• Fisheries Economics in the Context of the Artisanal Fisheries of the Marine Sector in Tanzania

      Mapunda, X.E. (FAO, 1983-11)
      The development of the small scale marine fisheries in Tanzania is influenced by conditions in the other sectors of the economy. The artisanal fisheries are particularly sensitive to the general conditions of the economy. The small scale fisheries sector (artisanal fisheries) plays a role that has devolved upon agriculture. Generally, the sector is characterised by underemployment, low incomes, retarded technology and low labour skills as a result of the dual nature of the economy.This paper outlines the major constraints hindering the development of the small scale fisheries of the marine sector in Tanzania and provides tentative development policies for the upgrading of artisanal fisheries through improvement of catch, distribution and marketing.
    • Fisheries Legislation in Seychelles

      Christy, L.C. (FAO, 1985-10)
    • Marine Resources Research Institutions in Mauritius

      Sanders, M.J. (FAO, 1986-03)
      The contents of this document relate principally to a proposal for an autonomous Marine Resources Research Centre in Mauritius. The Consultant concluded that such a Centre lacked Justification at this time. The priority marine resources research was identified as being concerned with fisheries, mariculture and environmental studies (of the lagoon surrounding Mauritius). Most of these activities are already being undertaken within the Fisheries Research and Development Division (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources). It Is proposed that this arrangement continue- but that the Division be re-organized to form part of a broader fisheries department type structure. The additional staff required for the marine resources research and development activities having immediate priority Is identified as at least 23 persons.
    • Environmental Aspects of Economic Development in Sub-Saharn Africa

      Baytas, A. (Center For Economic Research on Africa. (CERAF), 1991-04)
      Studies on the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa have generally neglected the links between economic growth and environmental quality. In many such studies, economics and ecology have been treated as mutually exclusive rather than complementary domains. The key to Sub-Saharan Africa's future is to achieve sustainable growth. This calls for replacing the traditional concept of growth based economic output alone with a new approach that stresses development through conservation of Africa's valuable natural resources of soil, water, forests and wildlife. Following the 1968-73 drought in the Sahel interest in both the economic development and the ecology of Sub-Saharan Africa has increased enormously. On the one hand, economists have used the word "crisis" with increasing frequency to describe the region's economic predicament. Indeed, statistics amply show that declining per capita agricultural and food production is widespread (see tables 4 and 5) and that many social groups are unable to meet their basic needs (Barker 1984).
    • The Most Excellent Mare Teacher's Guide To The Sandy Beach

      Love, R.M. (Lawrence Hall of Science MARE, 1992)
    • Dugong Status Report and Action Plans for Countries and Territories

      Eros, C.; Hugues, J.; Penrose, H.; Marsh, H. (UNEP, 1992)
      The dugong (Dugong dugon) is the only herbivorous mammal that is strictly marine, and is the only extant species in the Family Dugongidae. It is listed as vulnerable to extinction at a global scale by The World Conservation Union (IUCN). The dugong has a large range that spans some 37 countries and territories and includes tropical and subtropical coastal and island waters from East Africa to Vanuatu, between about 26° north and south of the Equator. The purpose of this document is to present a global overview of the status of the dugong and its management in the various countries in its range. We aimed to provide comparative information that will enable individual countries to develop their own, more detailed, conservation plans. This document contains information on dugong distribution and abundance, threatening processes, legislation, and existing and suggested research and management initiatives for 37 countries and territories in the dugong’s known range. The report is organised in a geographical sequence from the Western Indian Ocean region, through to the South West Pacific. Chapter One introduces the Dugong; Chapter 2 comprises information on East Africa; the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Chapter 3 discusses India and Sri Lanka; Chapter 4 presents data from Southeast Asia including Japan, Taiwan, China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand; Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia; Chapter 5 discusses Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia and Vanuatu; and Chapter 6 presents information from Australia. believed to be represented by relict populations separated by large areas where its numbers have been greatly reduced or where it is already extirpated. However, the degree to which dugong numbers have dwindled, and its range has been fragmented, is not known for any country in its range. The dugong is still present at the historical limits of its global range, although there is evidence of a reduction in its area of occupancy within this range....
    • The Occurrence Of Some Distinct Areas In The N. W. Mediterranean Sea Based On The Elemental Properties Of The Sediment (Horizontal And Vertical Distribution)

      Hoogstraten, R.I.; Nolting, R.F. (1992)
      As pan of the EROS-2000 project (European River Ocean Systems),sediment samples were collected in the North Western basin of the Mediterranean Sea in May 1990. In these samples trace and/or majorelements were determined to advance the knowledge about theconcentration, sources and cycles of natural and anthropogenicconstituents in coastal areas. Three fractions were determined: the porewater fraction whichcontains all dissolved elements the leachable fraction which containsall easily available elements and the residual fraction which containsthe strongly bound elements in the sediments. The results show thatthe investigated area can be separated into five "sub-areas" which aredifferent in element concentration, leachable fraction andsedimentary composition. Highest concentrations of trace elementsare found in sediments closest to the Rh6ne delta. In this area severaldiagenetic processes are observable. In summary the Rhone is probably the major source for several(trace-) elements to the Gulf of Lions which is located close to theriver mouth of the Rhone. The influence of the Ebro on (trace-)element concentrations in the sediments close to theriver mouth isprobably minimal.
    • Djoudj National Bird Park

      Baldé, D.; Sylla, S.I. (1992)
      Djoudj National Bird Park is an area of 16,000ha adjacent to the Diawling National Park in Mauritania along the Senegal River. Created in 1971, the park was declared a Ramsar site in 1980 and a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981. Djoudj is part of a network of wetlands in West Africa south of the Sahara. The different sites (Banc d'Arguin National Park and Diawling National Park in Mauritania; and Djoudj National Park, Trois Marigots, Ndiael, Marigot of Rosso, the Gueumbeul Reserve, the Langue de Barbarie in Senegal) are interconnected by the erratic movements of their migratory birds. This western network of wetlands is ecologically connected to the Inner Niger Delta. For example, the Lesser Flamingo, Phoenicopterus minor, is typically seen in the Senegal Delta at the beginning of the migratory period (November-January) and in the Inner Niger Delta when the climatic and related food conditions change at the end of their migratory period (February-March). This is the reason why the conservation and management of this network should be undertaken from a global perspective rather than in isolation.
    • Environmental effects of Coastal Sedimentation: A Case study fo Shirazi-Funzi Lagoon

      Munyao, T.M. (1993)
      Shirazi-Funzi Lagoon is situated about 70km Southwest of Mombasa. It occurs within longitudes 39°22'E and 39°27'E, and latitudes 4°30'S and 4°35'S and covers about 57km2. The study area lies in the coastal plain, wich is below the 30m contours, and is underlain by coral limestone of the Pleistocene age, and lagoonal deposits from both land and sea. Both the hinterlands at Shirazi and the Funzi Island are underlain by the MtoMkuu formation of upper and lower Cretaceous, of the Post Karoo systems. This formation is overlain by Pleistocene sands that cover the Funzi Island and a narrow strip of the coastline immediately north of Funzi Island.
    • Geomorphology of the Kenyan Coast: Not as a Result of Sea-Level Change Alone

      Abuodha, P.A.W. (1993)
      The coastal setting and the geology control the geomorphology on the Kenyan coast. The evolution of the physical environment has also been influenced by climate, wave and tidal regime, sedimentation and river discharge. The shore terraces of Kenyan coast correspond to eustatic movements of sea level. There seems to be evidence of a high water level during the late Pleistocene. For the lower terraces a Holocene age is suggested. During the Pleistocene, sea level fluctuations associated with glacial / interglacial phases left well developed raised platforms and beaches. The Kenyan coast has a strong tectonic influence and it is difficult to describe the coast in terms of emergence or submergence only. It can therefore be concluded that the geomorphology of the Kenyan coast is not only as a result of sea level changes but also due to isostatic readjustments and tectonic movements. This paper examines the previous works done on the Kenyan coast in relation to the developments that have led to its geomorphology.
    • Water supply from wetlands in Tanzania

      Mihayo, J.M. (1993)
      This paper gives a brief discussion on water supply from wetlands in Tanzania. The majordrainage basins in Tanzania are described and the status and role of the Division of WaterResearch in the monitoring of water resources and data collection from wetlands and watersources are highlighted. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle, and the utilisation ofwetlands as water supply sources are discussed. The need for conservation and protection ofwetlands and other water sources is outlined.
    • Conservation of wetlands of Tanzania

      Bakobi, B.L.M. (1993)
      The major wetland systems of Tanzania are described together with specific functions,products and attributes of lakes, rivers, swamps, estuaries, mangroves and coastal areas. Reasons and priorities for the conservation of wetlands are given together with the existingproblems of wetland conservation and their solutions.
    • Social and cultural values of wetlands in Tanzania

      Omari, C.K. (IUCN, 1993)
      The socio-economic aspects of wetland farming and fisheries' are discussed together with the cultural values of wetlands such as scenery, sources of traditional medicine, anddiseases. The socio-political features of wetland life are mentioned as well as theinternational considerations of wetland water needs. A plea is made for more research intoindigenous knowledge of wetland values and products.
    • Pollution of wetlands in Tanzania

      Mkuula, S. (1993)
      Pollution of wetlands is becoming a serious concern, due mainly to the rapid increase ofhuman development activities. Although most extensive wetlands are in remote places where the human activities which lead to pollution of the environment are minimal, somehave become polluted by waste products related to development activities or humansurvival. In this paper, major types of pollution from human activities are considered, includingurbanisation, industrialisation, mining, agricultural activities and oil pollution. Proposals for combating pollution problems in wetlands are discussed with a focus onpolicy, planning and legislation; administration and institutional support; environmental research and technology; and improving information, environmental education and publicawareness. Finally, the paper highlights some approaches and techniques for pollution prevention.
    • An overview and scope of Tanzanian wetlands

      Kamukala, G .L. (1993)
      Tanzania is very rich in wetland resources which include the Great Lake systems, major rivernetworks and deltaic mangroves. The major lakes and floodplains have long provided afertile resource base as they include alluvial plains of great agricultural potential. Wetlands in Tanzania support an extensive trading and transport system, fishing grounds,agro-pastoral activities, hydrological processes and, more recently, the harnessing of the riverflows for irrigation and hydroelectric power.
    • The status of the fishery resource in, the wetlands of Tanzania

      Bwathondi, P.O.J.; Mwamsojo, G.O.J. (1993)
      The main types of wetlands in Tanzania are described as an introduction to a coverage of the fisheries of the large lakes, the minor waters, the rivers and the intertidal ecosystems.Fisheries potential is estimated and details of catches for each wetland type are given.Fishing techniques and the future of the fisheries are discussed and recommendations madefor future wetlands fishery conservation.
    • Wildlife resources and tourism in wetlands of Tanzania

      Mpemba, E.B. (1993)
      The presence of wetlands in the various protected areas in Tanzania (national parks, gamereserves, controlled areas and the NgorongoroSpecial Conservation Area) is described. The value of tourism in wetlands and the problems of wildlife in wetlands is discussed.Recommendations for the management of wetlands in reserves emphasises the necessaryinvolvement of people who live adjacent tothese areas and are affected by management decisions.
    • Forestry resources in Tanzania's wetlands:concepts and potentials

      Nshubemuki, L. (1993)
      Forestry resources include land occupied by, or proclaimed to be forest; the produce found insuch land; and human resources capable of fostering the development of such resources. The following landscape units constitute Tanzania's wetlands: estuaries, open coasts, wetlands incoastal forests, floodplains, freshwater marshes, lakes, peatlands, swamp forests, and ground water forests. Wetlands are sources of food and forest produce, contain plants potentially suitable for agro-forestry and phyto-reclamation, reduce beach erosion, and arc sources of genetic material.Most wetlands face intensive utilisation pressure which endangers their continued existence. Given the multi-utility of wetlands and their diversity in structure, it is not possible to adopt asingle conservation strategy. The ecosystem approach to conservation, incorporating thepreservation of genetic and ecological diversity alongside scientific research, environmentalmonitoring, education and training, is advocated in preference to traditional conservation. Public awareness of the uniqueness of Tanzania's flora and fauna needs to be strengthened as this should guarantee the long term protection of wetlands.
    • Origin and geomorphology of the wetlands of Tanzania

      Mwanukuzi, P. P. K. (1993)
      Wetlands are dynamic landforms which vary in both time and space. Tanzania's wetlands areclassified according to the physiography and the environment in which they exist. Coastalwetlands, Rift System wetlands and the wetlands of highland drainage basins are the majorgroups. Coastal wetlands are formed by wave action and tidal influence; beaches and lagoons exist because of wave action; mudflats, marshes, mangrove swamps, estuaries and deltas aretidal in origin. Rift System wetlands occur in the rift depressions and are characterised by salt lakes, playas, swamps and short streams with inland drainage. The highlands are drained by long rivers originating in the inland catchments and ending in oceans or lake basins. On theway to their outlets, they form lakes, swamps and floodplains.