Recent Submissions

  • Issues and options related to management of Silver Springs rhesus macaques

    Montague, Clay L.; Colwell, Sheila V.; Percival, H. Franklin; Gottgens, Johan F. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit , University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1994)
    Management options for the Silver Springs free-rangingrhesus macaque population range from removal to activemaintenance of the population in situ. Selection of a managementoption is dependent upon which issues are perceived to be trueproblems. Management options are presented along with theireffectiveness in dealing with issues previously described.(31 page document)
  • Conceptual model of salt marsh management on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Florida: final report

    Montague, C. L.; Percival, H. Franklin; Zale, A. V. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit , University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1985)
    Diking and holding water on salt marshes ("impounding" the marsh) is amanagement technique used on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge(MINWR) and elsewhere in the Southeast to: a) prevent the reproduction ofsaltmarsh mosquitos, and b) attract wintertering waterfowl and other marsh,shore, and wading birds. Because of concern that diking and holding watermay interfere with the production of estuarine fish and shellfish,impoundment managers are being asked to consider altering managementprotocol to reduce or eliminate any such negative influence. How to changeprotocol and preserve effective mosquito control and wildlife management isa decision of great complexity because: a) the relationships betweenestuarine organisms and the fringing salt marshes at the land-water interfaceare complex, and b) impounded marshes are currently good habitat for avariety of species of fish and wildlife. Most data collection by scientistsand managers in the area has not been focused on this particularproblem. Furthermore, collection of needed data may not be possible beforechanges in protocol are demanded. Therefore, the purpose of this documentis two-fold: 1) to suggest management alternatives, given existing information,and 2) to help identify research needs that have a high probabilityof leading to improved simultaneous management of mosquitos, waterfowl,other wildlife, freshwater fish, and estuarine fish and shellfish on themarshland of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. (92 page document)
  • Categorized bibliography for a conceptual model of salt marsh management on Merritt Island, Florida

    Montague, C. L.; Percival, H. Franklin; Zale, A. V.; Hingtgen, T. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit , University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1984)
    Enclosed is a bibliography of 556 published articles,technical reports, theses, dissertations, and books that form thebasis for a conceptual model of salt marsh management on MerrittIsland, Florida (Section 1). A copy of each item is available onfile at the Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,Gainesville. Some relevant proprietary items and unpublisheddrafts have not been included pending permission of the authors.We will continue to add pertinent references to our bibliographyand files. Currently, some topics are represented by very fewitems. As our synthesis develops, we will be able to indicate asubset of papers most pertinent to an understanding of theecology and management of Merritt Island salt marshes.(98 page document)
  • Status survey of two Florida seaside sparrows and taxonomic review of the Seaside Sparrow assemblage

    McDonald, Mary Victoria (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainsville, FL, 1988)
    The original primary intent of thisproject was to determine the population status of two relatively obscuresubspecies of Seaside Sparrows in Florida, the Smyrna Seaside SparrowCammodramus maritimus Eelonota) and the Wakulla Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus juncicola)distinctiveness of these little known birds. As explained in the followingsection, a third and major objective appended to the project was to perform ataxonomic review of the entire Seaside Sparrow complex of nine subspecies. (170 page document)
  • Photographic analysis of natural and impounded salt marsh in the vicinity of Merritt Island, Florida

    Montague, Clay L.; Zale, Alexander V.; Percival, H. Franklin (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainsville, FL, 1984)
    Qualitative analyses of available photographs and maps ofMerritt Island, Florida provide a large-scale, historical perspectiveof ecological changes of the marshes in the vicinity.Sites that deserve closer scrutiny can be identified. Secondarily,such an analysis provides a geographical orientation essentialfor communication not only between newcomers and thosefamiliar with the area, but also among those familiar with thearea but who refer to sites by differing methods.Photographs and maps from various sources were examined.Below are listed what we consider to be the most useful subset ofthese for ecological and geographical assessment of salt marshimpoundments on Merritt Island, Florida. (Document has 25 pages.)
  • Comparison of cattail (Typha sp.) occurrence on a photo-interpreted map versus a satellite data map

    Mattson, Jennifer e.; Kitchens, Wiley M.; Richardson, John R. (Florida Cooperative FIsh and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1991)
    A comparison between a 1985 photo-interpreted vegetation mapand a vegetation map made from classified 1987 satellite data ofthe Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge showed that 81% ofsamples taken in areas occupied by cattail (Typha sp.) on thephoto-interpreted map corresponded with cattail on the satellitedata map.(5 page document)
  • The effects of the Suwannee River Sill on the hydrology and vegetation of Okefenokee Swamp

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Kitchens, Wiley M. (Florida Cooperative FIsh and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1998)
    The Suwannee River sill was constructed following extensive wildfires during1954-1955, with the intent of protecting the swamp and surrounding uplands from effectsof wildfires. During subsequent years, concern was raised that the dam might beadversely affecting the swamp ecology by extending periods of inundation, increasingwater depths, and subsequently affecting swamp vegetation. Delineating the effects ofthe Suwannee River sill on the swamp hydrologic environment and vegetationdistributions, in the process of exploring relationships among driving functions andlandscape responses, was a purpose of this research.(834 page document)
  • Chemical characteristics of Santa Fe River in relation to local geology

    Leadon, Monica A. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1981)
    79 page document.
  • Methodology to assess the value of Florida wetlands to fish and wildlife: an annotated bibliography

    Leadon, Monica A. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1981)
    The following bibliography was compiled for use by the CooperativeFish and Wildlife Unit and their cooperators as an aid in determiningresearch priorities in Florida wetlands. Emphasis was placed on studiesdone on the economic value of wetlands, values to fish and wildlife, methodsof sampling in a wetland area, and restoration practices. Material wasgenerally gathered from studies done in the southeast, however, somerelevant national papers were also included. (35 page document)
  • Sea turtle nesting activity along Eglin Air Force Base on Cape San Blas and Santa Rosa Island, Florida from 1994 to 1997.

    Lamont, Margaret M.; Percival, H. Franklin; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Colwell, Sheila V.; Carthy, Raymond R. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit , University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1998)
    Along EAFB on Cape San BIas, the only sea turtle species nest observed has beenthe loggerhead turtle. The first green turtle nest documented along the Florida panhandlecoast was observed on EAFB property, however (D. Atencio, EAFB, pers. comm). SantaRosa Island, located approximately 150 miles west of Cape San BIas supports a small butconsistent, group of nesting green turtles (Fig. 2). Although erosion is not as severe alongSanta Rosa Island as it is on Cape San BIas, and vehicular traffic is not permitted, seaturtles nesting on this barrier island must survive severe tropical storms, predation, andartificial lighting to be successful. Because this area supports a rare group of nesting greenturtles and is disturbed by intense artificial lighting from Air Force missions and adjacentresort towns, continued monitoring is necessary. The sea turtle species that nest along thisbarrier island, and the human activities that disturb those sea turtles present uniquecircumstances for management ofthis area. Protection ofthe significant nestingpopulations of sea turtles on EAFB properties on Cape San BIas and Santa Rosa Islandrequires yearly monitoring of the nesting activity and the natural and human disturbancesinfluencing the nesting females.The objectives ofthis study were to monitor sea turtle nesting along EAFB onCape San BIas to determine number of nests and hatching success, assess disturbances,and determine proper management to ensure successful nesting and hatching.(56 page document)
  • The Cape San Blas Ecological Study

    Lamont, Margaret M.; Percival, H. Franklin; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Colwell, Sheila V.; Kitchens, Wiley M.; Carthy, Raymond R. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit , University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1997)
    Eglin AFB on Cape San Blas consists of approximately 250 acres located about180 miles east of the main Eglin reservation. This area lies on the S1. Joseph peninsula,part of a dynamic barrier island chain that extends across the northern Gulf of Mexico.Due to the natural forces that formed Cape San Blas and those that maintain this area, St.Joseph Peninsula has experienced severe land form change over time (see GIS land formchange maps). These changes allow for fluctuations in habitat types along Cape San Blas(see GIS land cover change maps)that influence the floral and faunal species using thisarea.The dynamic environment along Cape San Blasincludes flatwoods, interdunalswale, rosemary scrub, and beachfront. These habitats support a wide array of species,including several threatened and endangered species such as the loggerhead sea turtle(Caretta caretta), PipingPlover (Charadnus melodus), Least Tern (Sterna antillarum),and Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Proper management of these species and theirhabitats require knowledge of their abundance and distribution, and the effectsdisturbances have on their survival.In addition to threatened and endangered flora and fauna, Cape San Blas alsosupports tourists and recreationists. Although Gulf County is sparsely populated, withapproximately 13,000 inhabitants throughout 578 square miles, summer tourism and heavyrecreational use of beaches for fishing, crabbing, and shelling place continued andincreasing pressure on the natural resources of these areas (Rupert 1991). Gulf County isalso one of the few remaining counties in Florida that permits vehicular traffic on itsbeaches, including Cape San Blas. In addition to recreational use of these habitats;EAFBalso uses the area for military missions. Air Force property on Cape San Blas is primarilyused for radar tracking of flying missions over the Gulf of Mexico, although in recentyears it has been used for missile launchings and other various military activities.To allow continued military and public use of Air Force property while alsoprotecting the unique flora and fauna of the area,EAFB proposed a characterization of theresources found along Cape San Blas. A complete inventory of the physical features of thearea included investigating topography, soil chemistry, hydrology, archeology, and thedynamics of land mass and land cover change over time. Various thematic layers within ageographic information system (GIS) were used to spatially portray georeferenced data.Large scale changes over time were assessed using stereo aerial photography. Vegetationtransects, soil samples, elevation transects, an archeological survey, freshwater wells, anda tidal monitor were used to investigate the remaining features. (247 page document)
  • Habitat Use by Migratroy Shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico

    Grear, Jason S. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit , University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1992)
    The Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, at the southwestern tip ofPuerto Rico, provide important autumn stopover and winteringhabitat for migratory shorebirds. I studied the abundanceand distribution of shorebirds and their food resources atthis site during autumn of 1990 and 1991.Small calidrids (primarily Calidris pusilla and C.mauri) were the most abundant shorebirds at the salt flats.The maximum weekly counts of small calidrids in 1990 (2,690)and 1991 (3,532) occurred in mid October. Calidrids foragedprimarily in the Fraternidad lagoon system; roosting tookplace most often at the neighboring Candelaria Lagoon.The macroinvertebrate prey important to calidrids in theFraternidad system were Dasyhelea (Diptera), Trichocorixa(Hemiptera), and Artemia (Anostraca). Changes in invertebrateabundance coincided with fluctuations in salinity. (100 page document)
  • Sea turtle nesting in the Ten Thousand Islands of Florida

    Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Percival, H. Franklin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Portier, Kenneth M. (1997)
    Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) nest in numerous substrate and beachtypes within the Ten Thousand Islands (TTl) of southwest Florida. Nesting beachselection was analyzed on 12 islands within this archipelago. Numerous physicalcharacteristics were recorded to identify the relatedness of these variables and determinetheir importance for nesting beach selection in C. caretta. These variables were chosenafter evaluating the islands, conducting literature searches and soliciting personalcommunications. Along transects, data were collected, on the following: height ofcanopy, beach width, overall slope (beach slope and slope of offshore approach) and sandsamples analyzed for pH, percentage of water, percentage of organic content, percentageof carbonate and particle size (8 size classes). Data on ordinal aspect of beaches andbeach length were also recorded and included in the analysis. All of the variables wereanalyzed by tree regression, incorporating the nesting data into the analysis. In the TTl,loggerheads appear to prefer wider beaches (p< 0.001; R2= 0.56) that inherently have lessslope, and secondarily, wider beaches that have low amounts of carbonate (p< O.00 1). Inaddition, C. caretta favors nest sites within or in close proximity to the supra-littoralvegetation zone of beaches in the TTl (p< 0.001). (86 page document)
  • Impact of Vehicular Traffic on Beach Habitat and Wildlife at Cape San Blas, Florida

    Cox, Jack H.; Percival, H. Franklin; Colwell, Sheila V. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitGainesville, FL, 1994)
    Cape San Bias is located on a barrier spit, St. Joseph peninsula, between St. Joseph Bay and the Gulf of Mexico in Gulf County, Florida (Fig. 1). Locally, the name of the cape is often used to refer to the entire peninsula. St. JosephPeninsula State Park (SJPSP) comprises the northern 10 miles of the 22 mile-long peninsula. This section is closed to development and provides protection for representative coastal habitats, including sand dune and scrub pine. Two other parks are found on the peninsula, Joe B. Rish Park, a state-managed facility for the handicapped, and county-managed Salinas Park. Much of the cape itself fallsunder the domain of Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) (775 acres), and includes 2.8 miles of shoreline. The remainder of the peninsula is privately owned land developed principally for beach residences. All beach on the peninsula below mean highwater is state-owned with Gulf County exercising proprietary jurisdiction. Cape San Bias (outside the state park) is the only area in the Florida panhandle, other than short stretches of shore in Walton County, where beach driving is still allowed. Vehicular access to the shore is managed by Gulf County under a permit system. Although beach driving is valued by local surf anglers and beachfarers, concerns have been raised regarding its effects on beachfarer safety, habitat quality, and wildlife, particularly locally occurring species that are federally listed as endangered or threatened. Eglin AFB property on the cape is believed to provide important regional habitat for a variety of nesting and migrant shorebirds, as well as nesting loggerhead marine turtles (Caretta caretta). The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the magnitude and types of vehicular traffic on Eglin AFB property; (2) assess current knowledge of federally listed species on Cape San Bias to determine distribution, habitat needs and other biological requirements; (3) conduct surveys of marine turtle nesting activities in cooperation with other entities on the peninsula; (4) assess the relationship between human/vehicular disturbance and the federally listed species; (5) conduct a winter survey of federally listed shorebirds on Air Force property; and (6) providemanagement options. (Document has 58 pages)
  • Impact of vehicular traffic on beach habitat and wildlife at Cape San Blas, Florida

    Cox, Jack H.; Percival, H. Franklin; Colwell, Sheila V. (University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitGainesville, FL, 1994)
    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the magnitude and typesof vehicular traffic on Eglin AFB property; (2) assess current knowledge of federallylisted species on Cape San Blas to determine distribution, habitat needs and otherbiological requirements; (3) conduct surveys of marine turtle nesting activities incooperation with other entities on the peninsula; (4) assess the relationshipbetween human/vehicular disturbance and the federally listed species; (5) conducta winter survey of federally listed shorebirds on Air Force property; and (6) providemanagement options.(Document has 48 pages.)
  • Early life history stages of fishes of Orange Lake, Florida: an illustrated identification manual

    Conrow, Roxanne; Zale, Alexander V. (University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitGainesville, FL, 1985)
    From June 1983 t o June 1984, the senior author examined the habitatassociations and seasonal succession of early life history stages of fishesof Orange Lake, Alachua County, Florida (Conrow 1984). The study includedan evaluation of three sampling gears -- a 0.5-m diameter tow net, a Bredertrap (a plastic trap with leaders; Breder 1960), and a light trap (Floyd et al. 1984).A total of 23 fish species was captured during the study. Illustrations and identifying characteristics of 18 of these are presented, alongwith brief mention of habitat associations and seasonal occurrences. Notethat all illustrations and identifications were made from ish captured inthe field and are therefore not definitive. Identifications were based ondescriptions in the literature and, when possible, comparisons with knownseries. Species reported from Orange Lake (Reid 1950; DuRant 1980; Conrow1984) but not considered in this report are listed on page 41.Orange Lake has a surface area of approximately 5000 hectares and amaximum depth o f 3.5 meters (Fig. 1). The four habitats defined f o r thestudy were open water, panic grasses (Panicum spp. ) , hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) , and, floating /emergent vegetation. The laatter is characterizedprimarily by spatterdock (Nuphar luteum), but also includes waterhyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) , coontail (Ceratophyl lum demersum) , cabomba(Cabomba carol iniana) , and bladderwort ( Utriculariain flata ). (Document has 49 pages.)
  • Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge public use survey report

    Buckingham, Cheryl A. (University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitGainesville, FL, 1989)
    In creating a management plan that includes both the needs of the manatee and the desiresof the public, the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge must necessarily gather together a great dealof information. This project was intended to find out more about the people who use Kings Bay, todiscaver what they know about the manatee and to d i i e r how well they understand theprotection measures as they exist today(Document has 104 pages.)
  • An evaluation of manatee distribution patterns in response to public use activities in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida

    Buckingham, Cheryl A. (University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitGainesville, FL, 1998)
    The study had the following objectives:1. To observe the manatees that use Kings Bay, CrystalRiver, Florida throughout the winter and to plottheir relative use of southern end of Kings Bay(South Bay) and its sanctuaries on days withdiffering levels of human activity.2. To determine the relationship among human waterborneactivities, temperature, and manatee use of KingsBay.3. To make management recommendations, if necessary,to minimize any negative impacts of humanwater-borne activities on the Crystal River manateeswhile they are using this critical winter habitat.(Document has 50 pages.)
  • An evaluation of manatee distribution patterns in response to public use activities in Kings Bay, Crystal River, Florida

    Buckingham, Cheryl A. (University of Florida, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitGainesville, FL, 1990)
    The study had the following objectives:1. To observe the manatees that use Kings Bay, CrystalRiver, Florida throughout the winter and to plottheir relative use of southern end of Kings Bay(South Bay) and its sanctuaries on days withdiffering levels of human activity.2. To determine the relationship among human waterborneactivities, temperature, and manatee use of KingsBay.3. To make management recommendations, if necessary,to minimize any negative impacts of humanwater-borne activities on the Crystal River manateeswhile they are using this critical winter habitat.(Document has 50 pages.)
  • Effects of low level military training flights on wading bird colonies in Florida

    Black, Barbara; Collopy, Michael W.; Percival, H. Franklin; Tiller, Anita A.; Bohall, Petra G. (Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of FloridaGainesville, FL, 1984)
    During 1983 and 1984 the effect of low level military trainingflights on the establishment. size and reproductive success of wadingbird colonies was studied in Florida. Based on the indirect evidenceof colony distributions and turnover rates in relation to militaryareas (training routes designated to 500 feet or less above groundlevel and military operations areas). there was no demonstrated effectof military activity on wading bird colony establishment or size on astatewide basis. Colony distributions were random with respect tomilitary areas and turnover rates were within 2% when military andnon-military areas were compared. Colony distributions and turnoverrates, however. were related to the amount and type.Les tuer-tne orfreshwater) of wetland. respectively.During two breeding seasons the behavioral responses andreproductive success of selected species were monitored in anon-habituated treatment colony (military overflights) and a controlcolony (no overflights). Breeding wading birds responded to F-16overflights at 420 knots indicated airspeed. 82-84% maximum rpm. 500feet above ground level and sound levels ranging from 55-100 dBA byexhibiting no response. looking up or changing position (usually to analert posture): no productivity limiting responses were observed.High-nesting Great Egrets responded more than other species, nestlingGreat Egrets and Cattle Egrets responded significantly (r <.05) moreintensely than adults of their respective species, and adultsresponded less during incubation and late chick-rearing than at othertimes. In addition, no differences in adult attendance, aggressiveinteractions or chick feeding rates were observed to result from F-16 overflights. No evidence of habituation to overflights was noted.Humans entering the colony or airboats approaching the colony vicinityelicited the most severe responses (flushing and panic flights)observed at both sites.Since relatively little coastal military activity occurs at lowlevels ( ~500 ft) and only one Brown Pelican colony (5-6% of thebreeding population) was located in such an area, the reproductivesuccess of five, more lIexposedll study species (Great Egrets, SnowyEgrets, Tricolored Herons, Little Blue Herons, Cattle Egrets) nestingin interior freshwater colonies was studied. Reproductive activityincluding such factors as nest success, nestling survival, nestlingmortality, and nesting chronology was independent of F-16 overflightsbut related to ecological factors including colony location, colonycharacteristics and climatology. The responses to and effects of F-16overflights, as reported here, should not be considered representativeof military aircraft at lower altitudes or greater noise levels. (194 pages)

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