Recent Submissions

  • Ice In International Law.

    Graham, Gerald; Institute of International Public Law and International Relations, Thessaloniki, Greece (Institute of International Public Law and International RelationsThessaloniki, Greece., 1977)
    This paper examines the status of ice in International Law.
  • Marine Oil Spill Expert Systems (MOSES).

    Graham, Gerald; Morrison, Ian (Environment CanadaOttawa, Canada, 2004)
    This paper examines the general suitability of expert systems to marine oil spill response operations. Expert systems are interactive, computer-based decision support tools which capture the knowledge of so-called domain experts. They differ from information management systems in the sense that they explicitly represent the decision-making process of experts.
  • The Canadian Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act of 1970 and the Concept of Self-Protection.

    Graham, Gerald (Carleton University, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, 1974)
    This Masters Thesis examines the status of the Canadian Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act of 1970 under Public International Law. The legislation was introduced following the 1969 transit of the Northwest Passage by the American tanker SS Manhattan. The Act was considered as one way Canada could demonstrate the exercise of national sovereignty over Arctic waters, as well as protect the fragile Arctic environment.
  • Expert Systems for Marine Oil Spill Response Operations.

    Graham, Gerald (Puget Sound Action TeamTacoma, WA, 2003)
    This paper examines the use of expert systems with respect to offshore oil spills. Expert systems in effect transfer the knowledge of an expert to a computer. The paper commences with a look at expert systems in general, how they work and who uses them. This is followed by an examination of their perceived strengths and weaknesses, as well as their existing and potential applications to marine oil spill response operations. They can save precious time in the event of a catastrophic marine oil spill,but can be complicated and costly to develop. The paper also assesses the potential for expert systems as one way of reducing the threat of marine oil spills in the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region.
  • The Freedom of Scientific Research in International Law: Outer Space, the Antarctic and the Oceans.

    Graham, Gerald (University of Geneva, 1981)
    This 1980 doctoral dissertation from the Graduate Institute at the University of Geneva in Geneva, Switzerland examines the international legal regime for the conduct of scientific research in three areas that are, in a sense, beyond national jurisdiction- those three areas being outer space, the Antarctic and the oceans. It does so by looking at: general principles regulating the use of the three areas; fundamental rules relating specifically to scientific research; limitations on the freedom or right to conduct scientific research; specific obligations as they pertain to scientific research activities; and miscellaneous rules. The Thesis ends with a series of conclusions that are gleaned from the treaties, case law and practice that are examined in the body of the Thesis.