Recent Submissions

  • Ecological risk assessment principles applied to oil spill response planning in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Pond, R. G.; Aurand, D. V.; Kraly, J. A. (California Office of Spill Prevention and Response, 2000)
    This report describes the efforts of a group of individuals involved in or concerned with the environmental impacts of oil spills and oil spill response in San Francisco Bay. Participants affiliated with various federal and state government agencies, the response industry, and environmental organizations were invited to utilize their individual familiarity with the issues in discussion and consensus-building exercises. The conclusions and recommendations do not commit any governmental, industry, or environmental organization in the San Francisco Bay area to a particular course of action or policy. This report was disseminated to participants for review, and their comments have been addressed in the final report. Some participants requested that the report be given wider dissemination in draft form to allow review by parent organizations and other non-participants. Although the sponsors agree that wide dissemination of the final document is essential, dissemination of the draft report beyond actual participants was not encouraged, since the report represents the consensus conclusions of the participants. Nevertheless, some comments were received from organizations, rather than participants. Some comments regarding style and grammar from non-participants were incorporated into the final report, but comments that altered the final consensus conclusions reached by participants were not incorporated. Those comments are relevant, however, and they serve as an excellent starting point for future discussion at the Area Committee and Regional Response Team levels of improved response capabilities in the San Francisco Bay Area. They are, therefore, included as Appendix R. This report does not endorse the use of dispersants or any other response measure on a specific spill incident in San Francisco Bay or elsewhere, but it does indicate that that more emphasis on integrated response measures, including unconventional options, might be of benefit. The results of this ERA are intended as a starting point for further, more focused study by those organizations potentially benefiting from spill mitigation strategies.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Santa Barbara Channel: A Report for Regional Response Team IX.

    Aurand, Don (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2003)
    In March and April of 2002, Regional Response Team (RRT) IX sponsored a workshop to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options (on-water mechanical recovery and dispersant application) in comparison to natural recovery. The spill scenario involved the release of 10,000 barrels of Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO) 180 in the northern end of the Santa Barbara Channel, under conditions which threatened the interior coastline of the Channel Islands. The workshop involved two meetings during which participants received briefings on the expected results of the spill with and without response options, the relative effectiveness of on-water mechanical recovery, dispersants and on-water in situ burning, and the risks and benefits of these response options to the habitats and natural resources of the area. The participants were then divided into three focus groups and were asked to develop relative risk scores for the various alternatives, using standard analytical protocols outlined in the Coast Guard guidebook entitled "Developing Consensus Ecological Risk Assessments: Environmental Protection in Oil Spill Response Planning. A Guidebook." The scores from the three groups were then compared and a composite risk matrix developed which represented the overall consensus of the entire group. At the conclusion of the second meeting, the group developed a list of lessons learned and recommendations for the RRT and local Area Committee which they felt would improve local response planning efforts.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Casco Bay, Maine: A Report to the Maine/New Hampshire Area Committee.

    Aurand, Don; Walko, Laura (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2003)
    In June 2003, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) District 1 sponsored a workshop to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options (on-water mechanical recovery, dispersant application, and shoreline removal) compared to natural recovery. The spill scenario involved a release of approximatelyl,200 barrels (50,000 gallons) of Brent crude near the southern edge of Casco Bay, under conditions which threatened some interior islands and some exterior coastline. Participants examined this scenario during one accelerated, two-and-a-half day meeting during which they received briefings on the expected results of the spill with and without response options; the relative effectiveness of on-water mechanical recovery and dispersants; and the risks and benefits of these response options to the area's habitats and natural resources. Participants divided into two focus groups and developed relative risk scores for three alternatives, using standard analytical protocols outlined in the Coast Guard guidebook: Developing Consensus Ecological Risk Assessments: Environmental Protection in Oil Spill Response Planning. A Guidebook. Scores from each group were then compared, and a composite risk matrix developed to represent the overall consensus. At the conclusion of the workshop, participants developed lessons learned along with recommendations for the Regional Response Team (RRT) and local Area Committee to improve local response planning efforts.
  • Net Environmental Benefit (Ecological Risk) Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Upper Mississippi River, Pools 7 and 19: A report to USCG District 8 and US EPA Region 5.

    Aurand, Don; Coelho, Gina (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2004)
    In March and April 2004, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) District 8 and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) sponsored two workshops in separate locations along the upper Mississippi River to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options. The first, held in La Crosse, Wisconsin, examined a Canola oil spill from a railroad accident into Pool 7 of the Mississippi River. The second, held in Keokuk, Iowa, examined a pipeline rupture that released West Texas Intermediate crude oil into Pool 19. Both exercises were assumed to occur in the fall, and so the primary concern was for protection of migrating waterfowl. In both exercises, there were also concerns about effects on protected species of mussels. There were local differences in viable response strategies which appeared to be acceptable. For example, bird hazing using boats appeared both feasible and attractive in Pool 7, but was not considered practical in Pool 19. Conversely, there was interest in shoreline in-situ burning in Pool 19, but not in Pool 7 because of the population density in the areas where the oil would collect. In both areas the spill affected most of the pool within the first 24 hours, so many of the impacts were judged to be unavoidable. Shoreline cleaning and nearshore recovery of pooled oil was judged effective in both areas in preventing reoiling, but participants were concerned about additional damage to sensitive habitats in both workshops. In Pool 19, participants felt that an early deployment of deflection booming offered the best option to protect waterfowl. In both areas, the ecological damage to migrating populations of waterfowl could be serious if the response options were not rapidly applied and effective, since very large populations of birds, in some cases the majority of the continental population, use the pools during migration.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Delaware Bay: A Report to the US Coast Guard, Sector Delaware Bay.

    Aurand, Don; Coelho, Gina (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2006)
    In January/February 2006, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Sector Delaware Bay sponsored a workshop whose purpose was twofold: First, in response to the M/V Athos 1 oil spill in November 2004 and the ongoing work of the Area Committee, the USCG sought to bring together and educate the various non-spill response resource managers and scientist in the Delaware Estuary. Secondly, the workshop allowed the participants the opportunity to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options (on-water mechanical recovery, dispersant application and on-shore mechanical recovery) compared to natural recovery.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Maryland Eastern Shore: A report to Commander, US Coast Guard Activities, Baltimore.

    Aurand, Don (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2003)
    In June and July of 2002, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Activities Baltimore sponsored a workshop to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options ( on-water mechanical recovery with shoreline protection, on-shore in situ burning, on-shore mechanical recovery and dispersant application) in comparison to natural recovery. The spill scenario involved the release of 2,000 barrels of Number 6 Fuel Oil near the north end of Kent Island in Tolchester Channel under conditions which threatened the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Eastern Neck Wildlife Refuge. The workshop involved two meetings during which participants received briefings on the expected results of the spill with and without response options, the relative effectiveness of the various response options, and the risks and benefits of these response options to the habitats and natural resources of the area. The participants were then divided into three focus groups and were asked to develop relative risk scores for the various alternatives, using standard analytical protocols outlined in the USCG guidebook entitled "Developing Consensus Ecological Risk Assessments: Environmental Protection in Oil Spill Response Planning. A Guidebook." The scores from the three groups were then compared and a composite risk matrix developed which represented the overall consensus of the entire group. At the conclusion of the second meeting, the group developed a list of lessons learned and recommendations for Regional Response Team (RRT) 3 and USCG Activities Baltimore which they felt would improve local response planning efforts.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Upper Florida Keys: A Report to USCG District 7..

    Aurand, Don; Coelho, Gina (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2003)
    In late August 2002, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) District 7 sponsored a workshop to provide oil spill response training and to discuss the relative risks to natural resources from various oil spill response options (on-water mechanical recovery, dispersant application and to a lesser extent, shoreline protection) in comparison to natural recovery. These discussions were based on a spill scenario involving the release of 100,000 gallons of Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO) 180 near Molasses Reef in the Florida Keys, under conditions which threatened mainland shoreline habitats, a number of offshore islands, and a variety of valuable subtidal habitats. After participants received briefings on the expected results of the spill with and without response options, the relative effectiveness of two options, on-water mechanical recovery and dispersants, was evaluated. Participants discussed the risks and benefits of these response options to the habitats and natural resources of the area. The participants were then divided into three focus groups and asked to develop relative risk scores for the various alternatives, using standard analytical protocols outlined in the USCG guidebook entitled "Developing Consensus Ecological Risk Assessments: Environmental Protection in Oil Spill Response Planning. A Guidebook." The scores from the three groups were then compared and a composite risk matrix developed which represented the overall consensus of the entire group. After the primary scenario was examined, two additional scenarios (one near the entrance of Biscayne Bay and one near Looe Key) were evaluated to examine the general applicability of the discussions for the Molasses Reef scenario. At the conclusion of the meeting, the group developed a list of lessons learned and recommendations for the RRT and local Area Committee that they felt would improve local response planning efforts. In general, participants concluded that on-water mechanical recovery, in the scenario under consideration, was unlikely to provide much protection for shoreline habitats. Dispersant use, if effective, did provide such protection, but with some increased risk to coral habitat in shallow water (less than 5 meters). This risk did not extend to deeper habitats, and was a concern in only limited areas. The participants recommended reexamining the current dispersant preauthorization limits to see if they could be made less restrictive.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Mexico - United States Pacific Coastal Border Region: A report to the US Coast Guard, District 11.

    Aurand, Don; Coelho, Gina (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2006)
    In June/July 2006, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) District 11 sponsored a workshop to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options (on-water mechanical recovery, dispersant application, and on-shore mechanical recovery) compared to natural recovery, which in the context of the workshops refers to oil removal by natural processes only. The spill scenario involved a release of approximately 70,000 gallons of Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO) due to an accident five nautical miles west of Point Loma, CA. The hypothetical date for the release was late June. The workshop involved participants from both the United States (US) and Mexico, and was designed to emphasize cooperative decision-making when a spill in US waters threatened shoreline resources in both countries and when consideration of dispersants would lead to increased risk to valuable offshore resources in Mexican waters. The workshop consisted of two three-day workshops separated by approximately one month. At the initial meeting three focus groups analyzed natural recovery and on-water mechanical recovery. At the second workshop the groups evaluated dispersant use at two levels of effectiveness (75% and 25%) and on-shore mechanical recovery. The participants concluded that on-water mechanical recovery, in this scenario, was unlikely to be effective in reducing shoreline impacts. While dispersants offered some benefits to the shoreline, the groups did not agree as to the magnitude. All groups concluded that protection of the Tijuana Slough was a high priority, and that the current strategy of placing a berm across the entrance to prevent contamination was a critical element of the response plan. If this was not successful cleanup would be very difficult, if not impossible. Environmental concerns were largely driven by the risk to sea birds, and secondarily to intertidal invertebrates. When dispersants were used there was an increased risk to sensitive offshore habitats and water column resources, especially around the Coronado Islands, but the concerns were not ranked above a moderate level by any group. Participants felt that additional cooperative efforts of this type were important, and helped build the international interactions necessary for successful planning and response. They also emphasized that, if dispersants are to be considered as an option, there must be extensive planning and exercises to familiarize stakeholders with the issues, so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Consensus Workshop Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies Mexico - United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Border Region: A report to the US Coast Guard, Sector Corpus Christi.

    Aurand, Don (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2007)
    In October/November 2007, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Sector Corpus Christi hosted a workshop to provide training in dispersant use in oil spills and to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response options including no response (natural recovery), on-water mechanical recovery, dispersant application and on-shore mechanical recovery. The workshop involved participants from both the United States (US) and Mexico, and was designed to emphasize cooperative decision-making when a spill threatens shoreline resources in both countries. The workshop consisted of two three-day workshops separated by approximately two weeks. The spill scenario was designed to present participants a situation with similar threats and decisions on both sides of the US-Mexico border. In the scenario, oil spilled approximately 3 miles offshore and the potential response actions were evaluated to determine their influence on the impact of the spill on sensitive coastal and estuarine resources. According to the scenario, after an explosion in the engine room, a tanker carrying 1.2 million gallons of Angola Soyo Crude Oil had two releases of oil. The first spill of 60,000 gallons was expected to come ashore primarily in the US, and, approximately 42 hours later, a second spill released an additional 80,000 gallons of oil expected to come ashore in Mexico. Participants were divided into four focus groups to evaluate the relative risks and benefits of the response options. Two groups, comprised of US participants, focused on the first spill (which affected the US) and two groups, comprised primarily of Mexican Navy personnel, examined the second spill (which affected the coastline in Mexico). After evaluating the options within the parameters presented for this scenario, the groups concluded that because of the size of the spill, there were potential serious risks to both shoreline and shallow water habitats. On-water mechanical recovery was viewed as being of limited utility in this scenario. Dispersant use raised serious concerns but did provide some benefit to shoreline and intertidal habitats. Likewise, on-shore mechanical recovery was beneficial to some habitats, but raised serious concerns in mangrove areas. The size of the spill made it unlikely that any alternative response would be effective in preventing serious impacts. The highest concern was for estuarine habitats. At the end of the workshop participants developed a list of lessons learned and recommendations for future oil spill response planning in the area.
  • Oceans: Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems Analysis Open Science Conference: Programme and abstracts

    Hall, Julie; International Geosphere-Biosphere Program; Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR/IGBP, 2003)
  • Life history and possible genetic origins of rainbow trout from Packwood Lake, Washington

    Lucas, Robert E.; Chilcote, Mark W.; Washington Department of Game (1982)
    Life history and electrophoretic data were collected for an iso1ated, lacustrine popu1ation of rainbow trout from Packwood Lake, Washington. Spawning activity peaked in the lake outlet in late May and tributaries in mid-June. Eighty-four percent of the spawners were age IV or V. Females represented 63 percent of the total run. Only one of the 16 enzyme loci examined in Packwood Lake rainbow trout was polymorphic, LDH-4. Genetic comparisons indicated that Packwood rainbow are more similar to "inland" steelhead (rainbow) stocks than they were to "coastal" steelhead (rainbow) stocks. This unanticipated finding was hypothesized as evidence that colonization of Packwood Lake by an "inland" form of rainbow trout took place shortly after the last Pleistocene ice retreat. Further, that isolation from invading "coastal" stocks occurred due to subsequent geologic events. It is suggested· that Packwood rainbow are unique and that their genetic integrity be preserved for future reference and study.
  • Effects of bucket dredging on water quality in the Delaware River and the potential for effects on fisheries resources

    Burton, William H.; Versar Inc. (1993)
    The potential effects of bucket dredging on the fisheries resources in the Delaware River was assessed by evaluating the results of nine water quality monitoring studies conducted ·summer of 1992. The assessment was accomplished first by conducting analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if water quality conditions downstream of the dredge site were significantly different from upstream reference locations during the weeks of dredging. A second analysis included a literature review that identified critical levels of dissolved oxygen and turbidity from both a biological and regulatory perspective. Based on the critical values of turbidity and dissolved oxygen, the percentage of measurements that exceeded critical levels during dredging was evaluated. Analysis of variance tests indicated that only two of the nine studies resulted in significantly higher turbidity downstream of the dredging operations and the increase was about 15 nephelometric units (NTUs) over control turbidity (15 NTUs). Significant differences in dissolved oxygen were detected by the ANOVA, but mean downstream DO wa_s actually higher than the upstream reference location by about 0. 1 mg/I. A literature review suggested that concentrations of suspended solids can reach · thousands of milligrams per liter before an acute toxic reaction is expected in fish and that dissolved oxygen concentrations above 4 mg/I is required by striped bass. Based on the literature review and Delaware River Basin Commission's water quality standards, protective critical levels of 150 NTUs for turbidity and 4 mg/I for DO were ~elected. In more than 10,500 measurements, turbidity values greater than the critical level of 150 NTUs occurred only 13 times, and 7 of these observations occurred downstream of the Hog Island dredging operation. Over ninety-nine percent of dissolved oxygen measurements taken in downstream areas during dredging were above 4 mg/I and the percentage of observations below this critical level was not statistically different between the upstream reference and the downstream monitoring locations. Analysis of these data suggest that the bucket dredging carried out in 1992 did not result in adverse, biologically meaningful changes in DO or turbidity in the Delaware River
  • Understanding North Pacific Carbon-cycle Changes: A Data Synthesis and Modeling Workshop

    NOAA; North Pacific Marine Science Organization; Program on Climate Change, University of Washington; Global Carbon Project (2004-06)
  • Ecological Risk Assessment: Consensus Workshop. Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies. Northwest Arctic Alaska.

    Aurand, Don; Essex, Laura (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2012)
    In October/November 2011, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Sector Anchorage hosted a workshop to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from various oil spill response-options. These options included no response (natural recovery), on-water mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, shoreline protection and shoreline recovery. The workshop involved participants from local, borough, tribal, state and Federal agencies and was designed to emphasize cooperative decision-making if a spill were to threaten resources in the Northwest Arctic Alaska. The workshop consisted of one 3-day session and one 2-day session separated by approximately four weeks. The spill scenario designed by the Steering Committee involved the release of 400,000 gallons of IFO 180 fuel from a fuel carrier grounded near Little Diomede Island, AK on 7-8 August 2011 . The release was treated with dispersant via aircraft sorties on the second day of the release, targeting the spill's leading edge. The modeled effectiveness of the dispersant application was forty percent. Participants, divided into four focus groups, evaluated the relative risks and benefits of the response options during the October session. The groups completed analysis for natural recovery, on-water mechanical recovery, and in-situ burning options, and began the analysis for dispersant application. At the November session, initial participant attendance declined due to travel constraints. However, several new members participated. During the second session, all participants reviewed the ranking process and evaluated the remaining alternatives (dispersant application, shoreline protection, and shoreline removal). Following evaluation of all response options, the participants concluded that the location of the spill could potentially increase the risks to shoreline and shallow water habitats, historic properties, and subsistence use. All four groups viewed shoreline protection as having the greatest benefit by reducing the impact on the lagoons and marshes. Shoreline mechanical recovery was perceived as beneficial to some habitats such as upland, tidal marsh, tidal flats and fine/medium sand beach areas, but has the potential to damage those areas during the removal process. On-water mechanical recovery and in-situ burning were viewed as providing limited benefit. The use of dispersants raised serious concerns among all four groups. Two groups did not evaluate and consequently did not recommend this option. However, the two remaining groups felt that dispersant use would provide some net benefit despite having a negative effect on subsistence use. The workshop concluded with the participants developing a list of lessons learned and recommendations for future area oil spill response planning.
  • Ecological Risk Assessment Workshop: Environmental Tradeoffs Associated With Oil Spill Response Technologies. Cape Flattery, Washington

    Aurand, Don; Coelho, Gina; Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc. (Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc., 2006)
    Between January and November, 2005 Regional Response Team (RRT) X sponsored three workshops to evaluate the relative risk to natural resources from an oil spill off the straits of Juan de Fuca which threatened the northwest coast of Washington. The primary purpose of the workshops was to increase understanding of the overall risk, and the role different response technologies might play in mitigating that risk, relative to other response options. The workshops generated considerable discussion and provided an important training opportunity but the participants did not feel that there was sufficient consensus on the risk ranking process to publish the results. Instead, they developed a list of recommendations for the RRT, which will form the basis for future discussions by RRT workgroups.
  • The First Annual Meeting of the NOAA VOS pC02 Project

    NOAA VOS pC02 Project (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 2003-09-25)
  • GasEx 2001 PI Workshop

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2001-10-24)
    The GasEx 2001 eastern Equatorial Pacific CO2 Exchange Experiment was designed to be a multi-disciplinary study, co-sponsored by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Office of Global Programs and the National Science Foundation. Several NOAA labs, including PMEL (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory), AOML (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory), ETL (Environmental Technology Laboratory), and multiple academic institutions participated on the cruise, including Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, University of Miami, University of Washington, University of Montana, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, University of Heidelberg, University of Rhode Island, and the University of Groningen. The primary objective was to use direct gas flux measurements to study the kinetics of air-sea gas exchange. A second focus was to determine the physical, chemical, and biological factors controlling pCO2 in the surface water. The eastern Equatorial Pacific region is the largest oceanic CO2 source to the atmosphere with large interannual variability caused by the ENSO cycle.

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