• African continental margins of the Mediterranean Sea

      Briand, F. (Monaco, CIESM, 2000)
      The workshop was held on the island of Djerba, Tunisia, from 22 to 25 November 2000. A total of 15 scientists originating from nine countries attended the seminary at the invitation of CIESM. In opening the meeting, Dr. Frederic Briand, Director General of Committee, and Dr. Jean Mascle, Workshop chairman and President of CIESM Marine Geoscience Comittee, expressed their great pleasure to see eminent researchers from both shores gathered here-and in many cases meeting each other for the first time-to tackle in an orginal and intensive fashion a complex and challenging issue: the African continental margins of the Mediterranean Sea.
    • Analysis of Tag Recoveries in Mauritius (1988-1993) and Presentation of Codification Procedure in Use

      Cayré, P.; Norungee, D.; Lim Shung, C. (1995)
      Tagging is considered an excellent tool for estimating the importance of interactions and competition between fisheries as well as to study tuna stocks and migrations. The Regional Tuna Project of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) conducted five tagging cruises in the western Indian Ocean, during which 955 fishes were tagged. Out of the total number tagged 15 were recaptured. Tuna tagging in the Indian Ocean was also undertaken by the Indo- Pacific Tuna Programme and by the Japanese National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries. 39 tuna marked by these organisations were recovered in Mauritius. Analysis of data collected from the tag recoveries provide some preliminary estimates of growth rate and migration of tuna. Tagging is the most direct method to estimate growth, stock structure, schooling behaviour and migrations; it also provides essential information for estimating mortality (natural and fishing) and fisheries interactions and thus is pertinent for defining proper management of a stock.
    • Analysis of the Purse Seine Fishery of Mauritius, 1990 - 1994, and Comparison of Catch Rate and Species Composition of Catches of Mauritian Purse Seiners to Those of the French Fleet

      Norungee, D.; Lim Shung, C. (IOTC, 1996)
      The catches made by purse seiners on schools associated with logs constitute more than half of the total catch of the purse-seine fishery of the western Indian Ocean. In the purse-seine fishery on log-associated schools of tuna, either natural logs are spotted by vessels and are marked with radio beacons, or artificial logs are set at sea to concentrate the tuna prior to fishing operations. The first attempt at commercial purse seining was successfully carried out in the Indian Ocean in 1979 by a joint-venture Mauritian vessel using the same technique as the Japanese, who had traditionally fished on schools associated with logs in the Pacific Ocean. They started fishing in the Indian Ocean after experimental purse-seine fishing was conducted by the Japan Marine Fishery Resource Centre (JAMARC) for the purpose of providing similar fishing patterns to those in the Pacific Ocean using artificial logs (payao, or raft).
    • An Annotated Bibliography of Available Literature regarding cetacean Interactions with Tuna Pure Seine Fisheries Outside of the eastern Tropical Pacific

      Edwards, E.F.; Donahue, M. (1996-11)
      A review of currently available literature conceming interactions between tuna purse-seines and dolphins outside the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) does not indicate any large, sustained, or widespread practice of setting purse seine nets around cetaceans for the purpose of catching tuna in any oceanic area other than in the ETP. While a number of individual reports exist of purse-seine sets made on cetaceans during the process of fishing for tuna in areas other than the ETP, there is no quantitative or even anecdotal indication that large-scale sustained directed fishing on cetaceans during tuna purse-seining occurs anywhere other than in the ETP. However, this lack of information should not be mistaken for conclusive evidence that such large-scale directed efforts do not exist. While it seems unlikely that a large-scale fishing effort would entirely escape notice for long periods of time, the existing available data were collected during at most only a very few percent of the sets made by purse-seiners in any of the fisheries, and thus represent only a very tiny fraction of the total effort being expended worldwide on tuna purseseining....
    • Annual Report 2002

      UNESCO, 2002
      The purpose of the Commission is to promote international cooperation and to coordinate programmes in research, services, and capacity building, in order to learn about the nature and resources of the ocean and coastal areas and to apply that knowledge for the improvement of management, sustainable development, the protection of the marine environment, and the decisionmaking processes of its Member States. The Commission will collaborate with international organizations concerned with the work of the Commission, and especially with those organizations of the United Nations system which are willing and prepared to contribute to the purpose and functions of the Commission and/or to seek advice and cooperation in the field of ocean and coastal area scientific research, related services, and capacity building.
    • Apatite Fission Track Analysis of Sites 959 and 960 on the Transform Continental Margin of Ghana, West Africa

      Carter, A.; Clift, P.D.; Hurford, A.J. (1998)
      Four samples of sandstone from deformed Aptian–Albian sediments and their less deformed Turonian cover at Sites 959 and 960 on the Côte d’Ivoire-Ghana Marginal Ridge yielded sufficient apatite for fission track analysis. Reduced mean track length values of 12.42 ± 0.16 μm to 13.67 ± 0.11 μm indicate that measured central ages, which range from 88 ± 4 Ma to 113 ± 4 Ma, have undergone partial resetting and are therefore apparent ages. Stochastic modeling of the fission track age and length parameters indicate that the samples have a strong predepositional signal, slightly modified by minor levels of prolonged postdepositional annealing (maximum temperatures <80°C). The preserved provenance-related signal records cooling through the apatite partial annealing zone (60°-110°C) during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, prior to 100 Ma (Albian). The absence of substantial postdepositional annealing suggests that the Marginal Ridge was not significantly heated by the passage of an oceanic spreading center along the transform margin during the Turonian (»90 Ma). Instead the fission track data record cooling in response to denudation of the sediment source terrain initiated during the intracontinental wrench phase of tectonism. The 110°C of cooling corresponds to approximately 4 km of denudation, assuming normal geothermal gradients, a figure that is comparable to measured erosion along the flanks of the northern San Andreas fault or inferred from the Dead Sea.
    • Aperçu de La Pêche Camerounaise

      Nna Abo'o, P.; Djama, T. (ACP-EU, 1999)
      L’importance du secteur de la pêche dans les pays de l’Atlantique Centre Est n’est plus à démontrer. Au Cameroun, la pêche est à la fois, une source de revenus pour le pays, source d’emploi et contribue à plus de 46% aux besoins nutritionnels des populations en protéines animales.
    • Appraising Aquaculture: The ZALA Park Fish Cultivation and Makoba Integrated Mariculture Pond System

      Ngazy, Z.M. (2004)
      This paper gives results of the preliminary socio-economic survey conducted in two coastal villages of Zanzibar where coastal aquaculture was still on experimental stage to look for possibilities and potentials for creating a means to supplement the declining fish catch from the wild and poverty reduction in coastal villages of Mungoni (ZALA Park) and Makoba. The sites were previously used for burying coconut husks for rope making and salt pans respectively. Specifically, the paper asses market condition for fish in villages and hotels looking at the local community fish requirements and their perception towards establishment of coastal aquaculture in Zanzibar. Finally it highlights the Cost Benefit Analysis of the ZALA Park fish pond project. Questionnaire survey was conducted to a random sample of 74 households in Makoba and Mungoni (ZALA Park) villages as well as to 15 hotels along the east coast of the Zanzibar island. Also, informal individual interviews with stake holders and observation was carried out during the same period.....
    • Aquaculture genetics research in Egypt

      Elghobashy, H. (ICLARM, 2001)
      Fish production in Egypt has significantly increased over the last few years reaching 546 000 t in 1998 compared to 306 000 t in 1988. The contribution of aquaculture in the overall fish production has increased as well reaching its utmost share in 1998 (26%). Research on aquaculture topics was conducted in several institutes targeting the increase of productivity as well as working on problems facing this promising sector. However, research on fish genetics in Egypt only started in recent years. The genetic improvement of tilapias and African catfish represents the focus of most genetics research in Egypt. This paper presents the status of genetics research within the International Network on Genetics in Aquaculture and in other national institutes in Egypt.
    • Aquaculture Genetics Research In Malawi

      Ambali, A. (2001)
      Aquaculture genetics research is carried out at the National Aquaculture Centre at Domasi, Malawi, by staff of the University of Malawi (UM) and the Department of Fisheries. The main species cultured are from genera Tilapia and Oreochromis. The genus Oreochromis was domesticated without proper identification of the various species especially in the subgenus Nyasalapia where three species (O. karongae, O. squamipinnis, and O. lidole) are difficult to identify before they reach breeding size. It is, however, observed that local fishers can identify these species using morphological characters. There have been no attempts to carry out deliberate domestication selection in the small-scale farms with the prevailing practices probably leading to deterioration of stock performance and decline in genetic diversity. Studies showed that wild populations grow faster than domesticated populations, and results of mass selection on collimated individuals suggest that selected individuals grow faster than unselected individuals. Studies of population genetics of domesticated and wild tilapias are underway at UM.
    • The Aquaculture Situation In The Mediterranean Sea Predictions For The Future

      Lovatelli, A.; Basurco, B. (2003)
      Marine living resources provide an important and increasing source of protein in many countries; one third of the total world supply comes from aquaculture activities. As in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly over recent years. Thus in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, although captures have stabilized and conventional species fully exploited, over-exploited, depleted or in the process of rebuilding strength, the share of aquaculture out of the total fisheries production has grown from 4% in 1980 to about 13% in 2000. Moreover for some species, such as mussels, clams, oysters, seabream, seabass, trout, tilapias, and carps, the majority of the production comes almost entirely from aquaculture. Total aquaculture production in the region reached 1 349 777 tonnes in 2001, which represented approximately 3% of the world aquaculture production (48 413 635 tonnes). Although Mediterranean aquaculture used to focus more on mollusc production (62% in 1992), the share of fish production is constantly increasing (from 37% in 1992 to 53% in 2001), as it is happening on a worldwide level.
    • Assessment of CBNRM Best Practices in Tanzania.

      Kajuni, A.; Alcorn, J.; Winterbottom, B. (USAID, 2002-10)
    • Assessment of Coral Reef Degradation in Tanzania: Results of Coral Reef Monitoring 1999

      Muhando, C.A.; Mohammed, M.S.; Machano, H. (1999)
      Coral reefs play a crucial role in the well being of coastal communities in Tanzania (Johnstone et al., 1998; Muhando, 1999). However, despite their usefulness, coral reefs are being degraded by destructive anthropogenic activities (Salm et al., 1998) and natural causes (e.g., competition, predation, diseases, bleaching, etc.). The coral bleaching and mortality event of March - June 1998 was the most serious natural calamity ever recorded in the Indian Ocean (Wilkinson, et al., 1999). Several areas along the coast of Tanzania were affected. The degree of coral mortality varied between sites, from 60% - 90% at Tutia Reef in Mafia Island Marine Park and Misali Reef on the west coast of Pemba, to approximately 10% on reefs around Unguja Island, Zanzibar (Muhando, 1999). After the bleaching and coral mortality, the status of Tanzanian reefs became unclear and it was apparent that there was a need to assess and monitor the extent of coral mortality and its effects on reef ecosystems, as well as socio-economic effects (fisheries and tourism). Three teams were formed. The first dealt with the assessment and monitoring of coral reefs, the second with socio-economic effects and the third team investigated specific issues relevant to coral bleaching, mortality and recovery.
    • Assessment of Integrated Coastal Management in Africa

      Coccossis, H. (Priority Actions Programme, Split, Croatia, 1998)
      This Study had been commissioned by the Finnish Government through UNEP to PAP (Priority Actions Programme) of MAP (Mediterranean Action Plan) with a view to assist in the discussions on Sustainable Integrated Coastal Management issues in the Pan-African Conference (PACSICOM) with the same theme held in Maputo, Mozambique on July 23-25, 1998. The Study presents an assessment of Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) initiatives in African countries with the purpose to identify common elements in the approach, as well as success factors and weaknesses so as to improve ICM projects/plans/programmes development, preparation and implementation.
    • Assessment of Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) habitat at La Galite, Tunisia: towards a monk seal conservation strategy in northern Tunisia and nearby waters

      Majhoub, H.; Di Domenico, F.; Mo, G.; Ouerghi, A. (2001)
      The last thirty years have seen the rapid decline of the remaining nuclei of Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Today, known nuclei are present along many portions of the Turkish and Greek coastlines where the population is estimated to range between 150-250 individuals (Reijnders 1998a). Areas of the western Mediterranean coastlines are believed to be almost devoid of seals, at least in terms of actively reproducing nuclei, but the hypothesis still persists that small scattered groups or individuals may survive despite the intense deliberate killings in this past century (Aguilar, 1998). The IUCN has estimated the total Mediterranean basin population to range around 300 individuals and prevailing views are that the conservation and recovery of small groups and even single individuals, is crucial if recovery action is to be taken towards this species (Reijnders, 1998b). The presence of small numbers of monk seals in the western portion of the Mediterranean is a reality that should be addressed and actions should be undertaken to establish the distribution range of the remaining individuals inhabiting this region, their eventual seasonal patterns of presence and displacement, and the consequent conservation measures necessary to guarantee their survival and their successful reproduction.
    • Assessment of the extent of damage, socio-economic effects, mitigation and recovery in Tanzania: Proposal

      Muhando, C.A. (2000)
      Coral reefs play a crucial role to the well-being of coastal communities in Tanzania. Coastal fisheries, ecotourism and coastal land protection are, to some extent, sustained by coral reefs. A variety of fish species, spiny lobsters, octopus, sea cucumbers, clams, oysters and turtles form the basis of harvestable reef resources. More than 30% of marine fish landings are harvested on or adjacent to coral reef environment. Coral reefs also support offshore fisheries by providing feeding and nursery grounds for some oceanic (pelagic) fish stocks. Tourism based on coral reef ecosystems is peaking up, creating new opportunities for employment and substantial amounts of income for the people of Tanzania.
    • Bar Beach Victoria Island Erosion Problem: A Critical Assessment as at October 30th 2002 and Need For Urgent Mitigating Measures

      Awosika, L.F. (2002)
      The Bar Beach on Victoria Island has been the scene of very active erosion in the past since the construction of the east and west moles between 1908 and 1912. The moles were constructed to protect the dredged deep (Commodore Channel) entrance into the Lagos harbor from intense wave action and the silting up of the channel. The construction of breakwaters interrupted the long-shore transport of sand from west of the west mole to the east along the shoreline. The interference has resulted in the trapping of about 0.5 and 0.75 million cubic meters of sand per year behind the west mole leading to an accreting Lighthouse beach on the western side of the harbour entrance. However, the Bar beach on the down-drift side is starved of sediments. Studies carried out by beach erosion experts at the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research Lagos revealed the nature and dynamics of erosion at the Bar beach following several beach nourishments programmes in the past.
    • Battling for Corporate Accountability: Experiences from Titanium Mining Campaign in Kwale, Kenya

      Ojiambo, E.V. (2002-05)
      The debate around the conduct of transnational corporations (TNCs) globally has been lively. Attention has focussed on the growing role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in ensuring that the TNCs become more accountable. NGOs influence the activities of TNCs in three crucial ways. First, through lobbying and encouraging others to lobby, they have brought pressure to bear on TNCs. Second, they have helped set and enforce regulations and standards to which, at the risk of financial loss, TNCs are keen to aspire. Third, NGOs have helped generate consumer concern to the extent that it is now a company’s long term competitive interest to act responsibly (Mulligan 1999:51).
    • Benefits Beyond Boundaries: Fishery Effects of Marine Reserves

      Roberts, C.M.; Gell, F.R. (2003)
      Marine reserves are areas of the sea where fishing is not allowed. They provide refuges where populations of exploited species can recover and habitats modified by fishing can regenerate. In some places, closed areas have been used for fisheries management for centuries, and until recently natural refugia also existed, inaccessible through depth, distance or adverse conditions. Developments in technology have left few areas beyond the reach of fishing. Recently, the idea of marine reserves as fisheries management tools has re-emerged, developing from ecosystem management approaches, and observations of incidental fisheries benefits from reserves established for conservation. Marine reserves are predicted to benefit adjacent fisheries through two mechanisms: spillover of adults and juveniles across borders, and export of pelagic eggs and larvae. Inside reserves, unexploited populations increase in size and individuals live longer, grow larger and develop increased reproductive potential.