Now showing items 21-40 of 157

    • Annotated bibliography on hypoxia and its effects on marine life, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico

      Renaud, Maurice L. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      This bibliography contains 73 annotated references from publications and reports concerning hypoxia, .,;2.0 ppm dissolved oxygen concentration, in the Gulf of Mexico. Instances of hypoxia from similar habitats andthe effects of low oxygen levels on marine or estuarine organisms are also included. (PDF file contains 15 pages.)
    • Synopsis of biological data on the pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides (Pisces: Sparidae)

      Darcy, George H. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Information on the biology and resources of the pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides (Pisces: Sparidae), is compiled,reviewed, and analyzed in the FAO species synopsis style. (PDF file contains 38 pages.)
    • Parasitology and pathology of marine organisms of the world ocean

      Hargis, Jr., William J. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      The Symposium in which the communications, as they were called during the meeting, comprising this volume were presented was held at the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. in Leningrad during 13 to 16 October 1981. Conducted as part of the cooperative program of the U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. Working Group on Biological Productivity and Biochemistry of the World Ocean, the Leningrad meeting was sponsored by the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (the Zoological Institute) and the Ministry of Fisheries of the U.S.S.R. (The Scientific Council on Fish Diseases of the Ichthyological Commission). It was an extremely interesting and successful Symposium, offering allparticipants the opportunity to describe the results of their studies and reviews during the course of the formal presentations and direct interchange between scientists during breaks in the program and the organized and casual social activities. The facilities provided by the Zoological Institute were quite adequate and the assistance offered by its Director, O. A. Scarlato and his staff in organization,logistics, and translation was excellent. Several of our Soviet colleagues presided over the proceedings, as did I. All were businesslike and efficient, yet graceful and accommodating. To O. N. Bauer Jell the brunt of programmatic detail and follow-up. He bore his burdens well and, with Director Scarlato and his staff, including A. V. Gussev and others of the professional and technical staffs of the Zoological Institute, helped make our stay pleasant and the Symposium productive. These organizations and individuals deserve much credit and praise as well as the thanks of their American and British colleagues. (PDF file contains 141 pages.)
    • Temperature conditions in the cold pool 1977-81: A comparison between Southern New England and New York transects

      Cook, Steven K. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Expendable bathythermograph data collected by the Ships of Opportunity (SOOP) - Ocean Monitoring Program are analyzed for seasonal and inter-annual variations of the cold pool. Two major SOOP transects within the Middle Atlantic Bight (Southern New England and New York) have been analyzed for the years common to both (1977-81). During the years 1977-81, over 200 transects were occupied, and almost 3,000 XBT's were dropped.Results show that the cold pool is formed with the onset of spring warming and persists until fall overturn, is consistent year to year in both area and weighted average annual temperature, and advects water from the northeast to the southwest. Results also show a 100-d lag in minimum temperature between the Southern New England and New York transects. DitTerences in bathymetry between the two transects and their influence on the cold pool are also discussed. Plots of average (1977-81) bottom temperature for both transects are discussed and show consistent annual weighted mean temperature and areas. Bottom temperature plots for individual years, as well as maximum and minimum bottom temperature plots, are presented as Appendix figures. (PDF file contains 28 pages.)
    • Synopsis of biological data on the sand perch, Diplectrum formosum (Pisces: Serranidae)

      Darcy, George H. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Information on the biology and fishery resources of a common western Atiantic serranid, Diplectrum formosum, is compiled, reviewed, and analyzed in the FAO species synopsis style. (PDF file contains 27 pages.)
    • Proceedings of the Eleventh U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Salmon Enhancement, Tokyo, Japan, October 19-20, 1982

      Sindermann, Carl J. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the UnitedStates-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries.The UJNR was started by a proposal made during the Third Cabinet-Level Meeting of the Joint United States-Japan Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs in January 1964. In addition to aquaculture, current subjects in the program are desalination of seawater, toxic microorganisms, air pollution, energy, forage crops, national park management, mycoplasmosis, wind and seismic effects, protein resources, forestry, and several joint panels and committees in marine resources research, development, and utilization.Accomplishments include: Increased communications and cooperation among technical specialists; exchanges of information, data, and research findings; annual meetings of the panels, a policy coordinative body; administrative staff meetings; exchanges of equipment, materials, and samples; several major technical conferences; and beneficial effects on international relations. (PDF file contains 108 pages.)
    • Review of geographical stocks of tropical dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) in the eastern Pacific

      Perrin, William F.; Scott, Michael D.; Walker, G. Jay; Cass, Virginia L. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Information on geographical variation is reviewed for Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, andDelphinus delphis in the eastern tropical Pacific, and boundaries for potential management units are proposed.National Marine Fisheries Service and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission sighting records made from 1979 to 1983 which were outside boundaries used in a 1979 assessment were examined for validity. Tagging returns and morphological data were also analyzed. Several stock ranges are expanded or combined. Three management units are proposed for S. attenuata: the coastal, northern offshore, and southern offshore spoiled dolphins. Four management units are proposed for S. longirostris: the Costa Rican, eastern, northern whitebelly, and southern whitebelly spinner dolphins. Two provisional management units are proposed for S. coeruleoalba: the northern and southern striped dolphins. Five management units (two of which are provisional) are proposed for D. delphis: the Baja neritic, northern, central, southern, and Guerrero common dolphins. Division into management units was based on morphological stock differences and distributional breaks. (PDF file contains 34 pages.)
    • Synopsis of biological data on the pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis Kroyer, 1838

      Shumway, Sandra E.; Perkins, Herbert C.; Schick, Daniel F.; Stickney, Alden P. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      This synopsis of the literature was designed to summarize the biological and biochemical studies involving Pandalus borealis as well as to provide a summary of the literature regarding the fisheries data published before early 1984. Included are many unpublished observations, drawn from studies at the State of Maine Department of Marine Resources Laboratory in West Boothbay Harbor, Maine. (PDF file contains 63 pages.)
    • Prevalence, intensity, longevity, and persistence of Anisakis sp. larvae and Lacistorhynchus tenuis metacestodes in San Francisco striped bass

      Moser, Mike; Sakanari, Judy A.; Reilly, Carol A.; Whipple, Jeannette (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Thirteen hundred and seventy-three striped bass, Marone saxatilis, were collected from the San FranciscoBay-Delta area to correlate host diet with parasitic infections and to determine the prevalence, intensity, longevity, and persistence of larval Anisakis sp. nematodes and the metacestode Lacistorhynchus tenuis. There is an increase in the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis sp. and in the intensity of L. tenuis with increase of age of the host. These increases are probably related to the diet and the persistence of tbe parasites. The infections of bothspecies are overdispersed. San Francisco Bay striped bass are an incompatible host for both species of parasites.Degenerated Anisakis sp. will remain in lhe host for at least 8 months and L. tenuis metacestodes for 22 months.The occurrence of several other species of parasites and a tumor are also reported. (PDF file contains 10 pages.)
    • Shark catches from selected fisheries off the U.S. East Coast

      NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      (PDF file contains 28 pages.)
    • Nutrient distributions for Georges Bank and adjacent waters in 1979

      Draxler, A. F. J.; Matte, A.; Waldhauer, R.; O'Reilly, J. E. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      In this report we describe the temporal and spatial distributions of inorganic nutrients over Georges Bankand in adjacent waters and discuss major features with respect to tbe nutrient environments of pbytoplankton.Nitrate and orthophosphorus were rapidly depleted from the surface layer of much of the study area in spring,but major differences were found between the shallow areas on Georges Bank and the surrounding stratified waters. In the "well-mixed" area of Georges Bank, the depletion encompassed the entire water column and ammonium became the dominant form of inorganic nitrogen throughout. Dissolved silicon was depleted slowly over central Georges Bank, reaching a minimum concentration in September while orthophosphorus gradually increased during the summer. The nutrient environment of phytoplankton over central Georges Bank may be described as vertically uniform but temporally changing in the relative availability of the various nutrients. In areas that undergo stratification (e.g., the central Gulf of Maine), a quasi-steady state was established as the surface water layer formed, consisting of declining nutrient gradients from below the euphotic layer to the top of the water column. These intergrading nutrient environments are relatively stable through time. Destratification reintroduced nutrients to depleted areas beginning in October; however, dissolved silicon was again depleted over shallow Georges Bank in late autumn though nitrate remained abundant. Slope water has been found toenter the bottom layer of the Gulf of Maine via the Northeast Channel. High nutrient concentrations observed inthe bottom water of the Northeast Channel are consistent with this mechanism being the nutrient source for theGulf of Maine. (PDF file contains 40 pages.)
    • Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Echinoidea

      Serafy, D. Keith; Fell, F. Julian (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      The echinoid fauna from littoral to abyssal depths off the northeastern United States (Cape Hatteras, NC, to northern Nova Scotia) comprises 31 species, in 26 genera and 19 families. An introduction to the external morphology, distribution, and natural history is given along with an illustrated key to the species, an annotated systematic list, and an index. The fauna Includes 17 species with wide-ranging distributions on continental slopes or abyssal plains. The remaining 14 species occur in shallower waters on the continental shelf or upper slope. Of these, eight are tropical in distribution with their northern range extending to the northeastern United States and threeare mainly boreal with the northeastern United States at the southern limit of their range. Two species occur only off the eastern United States and one species is cosmopolitan. (PDF file contains 33 pages.)
    • Additions to a revision of the shark genus Carcharhinus: Synonymy of Aprionodon and Hypoprion, and description of a new species of Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae)

      Garrick, J. A. F. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Features of the valid nominal species of Aprionodon Gill (isodon Valenciennes) and Hypoprion Muller and Henle (hemiodon Valenciennes, macloti Muller and Henle, and signatus Poey), plus those of a previously unrecognizedspecies here described as Carcharhinus leiodon n.sp., are examined and compared with those of CarcharhinusBlainville. Features studied include morphometrics, vertebral numbers and other vertebral characteristics, toothnumbers, color pattern, and some other aspects of external morphology. It is concluded that on these featuresC. leiodon n.sp. is entirely encompassed within the parameters of Carcharhinus, and that, although A. isodon,H. hemiodon, H. macloti, and H. signatus each extend the range of diversity of Carcharhinus in one or more features,A. isodon is not uniquely different from Carcharhinus, and there is no common pattern of difference between the three species of Hypoprion and Carcharhinus. Accordingly, and because the nature of the teeth of Aprionodon and Hypoprion has been found insufficient to warrant generic distinction from Carcharhinus, the genera Aprionodon and Hypoprion are synonymised with Carcharhinus.A diagnosis and description are given for each of the above species. The descriptions include measurements, counts, and line illustrations that show the whole shark in lateral view, underside of head, nostril, and teeth. The geographic distribution is summarized, as are also the meager biological data available on number of embryos, size at birth, size at sexual maturity, and maximum size. (PDF file contains 32 pages.)
    • Synoptic review of the Literature on the southern oyster drill Thais haemastoma floridana

      Butler, Phillip A. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      This literature search identifies a majority of the publications in the period 1880-1980 concerned with the marine gastropod, Thais haemastomafloridmul (Conrad). The southern oyster drill is an economically important oyster predator in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico littoral. Major contributions of each paper to our knowledge of the drill's biology are briefly categorized. Hitherto unpublished research by the author on the snail's biology is documented. (PDF file contains 15 pages.)
    • An egg production method for estimating spawning biomass of pelagic fish: Application to the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax

      Lasker, Reuben (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1985)
      Fishery scientists engaged in estimating the size of free-swimming populations have never had a technique available to them whereby all the parameters could be estimated from a resource survey and where no parameter values need to be assumed. Recognizing the need for a technique of this kind, the staff of the Coastal Fisheries Resources Division of the Southwest Fisheries Center (SWFC) devised an egg production method for anchovy biomass assessment. Previously, anchovy biomass was estimated by approximate methods derived from a long-time series and anchovy larval abundance, which required about 5 ma of shiptime each year to integrate the area under a seasonal spawning curve. One major assumption used in the larval abundance census method is that there is constant proportionality between larval numbers and spawning biomass. This has now proved to be erroneous. (PDF file contains 105 pages.)
    • A histopathologic evaluation of gross lesions excised from commercially important North Altantic marine fishes

      Murchelano, Robert A.; Despres-Patanjo, Linda; Ziskowski, John (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1986)
      Histopathologic studies of lesions found in commercially important North Atlantic marine fishes are uncommon. As part of a comprehensive Northeast Fisheries Center program ("Ocean Pulse") to evaluate environmental and resource health on the U.S. Continental Shelf from Cape Hatteras to Nova Scotia, grossly visible lesions of the gills, integument, muscle, and viscera of primarily bottom-dwellingfishes were excised and examined using light microscopy.Several gadid and pleuronectid fishes accounted for most of the lesions observed. Most pathological examinations were incidental to samples taken for age and growth determination and evaluation of predator/prey relationships.Several gadids, with either gill, heart, or spleen lesions, were sampled more intensively.Gill lesions principally affected gadids and were caused by either microsporidans or an unidentified oocyte-like cell. The majority of gastrointestinal lesions consisted of encapsulated or encysted larval worms or microsporidan-induced cysts. Few heart lesions were found. Integumental lesioos included ulcers, lymphocystis, and trematode metacercariae. Liver lesions almost always consistedof encapsulated or encysted larval helminths. Necrotic granulomata were seen in muscle and microsporidan-induced granulomata in spleen.Although not numerous, histologically interesting lesions were noted in integument, heart, liver, spleen, and muscle of several fish species. Histologic study of tissues excised from a variety of demersal and pelagic fishes from the eastern North Atlantic (France, Germany, Spain) revealed assorted integumental, renal, hepatic, and splenic lesions.Small sample size and non-random sampling precluded obtaining a meaningful quantitative estimate of the prevalence of the observed lesions in the populationat risk; however, a useful census has been made of the types of lesions present in commercially important marine fishes. (PDF file contains 20 pages.)
    • Fishery atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

      Uchida, Richard N.; Uchiyama , James H. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1986)
      This atlas summarizes data on the crustaceans, molluscs, and fishes caught in a resource survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from October 1976 to September 1981. The geographical and depth distributions, size range, and thetype of gear used to catch all of the crustaceans, molluscs, and fishes are tabulated. Species accounts of 37 crustaceans, molluscs, and fishes of commercial potentialare presented. The geography, oceanography, and climate of the region are reviewed. (PDF file contains 38 pages.)
    • Survey of fish protective facilities at water withdrawal sites on the Snake and Columbia Rivers

      Swan, George A.; Withrow, Tommy G.; Park, Donn L. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1986)
      Proliferation of water withdrawals and new pump intake and screen designs has occurred with the growth of irrigated agriculture along the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Concern for the protection of anadromous and resident fish populations resulted in formulation of a survey of the water withdrawal systems. The survey included distribution studies of juvenile fish near pump sites and field inspection of those sites to determine adequacy of screening for protection of fish. A total of 225 sites were inspected in 1979 and 1980, with a follow-up inspection of 95 sites in 1982. Results indicated a definite trend toward lack of concern for the condition of fish protective facilities. Only 4 out of 22 sites not meeting criteriain 1979 had been upgraded to acceptable conditions. Of more concern, 13 of the sites meeting criteria in 1979 were below criteria when reinspected in 1982. Some of the discrepancies included lack of protective screens, poorly maintained screens, and screens permitting excessive velocity that could result in impingement of larvae or small fish. A conclusion from these surveys is that if adequate protection for fish is to exist, screens for water withdrawals need to be properly installed, inspected, and maintained. (PDF file contains 40 pages.)
    • The potential impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on fisheries

      Myers, Edward P.; Hoss, Donald E.; Matsumoto, Walter M.; Peters, David S.; Seki, Michael P.; Uchida, Richard N.; Ditmars, John D.; Paddock, Robert A. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1986)
      The commercial development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) operations will involve some environmental perturbations for which there is noprecedent experience. The pumping of very large volumes of warm surface water and cold deep water and its subsequent discharge will result in the impingement, entrainment, and redistribution of biota. Additional stresses to biota will be caused by biocide usage and temperature depressions. However, the artificial upwelling of nutrients associated with the pumping of cold deep water, and the artificialreef created by an OTEC plant may have positive effects on the local environment.Although more detailed information is needed to assess the net effect of an OTEC operation on fisheries, certain assumptions and calculations are made supporting the conclusion that the potential risk to fisheries is not significant enough to deter the early development of IDEe. It will be necessary to monitor a commercial-scale plant in order to remove many of the remaining uncertainties. (PDF file contains 39 pages.)
    • A stationary visual census technique for quantitatively assessing community structure of coral reef fishes

      Bohnsack, James A.; Bannerot, Scott P. (NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service, 1986)
      A new method is described and evaluated for visually sampling reef fish community structure in environments with highly diverse and abundant reef fish populations. The method is based on censuses of reef fishes taken within a cylinder of 7.5 m radius by a diver at randomly selected, stationary points. The method provides quantitative data on frequency of occnrrence, fish length, abundance, and community composition, and is simple, fast, objective, and repeatable. Species are accumulated rapidly for listing purposes, and large numbers of samples are easily obtained for statistical treatment. The method provides an alternative to traditional visual sampling methods.Observations showed that there were no significant differences in total numbers of species or individuals censused when visibility ranged between 8 and 30 m. The reefs and habitats sampled were significant sources of variation in number of species and individuals censused, but the diver was not a significant influence. Community similarity indices were influenced significantly by thespecific sampling site and the reef sampled, but were not significantly affected by the habitat or diver (PDF file contains 21 pages.)