus, the general areas of discussion included: The role of fisheries in the U.S. balance of trade, current negotiations on fisheries trade and tariffs, and U.S. and foreign economic trade strategies and policies.
    • Coastal States and Distant-water Fishing Nation Relations: An Economist's Perspective

      Munro, Gordon R. (1989)
      The widespread implementation of Extended Fisheries Jurisdiction (EFJ) has confronted coastal states with several resource management problems. One of these consists of the economic relations, if any, that the coastal state should establish with distant-water fishing nations (DWFN's) seeking access to the coastal state's 200-mile zone.Several of the other papers presented here deal with specific aspects of the issue. This paper, on the other hand, will concern itself with the question of the analytical framework to be used by economists in studying this issue. It will offer some suggestions with respect to possible components of the framework.In doing so, the paper will restrict itself to the coastal state's perspective of EFJ and the management issues arising therefrom. It goes without saying, of course, that an enlightened coastal state will attempt to acquaint itself with the DWFN view of the world.
    • A U.S. Perspective on Access to Fisheries Resources

      Snead, Larry L. (1989)
      The passage of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (MFCMA) and the establishment of a 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in 1983 have resulted in a radical change in the pattern of foreign fishing operations off the U. S. coasts. Likewise, the extensions of 200-mile EEZ's by other nations have impacted U.S. distant-water fisheries. The result has been that a new international framework for fisheries is emerging and is continuing to evolve.
    • Canadian, Mexican, and U. S. Fisheries: Recent Developments

      Pontecorvo, Giulio (1989)
      The creation of extended zones (EEZ's) has shifted some aspects of fisheries management and policy from the arena of international negotiations to the economic and political decision making process within the coastal state. The transition from a world of international commons to one of coastal state jurisdiction raises a variety of issues. The one of concern here is a broad welfare question: Given the transfer of assets from the international commons to the coastal state, how well (efficiently) has the state used these new assets to increase the flow of income and Gross National Product (GNP)?
    • Increasing Creel Interview Efficiency Through Early Survey Termination

      Osburn, Hal R.; Weixelman, Mike G. (1989)
      Operational modifications based on recreational angler activity patterns can be successfully formulated to increase creel survey efficiency without a significant loss of information. This study was conducted to estimate the amount of Texas marine sport-boat angler interview and retained fish data (bay and Gulf) that would be missed both coastwide and within each bay system if surveys were terminated early when no angler interviews were conducted by a specified time. Using this method, <3 percent of the total interviews and retained fish would be missed coastwide by terminating surveys at 1400 hours on weekends and 1600 hours on weekdays throughout the survey year. This would result in the early termination of 14 percent of the weekend surveys and 23 percent of the weekday surveys, thus allowing an annual redirection of 440 work-hours and $6,063 in operating expenses.
    • A Comparison of Two Stratification Schemes Used in Sampling Canadian Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

      Clay , Douglas (1989)
      Sampling is a key element in the assessment of any fish stock. It is often one of the most expensive activities of the management process; thus, improved efficiency can result in significant cost savings. In most cases a two-phase sampling strategy is employed. Two commonly used versions of such stratified random schemes were simulated using a test population based on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. A 1 otolith per 1 cm length frequency currently used for many flatfish and some smaller gadoids and a 3 otolith per 3 cm length frequency currently used for many of the larger gadoids. No difference was detected in the age composition or mean length at age for either scheme; however, 10 percent fewer otoliths were collected in 1 for 1 sampling than 3 for 3. There was an improvement of between 30 and 60 percent in the coefficient of variation of the estimated catch numbers at age using the 1 for 1 compared with the 3 for 3 stratified sampling. For these reasons and other operational considerations, the 1 for 1 stratified random design of sampling appears to be superior.
    • The Driftnet Fishery in the Fort Pierce-Port Salerno Area off Southeast Florida

      Schaefer, H. Charles; Barger, Lyman E.; Kumpf, Herman E. (1989)
      From May through September 1987, observations were made on 38 trips in the driftnet fishery off the Fort Pierce-Port Salerno area off southeast Florida. Of the number and weight of fish landed on observed trips, 91.6 percent consisted of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, the targeted species. Over 33 species of fishes were observed among the discarded by-catch. The most frequently occurring species in the discards was little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus, which made up 67.0 percent by number of the discarded by-catch. Total landings for all commercial gear from Saint Lucie and Martin counties (the counties of the study area) increased 516,741 pounds from 1986 to 1987. In 1986, 55 percent of the catch was from handline and 45 percent from driftnet landings. In 1987, 78 percent wasfrom driftnet and 22 percent from handline landings. A comparison of lengths from recreational and commercial landings showed recreationally caught fish to be, on the average, smaller. No marine mammals, birds, or turtles were entangled in the net on observed trips. Data on cost ofnets. fuel, and supplies plus the distribution of earnings among the crew were obtained for five driftnet boats.
    • The Effects of Fish Trap Mesh Size on Reef Fish Catch off Southeastern Florida

      Bohnsack, James A.; Sutherland, David L.; Harper, Douglas E.; McClellan, David B.; Hulsbeck , Mark W.; Holt , Christopher M. (1989)
      Catch and mesh selectivity of wire-meshed fish traps were tested for eleven different mesh sizes ranging from 13 X 13 mm (0.5 x 0.5") to 76 x 152 mm (3 X 6"). A total of 1,810 fish (757 kg) representing 85 species and 28 families were captured during 330 trap hauls off southeastern Florida from December 1986 to July 1988. Mesh size significantly affected catches. The 1.5" hexagonal mesh caught the most fish by number, weight, and value. Catches tended to decline as meshes got smaller or larger. Individual fish size increased with larger meshes. Laboratory mesh retention experiments showed relationships between mesh shape and size and individual retention for snapper (Lutjanidae), grouper (Serranidae), jack (Carangidae), porgy (Sparidae), and surgeonfish (Acanthuridae). These relationships may be used to predict the effect of mesh sizes on catch rates. Because mesh size and shape greatly influenced catchability, regulating mesh size may provide a useful basis for managing the commercial trap fishery.
    • The Fish Funnel: A Trawl Modification to Reduce Fish Escapement

      Workman, Ian K.; Taylor, Charles W. (1989)
      In the Gulf of Mexico there is a need to assess the potential of underutilized fish resource stocks before a commercial fishery develops. Standard sampling trawls used in the Gulf are ineffective for sampling the resource, so larger, high opening, bottom trawls have been introduced. The larger trawls are more effective, but most of the faster swimming fish species are able to escape these nets, especially during haul back.To reduce fish escapement, webbing panels, attached inside the trawls ahead of the cod ends, were tested. Initial tests were conducted with two single panel designs--a fish flap and a "floppa." Neither design reduced fish escapement. The floppa distorted the trawl webbing and actually increased fish escapement.A multi-panel conical funnel design (the fish funnel) was tested and found to increase fish retention by trapping the fish after they passed through it. When used in combination with a technique known as pulsing the trawl, the fish funnel substantially increased trawl catch rates with no indication of fish escapement.
    • A Guide for Enhancing Estuarine Molluscan Shellfisheries

      MacKenzie, Jr. , Clyde L. (1989)
      In the eastern United States as well as in many countries where most shellfish originate in public beds, shellfishermen, local communities, distributors, and consumers have been dependent on wild stocks for shellfish supplies. Abundance of shellfish is usually much lower than the carrying capacity of the beds and can fluctuate widely among seasons. Thus shellfisheries are built upon a relatively weak foundation: Uncertin supplies, abundance of which is governed by several natural factors.
    • Size-related Hooking Mortality of Incidentally Caught Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

      Wertheimer, Alex; Celewycz, Adrian; Jaenicke, Herbert; Mortensen, Donald (1989)
      Mortality associated with the incidental catch and release by commercial trollers of two size classes of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was assessed. Observed cumulative mortality 4-6 days after hooking was 18.3 percent for sublegal-sizefish « 66 cm FL) and 19.0 percent for legal-sizefish. Size of fish was not significantly related to mortality; however, when the results were combined with data from a previous experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship between fish length and mortality. Hooking mortality estimates calculated from tagging experiments and observed relative mortality of legal-and sublegal-size fish held in net pens, were used to derive a range for total hooking mortality of 22.0-26.4percent for sublegal-size chinook salmon and 18.5-26.4 percent for legal-size chinook salmon.
    • Artificial Habitats for Fisheries Enhancement in the Australian Region

      Pollard , D. A. (1989)
      This paper outlines developments over about 20 years in the construction of and ecological research on artificial reefs, fish aggregation devices (FAD's), and other artificial habitats designed to enhance fish populations and fisheries in the Australian region (including New Zealand and Papua New Guinea). Work was initially carried out on multicomponent reefs using a variety of waste materials, as well as some specially constructed concrete and steel structures. Later studies concentrated on single-component reefs, again mainly using waste materials. Although no definitive conclusions were reached on the relative effectiveness of the different materials used, waste motor vehicle tires and derelict ships were generally judged to be the best all-around materials for single-component reef construction in sheltered estuarine and offshore marine environments, respectively, in this region. FAD's comprising polyvinylchloride pipe sparbuoys (or in some areas polyurethane foam floats) attached to railroad car wheel anchors by polyethylene rope and chain, and supporting attractor drapes of synthetic mesh webbing, also provedtobegenerallysuccessfulin thisarea. Overall conclusions for the Australian region include the predominant use of waste materials in artificial reef construction, which has been primarily aimed at recreational fisheries enhancement; the successful use of FAD's for both recreational and commercial fisheries enhancement; the need for further and better planned research into and monitoring of the effectiveness of both of these enhancement methods; and the need for future research into the effectiveness of unfished "artificial habitat reserves" in enhancing fisheries production from surrounding fished areas.
    • The Feasibility of Enhancing Red Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus iranciscanus, Stocks in California: An Analysis of the Options

      Tegner, Mia J. (1989)
      The California fishery for red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, has undergone explosive growth in recent years and is approaching full exploitation. Thus, there is considerable interest in enhancing stocks to maintain a high rate of landings. Fishable stocks of red sea urchins in different areas appear to be limited at three stages in their life history: By the availability of larvae, by the survival of newly settled to mid-sized animals, and by the food available to support growth and reproduction of larger animals. Here I review other efforts, notably the extensive Japanese work, to enhance fishable stocks of benthic marine invertebrates, and consider the potential options for red sea urchins at different points of limitation. These include collecting or culturing seed for outplanting, physical habitat improvement measures, improving the food supply, and conservation measures to protect existing stocks until alternate methods are proven and in place. The options are compared in terms of biological feasibility, capital and labor requirements, and potential implications for change in the structure of the fishing industry.