Recent Submissions

  • Charles M. Breder, Jr.: drawings

    Cantillo, A.Y.; Stover, S.M. (NOAA/National Ocean Service, 2004-03)
    Among the papers of Dr. Charles M. Breder bequeathed to the Mote Marine Laboratory by the Breder family are a series of drawings of larval fish and eggs done from 1917 through 1929. The drawings were made with pencil on half and full sheets of buff colored paper. The half sheet drawings are of larval fish, most of which are not identified. The full sheet drawings often contain comments and notes related to laboratory work on fish egg development, and made during the summer of 1929 when Breder was working in the Dry Tortugas.
  • Fisheries assessment of Biscayne Bay 1983

    Berkeley, Steven A. (NOAA/National Ocean Service, 2004-02)
    Creel and trawl surveys of Biscayne Bay were carried out in 1982-1983 to assess commercial fish and macro-invertebrate habitats and fisheries. Dredged and/or barren bottom was dramatically less productive than seagrass, algae or hard bottom areas. Low fish abundance and diversity in north Biscayne Bay appeared to be correlated with high turbidity and low seagrass abundance. Substantive increases in fish and crustacean productivity in north Biscayne Bay will occur only if seagrass communities can be re-established. Deeper dredged areas in North Bay will not likely become recolonized with seagrass even if turbidity levels are reduced. Hard bottom areas in South Bay are associated with high diversity of fish fauna and serve as nursery areas for several highly desirable species (e.g. hogfish, yellowtail snapper, lane snapper). The area between Julia Tuttle and 79th Street Causeways, which had very dense seagrass abundance, was the richest area on either North or South Biscayne Bay for juvenile fish and shrimp. This basin can serve as a model for the potential of the remainder of North Bay.
  • Survey of sediment quality in Sabine Lake, Texas and vicinity

    Long, Edward R.; Hameedi, M. Jawed; Harmon, Michelle; Sloane, Gail M.; Carr, R. Scott; Biedenbach, James; Johnson, Tom; Scott, K. John; Mueller, Cornelia; Anderson, Jack W.; et al. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 1999)
    The toxicity of sediments in Sabine Lake, Texas, and adjoining Intracoastal Waterway canals was determined as part of bioeffects assessment studies managed by NOAA’s National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine: (1) the incidence and degree of toxicity of sediments throughout the study area; (2) the spatial patterns (or gradients) in chemical contamination and toxicity, if any, throughout the study area; (3) the spatial extent of chemical contamination and toxicity; and (4) the statistical relationships between measures of toxicity and concentrations of chemicals in the sediments.Surficial sediment samples were collected during August, 1995 from 66 randomly-chosen locations. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed as indicators of potential ecotoxicological effects in sediments. A battery of tests was performed to generate information from different phases (components) of the sediments. Tests were selected to represent a range in toxicological endpoints from acute to chronic sublethal responses. Toxicological tests were conducted to measure: reduced survival of adult amphipods exposed to solid-phase sediments; impaired fertilization success and abnormal morphological development in gametes and embryos, respectively, of sea urchins exposed to pore waters; reduced metabolic activity of a marine bioluminescent bacteria exposed to organic solvent extracts; and induction of a cytochrome P-450 reporter gene system in exposures to solvent extracts of the sediments.Chemical analyses were performed on portions of each sample to quantify the concentrations of trace metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated organic compounds. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between measures of toxicity and concentrations of potentially toxic substances in the samples.Based upon the compilation of results from chemical analyses and toxicity tests, the quality of sediments in Sabine Lake and vicinity did not appear to be severely degraded. Chemical concentrations rarely exceeded effects-based numerical guidelines, suggesting that toxicant-induced effects would not be expected in most areas. None of the samples was highly toxic in acute amphipod survival tests and a minority (23%) of samples were highly toxic in sublethal urchin fertilization tests. Although toxic responses occurred frequently (94% of samples) in urchin embryo development tests performed with 100% pore waters, toxicity diminished markedly in tests done with diluted pore waters. Microbial bioluminescent activity was not reduced to a great degree (no EC50 <0.06 mg/ml) and cytochrome P-450 activity was not highly induced (6 samples exceeded 37.1 ug/g benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) in tests done with organic solvent extracts. Urchin embryological development was highly correlated with concentrations of ammonia and many trace metals. Cytochrome P450 induction was highly correlated with concentrations of a number of classes of organic compounds (including the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated compounds). (PDF contains 51 pages)
  • Spatial distribution of Chlorpyrifos and Endosulfan in USA coastal waters and the Great Lakes

    Johnson, W. E.; O'Connor, T. P.; Cantillo, A. Y.; Lauenstein, G. G. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 1999)
    Between 1994 and 1997, 258 tissue and 178 sediment samples were analyzed for chlorpyrifos throughout the coastal United States and the Great Lakes. Subsequently, 95 ofthe 1997 tissue samples were reanalyzed for endosulfan. Tissue chlorpyrifos concentrations, which exceeded the 90th percentile, were found in coastal regions known to have highagricultural use rates but also strongly correlated with sites near high population. The highest concentrations of endosulfans in contrast, were generally limited to agricultural regions of the country. Detections of chlorpyrifos at several Alaskan sites suggest an atmospherictransport mechanism. Many Great Lakes sites had chlorpyrifos tissue concentrations above the 90th percentile which decreased with increasing distance from the Corn Belt region (Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin) where most agriculturally applied chlorpyrifos is used. Correlation analysis suggests that fluvial discharge is the primary transport pathway on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts for chlorpyrifos but not necessarily for endosulfans. (PDF contains 28 pages)
  • Magnitude and extent of chemical contamination and toxicity in sediments of Biscayne Bay and vicinity

    Long, Edward R.; Sloane, Gail M.; Scott, Geoffrey I.; Thompson, Brian; Carr, R. Scott; Biedenbach, James; Wade, Terry L.; Presley, Bobby J.; Scott, K. John; Mueller, Cornelia; et al. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 1999)
    The toxicity of sediments in Biscayne Bay and many adjoining tributaries was determined as part of a bioeffects assessments program managed by NOAA’s National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine: (1) the incidence and degree of toxicity of sediments throughout the study area; (2) the spatial patterns (or gradients) in chemical contamination and toxicity, if any, throughout the study area; (3) thespatial extent of chemical contamination and toxicity; and (4) the statistical relationships between measures of toxicity and concentrations of chemicals in the sediments.The survey was designed to characterize sediment quality throughout the greater Biscayne Bay area. Surficial sediment samples were collected during 1995 and 1996 from 226 randomly-chosen locations throughout nine major regions. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed as indicators of potential ecotoxicological effects in sediments. A battery of tests was performed to generate information from different phases (components) of the sediments. Tests were selected to represent a range in toxicological endpoints from acute to chronic sublethal responses. Toxicological tests were conducted to measure: reduced survival of adult amphipods exposed to solid-phase sediments; impaired fertilization success and abnormal morphological development in gametes and embryos, respectively, of sea urchins exposed to pore waters; reduced metabolic activity of a marine bioluminescentbacteria exposed to organic solvent extracts; induction of a cytochrome P-450 reporter gene system in exposures to solvent extracts; and reduced reproductive success in marine copepods exposed to solid-phase sediments.Contamination and toxicity were most severe in several peripheral canals and tributaries, including the lower Miami River, adjoining the main axis of the bay. In the open basins of the bay, chemical concentrations and toxicity generally were higher in areas north of theRickenbacker Causeway than south of it. Sediments from the main basins of the bay generally were less toxic than those from the adjoining tributaries and canals. The differenttoxicity tests, however, indicated differences in severity, incidence, spatial patterns, and spatial extent in toxicity. The most sensitive test among those performed on all samples, a bioassay of normal morphological development of sea urchin embryos, indicated toxicity was pervasive throughout the entire study area. The least sensitive test, an acute bioassay performed with a benthic amphipod, indicated toxicity was restricted to a very small percentageof the area.Both the degree and spatial extent of chemical contamination and toxicity in this study area were similar to or less severe than those observed in many other areas in the U.S. The spatial extent of toxicity in all four tests performed throughout the bay were comparable tothe “national averages” calculated by NOAA from previous surveys conducted in a similar manner.Several trace metals occurred in concentrations in excess of those expected in reference sediments. Mixtures of substances, including pesticides, petroleum constituents, trace metals, and ammonia, were associated statistically with the measures of toxicity. Substances most elevated in concentration relative to numerical guidelines and associated with toxicity included polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hexachloro cyclohexanes, lead, and mercury. These (and other) substances occurred in concentrations greater than effects-based guidelines in the samples that were most toxic in one or more of the tests. (PDF contains 180 pages)
  • Benthic sampling program in Biscayne Bay, 1981-1982

    Schroeder, Peter B. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2003)
    The Biscayne Bay Benthic Sampling Program was divided into two phases. In Phase I, sixty sampling stations were established in Biscayne Bay (including Dumfoundling Bay and Card Sound) representing diverse habitats. The stations were visited in the wet season (late fall of 1981) and in the dry season (midwinter of 1982). At each station certain abiotic conditions were measured or estimated. These included depth, sources of freshwater inflow and pollution, bottom characteristics, current direction and speed, surface and bottom temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, and water clarity was estimated with a secchidisk. Seagrass blades and macroalgae were counted in a 0.1-m2 grid placed so as to best represent the bottom community within a 50-foot radius. Underwater 35-mm photographswere made of the bottom using flash apparatus.Benthic samples were collected using a petite Ponar dredge. These samples were washed through a 5-mm mesh screen, fixed in formalin in the field, and later sorted and identifiedby experts to a pre-agreed taxonomic level.During the wet season sampling period, a nonquantitative one-meter wide trawl was made of the epibenthic community. These samples were also washed, fixed, sorted and identified.During the dry season sampling period, sediment cores were collected at each station not located on bare rock. These cores were analyzed for sediment size and organic composition by personnel of the University of Miami.Data resulting from the sampling were entered into a computer. These data were subjected to cluster analyses, Shannon-Weaver diversity analysis, multiple regression analysis of variance and covariance, and factor analysis.In Phase II of the program, fifteen stations were selected from among the sixty of Phase I. These stations were sampled quarterly. At each quarter, five Petite Ponar dredge samples were collected from each station. As in Phase I, observations and measurements, includingseagrass blade counts, were made at each station. In Phase II, polychaete specimens collected were given to a separate contractor for analysis to the species level. Theseanalyses included mean, standard deviation, coefficient of dispersion, percent of total, and numeric rank for each organism in each station as well as number of species, Shannon-Weaver taxa diversity, and dominance (the compliment of Simpson's Index) for each station. Multiple regression analysis of variance and covariance, and factor analysis were applied to the data to determine effect of abiotic factors measured at each station. (PDF contains 96 pages)
  • Charles M. Breder, Jr.: Atlantis Expedition, 1934

    Cantillo, A. Y.; Collins, E.; Leber, K. M.; Stover, S. M. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2004)
    Dr. Charles M. Breder participated on the 1934 expedition of the Atlantis from Woods Hole, Massachusetts to Panama and back and kept a field diary of daily activities. The Atlantis expedition of 1934, led by Prof. A. E. Parr, was a milestone in the history of scientific discovery in the Sargasso Sea and the West Indies. Although naturalists had visited the Sargasso Sea for many years, the Atlantis voyage was the first attempt to investigate in detailed quantitative manner biological problems about this varying, intermittent ‘false’ bottom of living, floating plants and associated fauna. In addition to Dr. Breder, the party also consisted of Dr. Alexander Forbes, Harvard University and Trustee of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI); T. S. Greenwood, WHOI hydrographer; M. D. Burkenroad, Yale University’s Bingham Laboratory, carcinology and Sargasso epizoa; M. Bishop, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Zoology Dept., collections and preparations and H. Sears, WHOI ichthyologist. The itinerary included the following waypoints: Woods Hole, the Bermudas, Turks Islands, Kingston, Colon, along the Mosquito Bank off of Nicaragua, off the north coast of Jamaica, along the south coast of Cuba, Bartlett Deep, to off the Isle of Pines, through the Yucatan Channel, off Havana, off Key West, to Miami, to New York City, and then the return to Woods Hole. During the expedition, Breder collected rare and little-known flying fish species and developed a method for hatching and growing flying fish larvae. (PDF contains 48 pages)
  • Charles M. Breder, Jr.: Bahamas and Florida

    Cantillo, A. Y.; Collins, E.; Stover, S. M.; Hale, K. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2003)
    Dr. Charles M. Breder, a well known ichthyologist, kept meticulous field diaries throughout his career. This publication is a transcription of field notes recorded during the Bacon Andros Expeditions, and trips to Florida, Ohio and Illinois during the 1930s. Breder's work in Andros included exploration of a "blue hole", inland ecosystems, and collection of marine and terrestrial specimens. Anecdotes include descriptions of camping on the beach, the "filly-mingoes" (flamingos) of Andros Island, the MarineStudios of Jacksonville, FL, a trip to Havana, and the birth of seahorses. This publication is part of a series of transcriptions of Dr. Breder's diaries. (PDF contains 55 pages)
  • Impact of the commercial fishery on the population of bait shrimp (Penaeus spp.) in Biscayne Bay, 1986

    Campos, W. L.; Berkeley, S. A. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2003)
    Monthly population size of bait shrimp in the Bay was estimated from December 1984 to July 1985. Growth rates for male and female P. duorarum showed that pink shrimpexhibit a mean residence time in the nursery area (Biscayne Bay) of approximately 21 weeks. Monthly mortality rates were determined for each sex of pink shrimp. It wasestimated that 23% and 26% of the male and female monthly population size, respectively, was absorbed by both the fishery and ecosystem monthly. Monthly proportion of the standing stock expected to die exclusively through fishing was 6.5% and 6.0% for males and females respectively. Estimates of emigration rates showed that approximately 4.0% of the population was lost from the Bay system each month. This surplus production was about 50% of the average monthly catch by the fleet. Fishing mortality represents only 8 - 9% of the losses to the shrimp population. Thebiggest source of loss is emigration, suggesting that most shrimp beyond the size at recruitment (to the fishery) are not utilized for food while in the Bay. Thus, it appearsthat the direct impact of the fishery on the bait shrimp population is relatively small. (PDF contains 46 pages)
  • Charles M. Breder, Jr.: Dry Tortugas, 1929

    Cantillo, A. Y.; Collins, E.; Clark, E. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2001)
    During the summer of 1929, Dr. Charles M. Breder, Jr., employed at that time by the New York Aquarium and American Museum of Natural History, visited the Carnegie Laboratory in the Dry Tortugas to study the development and habits of flying fishes and their allies. The diary of the trip was donated to the Mote Marine Laboratory Library by his family. Dr. Breder's meticulous handwritten account gives us the opportunity to see the simple yet great details of his observations and field experiments. His notes reveal the findings and thoughts of one of the world's greatest ichthyologists. The diary was transcribed as part of the Coastal Estuarine Data/Document Rescue and Archeologyeffort for South Florida. (PDF contains 75 pages)
  • Charles M. Breder, Jr.: Hypothetical considerations, 1931-1937

    Cantillo, A. Y.; Collins, E.; Stover, S. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    Charles M. Breder Jr. “hypothesis” diary is a deviation from the field diaries that form part of the Breder collection housed at the Arthur Vining Davis Library, MoteMarine Laboratory. There are no notes or observations from specific scientific expeditions in the document. Instead, the contents provide an insight into the early meticulous scientific thoughts of this biologist, and how he examines and develops these ideas. It is apparent that among Dr. Breder’s passions was his continual search for knowledge about questions that still besieged many scientists. Topics discussed include symmetry, origin of the atmosphere, origin of life, mechanical analogies of organisms, aquaria as an organism, astrobiology, entropy, evolution of species, and other topics. The diary was transcribed as part of the Coastal Estuarine Data/Document Rescue andArcheology effort for South Florida. (PDF contains 33 pages)
  • Endocrine disruption in fish: An assessment of recent research and results

    Pait, Anthony S.; Nelson, Judd O. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    This report provides an assessment of recent investigations into endocrine disruption in fresh and saltwater species of fish. Most work to date has concen-trated on reproductive endocrine disruption. Laboratory studies have shown a variety of synthetic and natural chemicals including certain industrial intermediates, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, dioxins, trace elements and plant sterols can interfere with the endocrine system in fish. The potency of most of these chemicals, however, is typically hundreds to thousands of times less than that of endog-enous hormones. Evidence of environmental endocrine disruption ranges from the presence of female egg proteins in males and reduced levels of endogenous hormones in both males and females, to gonadal histopathologies and intersex (presence of ovotestes) fish.Overt endocrine disruption in fish does not appear to be a ubiquitous environmental phenomenon, but rather more likely to occur near sewage treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, and in areas of high organic chemical contamination. However, more wide-spread endocrine disruption can occur in rivers with smaller flows and correspondingly large or numerous wastewater inputs.Some of the most severe examples of endocrine disruption in fish have been found adjacent to sewage treatment plants. Effects are thought to be caused prima-rily by natural and synthetic estrogens and to a lesser extent by the degradation products of alkylphenol poly-ethoxylate surfactants. Effects found in fish near pulp and paper mills include reduced levels of estrogens and androgens as well as masculinization of females, and has been linked to the presence of β-sitosterol, a plant sterol. Effects seen in areas of heavy industrial activity typically include depressed levels of estrogens and androgens as well as reduced gonadal growth, and may be linked to the presence of PAHs, PCBs, and possibly dioxins. At this time, however, there is no clear indication that large populations of fish are being seriously impacted as a result of endocrine disruption, although additional work is needed to address this possibility. (PDF contains 63 pages)
  • An environmental assessment of the John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park and the Key Largo Coral Reef Marine Sanctuary (Unpublished 1983 Report)

    Voss, Gilbert L.; Voss, Nancy A.; Cantillo, Andriana Y.; Bello, Maria J. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    The Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park was established in 1960 and the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary in 1975. Field studies, funded by NOAA, were conducted in 1980 - 1981 todetermine the state of the coral reefs and surrounding areas in relation to changing environmental conditions and resource management that had occurred over the interveningyears. Ten reef sites within the Sanctuary and seven shallow grass and hardbottom sites within the Park were chosen for qualitative and quantitative studies. At each site, three parallel transects not less than 400 m long were run perpendicular to the reef or shore, each 300 mapart. Observations, data collecting and sampling were done by two teams of divers. Approximately 75 percent of the bottom within the 18-m isobath was covered by marinegrasses, predominantly turtle grass. The general health of the seagrasses appeared good but a few areas showed signs of stress. The inner hardbottom of the Park was studied at the two entrances to Largo Sound. Though at the time of the study the North Channel hardbottom was subjected to only moderate boat traffic, marked changes had taken place over the past years, the most obvious of which was the loss of the extensive beds of Sargassum weed, one of the most extensive beds of this alga in the Keys. Only at this site was the green alga Enteromorpha encountered. This alga, often considered a pollution indicator, may denote the effects of shore run off. The hardbottom at South Channel and the surrounding grass beds showed signs of stress. This area bears the heaviest boat traffic within the Park waters causing continuous turbidity from boat wakes with resulting siltation. The offshore hardbottom and rubble areas inthe Sanctuary appeared to be in good health and showed no visible indications of deterioration. Damage by boat groundings and anchors was negligible in the areas surveyed. The outer reefs in general appear to be healthy. Corals have a surprising resiliency to detrimental factors and, when conditions again become favorable, recover quickly from even severe damage. It is, therefore, a cause for concern that Grecian Rocks, which sits somewhat inshore of the outer reef line, has yet to recover from die-off in 1978. The slow recovery, if occurring, may be due to the lower quality of the inshore waters. The patch reefs, more adapted to inshore waters, do not show obvious stress signs, at least those surveyed in this study. It is apparentthat water quality was changing in the keys. Water clarity over much of the reef tract was observed to be much reduced from former years and undoubtedly plays an important part in the stresses seen today over the Sanctuary and Park. (PDF contains 119 pages)
  • Resource survey of Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary, 1983

    Bohnsack, James A.; Cantillo, Adriana Y.; Bello, Maria J. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    Forward:Looe Key National Marine Sanctuary (LKNMS) was designated in 1981 to protect and promote the study, teaching, and wise use of the resources of Looe Key Sanctuary (Plate A). In order to wisely manage this valuable resource, a quantitative resource inventory was funded by the Sanctuary Programs Division (SPD), Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in cooperation with the SoutheastFisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA; the Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (CIMAS), University of Miami; the Fisher Island Laboratory, United States Geological Survey; and the St. Petersburg Laboratory, State of Florida Department of Natural Resources. This report is the result of this cooperative effort.The objective of this study was to quantitatively inventory selected resources of LKNMS in order to allow future monitoring of changes in the Sanctuary as a result of human or natural processes. This study, referred to as Phase I, gives a brief summary of past and present uses of the Sanctuary (Chapter 2); and describes general habitat types (Chapter 3), geology and sediment distribution (Chapter 4), coral abundance and distribution (Chapter 5), the growthhistory of the coral Montastraea annularis (Chapter 6), reef fish abundance and distribution (Chapter 7), and status of selected resources (Chapter 8). An interpretation of the results of the survey are provided for management consideration (Chapter 9). The results are expected to provide fundamental information for applied management, natural history interpretation, andscientific research.Numerous photographs and illustrations were used to supplement the report to make the material presented easier to comprehend (Plate B). We anticipate the information provided will be used by managers, naturalists, and the general public in addition to scientists. Unless otherwise indicated, all photographs were taken at Looe Key Reef by Dr. James A. Bohnsack. The top photograph in Plate 7.8 was taken by Michael C. Schmale. Illustrations were done byJack Javech, NMFS.Field work was initiated in May 1983 and completed for the most part by October 1983 thanks to the cooperation of numerous people and organizations. In addition to the participating agencies and organizations we thank the Newfound Harbor Marine Institute and the Division of Parks and Recreation, State of Florida Department of Natural Resources for their logistical support. Special thanks goes to Billy Causey, the Sanctuary Manager, for his help, information, and comments.We thank in alphabetical order: Scott Bannerot, Margie Bastian, Bill Becker, Barbara Bohnsack, Grant Beardsley, John Halas, Raymond Hixon, Irene Hooper, Eric Lindblad, and Mike Schmale. We dedicate this effort to the memory of Ray Hixon who participated in the study and who loved Looe Key. (PDF contains 43 pages)
  • Results of a fish health survey of North Biscayne Bay, June 1976-June 1977

    Udey, L. R.; Cantillo, A. Y.; Kandrashoff, W.; Browder, J. A. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    Fish were collected weekly in Biscayne Bay using a monofilament gill net set from a small skiff during 20-30 minute intervals. Although weekly sampling took place for 2.5 years, only the data from samples collected from June 1976 to June 1977 were used in this document. Abnormal external conditions of fins and body were observed on each fish and recorded. Fish were returned immediately to their habitats. Fish collected in the time period for this study numbered 3,765 and included 32 species. Of these, 16 species, totaling 3,556 fish, were caught in sufficient numbers (20 or more) to warrant data analysis. Only 3 of the 16 species could be considered relatively unafflicted: Aetobatus narinari (spotted eagle ray), Diodon hystrix (porcupinefish), and Selene vomer (lookdown). More than 80% of the examined specimens of these three species were unaffected. Less than 20% of the specimens of Diapterus plumieri (striped mojarra), Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic croaker), and Pogonias cromis (black drum) displayed normal conditions. The three most afflicted species were Diapterus plumieri, striped mojarra; Micropogonias undulatus, Atlantic croaker; and Pogonias cromis, black drum. Only 7, 3, and 7% respectively showed no external evidence of disease. Data described in this document were originally tabulated in the mid-1970s, remained unpublished, and are no longer available. This document was based on archived unpublished text, a data summary table, and figures. Most of the text and cited references were the ones used in the original manuscript and no attempt was made to update them. (PDF contains 44 pages)
  • Charles M. Breder, Jr.: Palmetto Key, 1942

    Cantillo, A. Y.; Collins, E.; Estevez, E. D. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    Charles M. Breder and his wife Ethel spent part of the summer of 1942 at the Palmetto Key field station, known today as Cabbage Key, on the west coast of Florida south ofCharlotte Harbor. The Palmetto Key field station began in 1938 and ended in 1942 because of World War II. His Palmetto Key diary ran for 95 pages of notes, tables,diagrams, drawings, lists, and business records and this report presents a variety of fascinating entries. Diaries from other years all bear Breder's style of discipline,curiosity, humor, and speculations on nature. The diary was transcribed as part of the Coastal Estuarine Data/Document Rescue and Archeology effort for South Florida. (PDF contaons 24 pages)
  • Biodiversity study of Southern Biscayne Bay and Card Sound 1968-1973

    Roessler, M. A.; Cantillo, A. Y.; Garcia-Gomez, J. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    A multi-disciplinary investigation was conducted in southern Biscayne Bay and Card Sound from 1968 to 1973. The purpose of the investigation was to conduct an integrated study of the ecology of southern Biscayne Bay with special emphasis on the effects of the heated effluent from the Turkey Point fossil fuel power plant, and to predict the impact of additional effluent from the planned conversion of the plant to nuclear fuel. The results of this investigation have been discussed in numerous publications. This report contains the unpublished biology data that resulted from the investigation. (PDF contains 44 pages)
  • Sediment Quality in Puget Sound Year 3 - Southern Puget Sound

    Long, Edward R.; Dutch, Margaret; Aasen, Sandra; Welch, Kathy; Hameedi, Jawed; Magoon, Stuart; Carr, R. Scott; Johnson, Tom; Biedenbach, James; Scott, K. John; et al. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    As a component of a three-year cooperative effort of the Washington State Department of Ecology and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, surficial sediment samples from 100 locations in southern Puget Sound were collected in 1999 to determine their relative quality based on measures of toxicity, chemical contamination, and benthic infaunal assemblage structure. The surveyencompassed an area of approximately 858 km2, ranging from East and Colvos Passages south to Oakland Bay, and including Hood Canal. Toxic responses were most severe in some of the industrialized waterways of Tacoma’s Commencement Bay. Other industrialized harbors in whichsediments induced toxic responses on smaller scales included the Port of Olympia, Oakland Bay at Shelton, Gig Harbor, Port Ludlow, and Port Gamble. Based on the methods selected for this survey, the spatial extent of toxicity for the southern Puget Sound survey area was 0% of the total survey area for amphipod survival, 5.7% for urchin fertilization, 0.2% for microbial bioluminescence, and 5-38% with the cytochrome P450 HRGS assay. Measurements of trace metals, PAHs, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, other organic chemicals, and other characteristics of the sediments, indicated that 20 of the 100 samples collected had one or more chemical concentrations that exceededapplicable, effects-based sediment guidelines and/or Washington State standards. Chemical contamination was highest in eight samples collected in or near the industrialized waterways of Commencement Bay. Samples from the Thea Foss and Middle Waterways were primarilycontaminated with a mixture of PAHs and trace metals, whereas those from Hylebos Waterway were contaminated with chlorinated organic hydrocarbons. The remaining 12 samples with elevated chemical concentrations primarily had high levels of other chemicals, including bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, and phenol. The characteristics of benthic infaunal assemblages in south Puget Sound differed considerably among locations and habitat types throughout the study area. In general, many of the small embayments and inlets throughout the studyarea had infaunal assemblages with relatively low total abundance, taxa richness, evenness, and dominance values, although total abundance values were very high in some cases, typically due to high abundance of one organism such as the polychaete Aphelochaeta sp. N1. The majority of thesamples collected from passages, outer embayments, and larger bodies of water tended to have infaunal assemblages with higher total abundance, taxa richness, evenness, and dominance values. Two samples collected in the Port of Olympia near a superfund cleanup site had no living organisms in them. A weight-of-evidence approach used to simultaneously examine all three “sediment qualitytriad” parameters, identified 11 stations (representing 4.4 km2, 0.5% of the total study area) with sediment toxicity, chemical contamination, and altered benthos (i.e., degraded sediment quality), 36 stations (493.5 km2, 57.5% total study area) with no toxicity or chemical contamination (i.e., high sediment quality), 35 stations (274.1 km2, 32.0% total study area) with one impaired sediment triadparameter (i.e., intermediate/high sediment quality), and 18 stations (85.7km2, 10.0% total study area) with two impaired sediment parameters (i.e., intermediate/degraded quality sediments). Generally, upon comparison, the number of stations with degraded sediments based upon the sediment quality triad of data was slightly greater in the central Puget Sound than in the northern and southern Puget Sound study areas, with the percent of the total study area degraded in each region decreasing from central to north to south (2.8, 1.3 and 0.5%, respectively). Overall, the sediments collected in Puget Sound during the combined 1997-1999 surveys were among the least contaminated relative to other marine bays and estuaries studied by NOAA using equivalent methods. (PDF contains 351 pages)
  • Contaminant trends in US National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Lauenstein, G. G.; Cantillo, A. Y. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    Inputs of toxic chemicals provide one of the major types of anthropogenic stress threatening our Nation's coastal and estuarine waters. To assess this threat, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA’s) National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program Mussel Watch Project monitors the concentrations of more than 70 toxic chemicals in sediments and on the whole soft-parts of mussels and oysters at over 300 sites around the U.S. Twenty of the 25 designated areas that comprise NOAA's National EstuarineResearch Reserve System (NERRS) have one or more Mussel Watch monitoring sites. Trace elements and organic contaminants were quantified including As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, ΣPCBs, ΣPAHs, DDT and its metabolites, and butyltins. The Mussel Watch sites located in or near the 20 Reserves provide for both status and trends. Generally the Reserves have trace element and organic contaminant concentrations that are at or below the median concentration determined for all NS&T Mussel Watch monitoring data. Trends were derived using the Spearman-rank correlation coefficient. It was possible to determine if trends exist for sites at which six or more years of data are available. Generally no trends were found for traceelements but when trends were found they were usually decreasing. The same general conclusion holds for organic contaminants but more decreasing trends were found than for trace elements. The greatest number of decreasing trends were found for tributyltin and its metabolites. (PDF contains 203 pages)
  • 1979 Ecological study of fishes and the water quality characteristics of Florida Bay, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Schmidt, Thomas W. (NOAA/National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 2002)
    Fish collections under varying ecological conditions were made by trawling and seining, monthly and quarterly in depths of <1 m to depths of 3 m of the Florida Bay portion of Everglades National Park, Florida. From May 1973 through September 1976, a total of 182,530 fishes representing 128 species and 50 families were taken at 27 stations. An additional 21 species were identified from sportfish-creel surveys and supplemental observations. Most of the species collected were juveniles of species that occur as adults in the Florida Bay creel census survey, or were small species that were seasonal residents.Marked temporal and spatial abundance of the catches was observed. The greatest numbers and biomass of the fishes occurred in the wet season (summer/fall), whereas lowest numbers and biomass appeared during the dry season (winter/spring) The greatest abundance and diversityof fishes was found in western Florida Bay followed by eastern and central Bay regions respectively.Overall, five species comprised 75% of the numerical total while eleven species made up 75% of the total biomass. Collections were dominated numerically by anchovies (Engraulidae), especially Anchoa mitchilli, in western Florida Bay. Mojarras (Gerridae), mostly silver jennyEucinostomus gula, and porgies (Sparidae), especially pinfish Lagodon rhomboides, dominated numerically in central and eastern portions of the Bay, respectively.Except for salinity, other measured physico-chemical parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity) showed no variation beyond ranges considered normal for shallow, tropical marine environments. Salinity varied from 0 to 66 ppt near the mainland. Nearshore hypersaline conditions (>45 ppt) persisted for nearly 2 years during the 1974 - 1975 severe drought period. Significant reductions in fish abundance/diversity were observed in relation to hypersaline conditions.Bay-wide macrobenthic communities were mapped (presence/absence) and were primarily comprised of turtle grass (Thalassia), shoalgrass [(Diplanthera = (Halodule)], and/or green algae Penicillus. Seasonal dieoff of seagrasses was observed in north-central Florida Bay. (PDF contains 107 pages)