Recent Submissions

  • Effect of Oxadiazon Herbicide on Physiological, Biochemical and DNA Damage in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Zanjani, Seyede Asal (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 2018)
    This study conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of a widely used oxadiazon herbicide,on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerling (15 g). The 96-h LC_50 was determined, and the growth performance, serum biochemical and hematological parameters, DNA damage of erythrocytes cells, as well as histopathological changes were also determined in fish exposed to sublethal concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm) of the herbicide for 30 days. The 96-h LC_50 to C. carpio was found to be 3.9 ppm. Weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) were decreased, while food conversion ratio (FCR) increased in the exposed fish groups (P< 0.05). Erythrocytes cells of fish exposed to 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm of oxadiazon showed DNA damage (21.3%, 22.9%, and 28.4%, respectively), significantly higher than control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, exposure to oxadiazon significantly decreased WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct as well as serum albumin, glucose, and total protein levels, while serum ALP was significantly increased in the exposed fish groups (
  • Synthesis of Ferrous Bis-glycinate chelate and its influence in Blood Factors of Cyprinus carpio

    Esmailzade, Nayersadat (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 2017)
    Ferrous Glycine Complex is a special form of chelated ferrous reported to be effective in anima improvement resulted from iron deficiency in adults, adolescents and children. To synthesize ferrous glycine complex, primarily glycine is solved in water and sodium hydroxide, then iron sulfate is added in it and the obtained solution shall be added to Ethanol to form ferrous glycine complex sediment. The resulted sediment is filtered and dried in drier. In the present study, iron cation is combined with glycine ligands and formed glycine-iron complex. Objective of the present research is to study changes in blood factors of 120 Cyprinus carpio were fed with average mass of 12 ± 1.16 gr. and average length of 7.17 ±0.29 cm for 14 days, and then influenced by sub-lethal dosage (4.5, 10, 12.5 mg/g) of edible glycine-iron complex in Cyprinus carpio food, and all were biometried after anesthesia, then they underwent depletion from their tail. The obtained results demonstrated that blood factors of H.C.T., Hb and R.B.C. in high dosage of complex in proportionate with blank and terms more than testing have had meaningful increase (P<0.05). White corpuscle, lymphocytes, monocytes and heterophile under influence of ferrous glycine complex had no significant difference statistically in proportionate with blank and terms more than test (p<0.05). M.C.V., M.C.H.C, M.C.H. and blood were completely different among testing and blank groups (P<0.05). Ferrous glycine complex were entered body of Cyprinus carpio and influenced on blood fish. Oxygen supply can improve tissues which led to increase of activity and hyperemia in fish and may act as a booster which affect immunity and defense system and cause reinforcement of this system, and resistance of Cyprinus carpio was increased against types of diseases.
  • In vitro study of the effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the liver,gill and kidney tissues,comet Assay and oxidative enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase),in roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Caspian Sea

    Mohammadzadeh Baran, Saeed (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 2017)
    In this study, the effect of MTBE on liver, gill and kidney tissues, as well as comet assay and oxidative enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in (Rutilus caspicus), have been investigated in laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the substrate concentrations of 50, 100.150 mg / L MTBE on changes in liver, gill and kidney tissues, as well as the rate of destruction of blood cell DNA and, finally, the effect of this contaminant on the activity level of oxidative enzymes catalase And superoxide dismutase the blood serum was studied based on sampling done on days 7, 14, 21 days after exposure to MTBE. To quantify the changes, Casp 1.2.3 bar1 software was used. Data analysis using SPSS software (Ver.21) was used for plotting the graphs from Excel 2013 software. According to the results between the concentrations of MTBE There is a positive and significant relationship between the SOD and CAT enzymes (P<0/01). In this way, with increasing MTBE, the activity of the SOD and CAT enzymes increases compared to the control group. The results of histological studies showed that the tissues exposed to MTBE were damaged and damaged, as well as the DNA of the cells. The blood was destroyed and damaged. The severity of injuries was higher at higher concentrations and over time.
  • Synergist and Non-synergist Survey of Nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, CuO) Acute and Chronic Effects on Artemia , Daphnia and Barnacle by Using Non-continues Bio-assay

    Khoshnood, Reza (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 2016)
    In this study, toxicity and probable effects of nanomaterial’s including titanium dioxide, copper oxide and zinc oxide in acute and chronic toxicity tests, separately and together has been studied on indicator species of water resources, including Daphnia magna, Amphibalanus amphitrit, Artemia fransiscan .Acute toxicity effects has been studid During the 96-hour and chronic toxicity test done in 14-day period (Artemia franciscana and Amphibalanus amphitrite) and 21 days (Daphnia magna), in exposure to Nano-materials separately, and the percentage of two nanomaterial’s and all three Nano-materials to study synergistic effects. Water quality parameters including DO, pH, EC, temperature, water hardness, SS and TDS in all treatments were measured, daily. The number and percentage of daily mortality recorded and by using Probite software LC50, LC10, LC90 were calculated. In chronic toxicity tests other parameters including larval development success, fertility, the percentage of adhesion to surfaces (barnacles) were recorded. Daphnia magna acute lethal toxicity LC50 96h for exposure to titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and copper oxide nanoparticles, were 123.796, 0.648 and 2.991 mg/ l respectively, and for barnacle were 25.434, 143.776 and 2.501 ml/l respectively, and for Artemia were 30.548, 173.209 and 4.328 mg/l, respectively. Statistical analysis and correlation coefficients in acute toxicity test showed a significant correlation between mortality and time. In Acute toxicity tests on Daphnia magna was found that titanium oxide and zinc oxide enhances the effects of mortality caused by copper. However, titanium dioxide and zinc has no effect on these at the same time not increasing. In the case of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide showed the synergistic effect on the toxicity of copper oxide, and copper oxide, titanium dioxide has a synergistic effect in toxicity. In Artemia titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, has the synergistic effect of copper oxide and copper oxide have the synergistic effect of titanium dioxide. In chronic toxicity studies in addition to mortality, the percentage of adhesion (Barnacles), success in the development of the larval stages, reproductive success, respond to light, were analyzed. These nanomaterials have an adverse effect on fertile time, delay and time spent in the larval stages of species, light respond and swimming in this species.
  • Extraction and evaluation of gelatin from yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) skin and prospect as an alternative to mammalian gelatin

    Sadeghi, H. (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 2016-02-23)
    One of the mainly valuable consumed colloid proteinmaterials in pharmaceutics, medical and food industries is Gelatin. Fish gelatin near warm water is similar mammal gelatin. Due to the amount of catch of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) use in factory. Fish skin is peel off and wasted in factory every day. Analysis factors were extracted alkaline method gelatin from skin, physiochemical and rheological test (amino acid composition (HPLC), electrophoreses, fourier transform infrared, moisture content, pH, setting point , setting time, melting point and melting time, color and gelatin yield) with access method of National Iran Standard. Prepared gelatin nanoparticles from gelatin with desolvation method. Determination of particles size, size distribution, zeta potential for characterize the surface and morphology. Antibacterial assay with disc diffusion method and determined MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC(minimum bactericidal concentration) for Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. For nanoparticles gelatin antibacterial assay (MIC and MBC) turbidimetry. Statistical processing were linear regression and modeling and forecasting regression. Albeit antibacterial compared gelatin and gelatin nanoparticles.It produced 0.034g gelatin for one gram of yellowfin tuna. Yellowfin tuna had higher gelatin content (Proline and Hydroxyproline) than mammalian gelatin content. SDS-electrophoresis for yellow fin gelatin showed protein band (α, β, γ) same as mammalian protein band. Fourier transform infrared had the same spectra for both of them. Factors were pH (6.1), Moisture (8.5%) Setting temperature and time respectively 4(°C) and 60(s) and Melting temperature and time respectively were 50(°C) and 45(s). The color was transparent. The mean size of the gelatin nanoparticles was 132 nm and PI (polydispersity) and zeta potential were respectively 0.248, -31 MV. pH, speed of addition of acetone, percent of glutaraldehyde depends on size of nanoparticles gelatin. (Statistically significant was P<0.05). Gelatin nanoparticles had antibacterial in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus while gelatin had antibacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nanoparticle gelatin had higher MIC and MBC than gelatin. Statistically significant was P<0.05. Antibacterial assay for gelatin particles has evaluated for foodstuffs packing and it may use drug delivery. This kind of gelatin is lawand similar mammalian gelatin. Antibacterial properties are more useful for usage in foodstuffs packing and may using drug delivery.
  • Identification species of Acanthopagrus (Family: Sparidae) and stock identification of dominant species in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea using geometric morphometry and otolith

    Doustdar, Mastooreh (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran, Marine Ecology, 2017)
    In this study, the identification of the Acanthopagrus species Sparidae family by morphometric characters & meristic counts and the stock separation of Arabian yellowfin Seabream Acanthopagrus arabicus as the dominant species was determined through geometric morphometric and otolith shape in the west and east part of the Hormuz Strait. Samples were collected in five different areas including Khuzestan, Bushehr and Hormuzgan Waters as the west of Hormuz Strait, and Jask, Sirik and Sistan & Baluchistan Waters as the east of Hormuz Strait from June 2014 to May 2016. A. arabicus, A. berda and A.bifasciatus were identified in the northern part of the Persian Gulf & Oman Sea, the first one was identified as a dominant species of this genus. Evaluation of morphometric characters and meristic counts indicated that individuals of A. arabicus in west and east of Strait of Hormuz were significantly different from each other which showed high phenotype diversity of this species (p<0.05) and 85.3% of the individuals were categorized precisely in the correct classification which indicated as a key identification method in the region. From the meristic counts, the number of scales on the lateral line, on the chin and scales from the fifth and ninth spine of dorsal fin to the lateral line were the factors of separation in the west and east of the Strait of Hormuz. Body shape analysis was showed the most variations on the head and top of the body and significant differences of body shape was proved between west and east of Strait of Hormuz. Landmark positions in the samples of the west Strait of Hormuz were indicated the decrease of body depth, increase of head length, leaning of base and pectoral and ventral fin to upper part of the body, meanwhile it was contrary in the samples of the east. CVA correlation analysis showed a significant difference in body shape in the west and east of the Strait of Hormuz (P <0.0001). The otolith shape indices showed a significant difference in the west and east of the Strait of Hormuz and the results of the DFA analysis confirmed the accuracy of the classification of the species in the main region by 53.8 percent and the otolith shape in the west of the Hormuz Strait was more circular and had an equal growth in the length and width, while in the eastern part of the Strait of Hormuz they had more growth and aspect ratio, ellipticity and form factor of the area were approved. The results of the otolith Fourier Shape Analysis showed that six components out of the 77 main components were expressed 90 percent of the cumulative strength and difference, and the most changes were observed in the dorsal and ventral part of the otoliths of the Arabian yellowfin Seabream, and 70.4% of individuals of this species were correctly classified in the west and east of the Strait of Hormuz. The results of this survey confirmed two separate stocks in the west and east of Strait of Hormuz.
  • Determination of some hematologic effect the Persian Gulf blackfin stonefish, (Pseudosynanceia melanostigma), venom on albino mice blood

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Marine Biology, 2016-11)
    Toxins produced by flora and fauna and its proteins as well as valuable pharmaceutical compounds. They contain proteins used in producing painkillers, drugs for treating cancer, infectious diseases, allergy, blood pressure, etc. In this study on 250 blackfin stonefish, we investigated the LD50 and hematological effects of the toxin produced by this fish along with its pharmacological and enzymatic properties investigated by other researchers. One and three LD50 of venom injected IM in Rabbits under study was administered IV and different parameter like PT, PTT, cbc total protein and SDS-PAGE venom electrophoreses were studied before and 24 hours after venom injection. The total protein was estimated 331 µg/ml and the level of RBC WBC were 6.62 and 7.1 mm3 before venom treatment and reduce to 6.3 and 5.7 mm3 after venom injection. The MCH=21 pg MCHC=32.6% Hb=13.95 g/dl HCT=42.8% were before venom treatment and reduce to MCV=65.3 fl MCH= 22 pg MCHC=33.7% Hb=12.7 g/dl HCT=37.7% after venom injection The PT and PTT reduce after venom treatment (before venom treatment were PT=8.5 second & PTT = 27 second and after venom injection PT=15 second & PTT = 34 second) the platelet count reduce after venom injection (before venom=495 103/microliter and after venom was 49 103/microliter). Our results showed that the venom caused a significant reduction In WBC, RBC Hb, Hct, and platelet count which is due to lysis of cell after venom treatment.
  • Colletteichthys dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1837)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-06)
    Colletteichthys dussumieri or Batrachus dussumieri or Austrobatrachus dussumieri as flat toadfish is a sedentary and solitary species that lives partly buried in soft sand and mud or concealed in rock crevices, in coral reefs or in sea grass or weedy bottoms and in tidal pools, where they function as ambush predators feeding. They prefer high saline waters and also experts in camouflage therefore flat toadfish lives in the demersal, marine environment. Size of C. dussumieri is 14 cm in Iranian Waters of Persian Gulf (Kish Island). Their ability to change color to lighter or darker shades at will and their mottled pattern makes them difficult to see Toadfishes are said to be quiet vicious and will snap at almost anything upon the slightest provocation. Toadfishes do not school, but they are gregarious and tend to congregate together. They have limited dispersal ability because of their demersal eggs which lack pelagic larvae. Compared to other fishes, they are sluggish in nature. This species is dimorphism and spawning only once in a year. Toadfish are well known for their ability to "sing", males in particular using the swim bladder as a sound-production device used to attract mates. Food: Colletteichthys dussumieri is feeding fish, prow, crab, isopod, squilla and mullasca.
  • Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskål, 1775)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-06)
    Plectorhinchus gaterinus or Blackspotted rubberlip known as Grunts, Black-spotted Grunt, Blackspotted wweetlips, Spotted grunt, Spotted sweetlips. P. gaterinus is reef-associated and may also occur in sand banks and near estuaries. The Blackspotted rubberlip occurs in coral and rocky areas, inhabiting depths between 3 m and 55 m. It found singly or in large groups in coastal waters and reef flats often sheltering during the day under ledges. In some areas sweetlips are known as "Grunts" because they "grunt", the grunting sound is produced by their flat teeth plates rubbing together and this is amplified by their air bladders. Sweetlips can be distinguished from other species by their very large rubbery lips. P. gaterinus commonly reaches a length of 30 cm, with a maximum size of 50 cm in males. Body of the adults is silvery with black spots and yellow lips and fins. The forehead of the head is gray. This species is oviparous with distinct pairing during breeding. Small juveniles show longitudinal black stripes.
  • Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-05)
    Lutjanus ehrenbergii is known as Blackspot snapper and Black-spot snapper. L. ehrenbergii is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific at depths ranging from 5 to 20 m. This reef-associated species inhabits very shallow coastal habitats, often in large schools near freshwater run-offs. Adults inhabit coral reefs, while juveniles frequent inshore areas over sand, silt or coral rubble bottoms, occasionally in mangrove-lined streams and estuaries. This species may enter freshwater areas to consume small fish and invertebrates. This species reaches sexual maturity at approximately 2 years of age and reaches a maximum age of at least 11 years. Growth trajectories are significantly different between sexes for L. ehrenbergii with females achieving a larger asymptotic size than males. This species is a component of fisheries to varying degrees throughout its range. It is highly sought after in some areas, such as the Persian Gulf, and is commonly seen in subsistence fisheries and markets through other parts of its range.
  • Megalomma vesiculosum

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-05)
    Megalomma vesiculosum (Giant Feather Duster Worm) has reported for the first time from Persian Gulf (Iran, Kish Island). M. vesiculosum is a polychaete worm that reaches up to 12 cm in length. It has relatively few (about 50) tentacles, each with a large eyespot at the free end. It creates a long and tough tube, which is mostly encrusted untidily with large shell fragments and small stones.
  • Ostracion cyanurus (Rüppell, 1828)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-06)
    Ostracion cyanurus is known as bluetail trunkfish, bluetail boxfish, Arabian Boxfish and Arabian Trunkfish. The family that this fish belongs to is called the boxfish family. Origin of this fish is Western Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. O. cyanurus Inhabits areas of moderate coral growth, it’s Solitary and found close to shelter. O. cyanurus has a unique square shape and a particular way of swimming. They have a rather special personality, which one quickly comes to love. We report from Iranian Waters (Persian Gulf, Kish Island). Maximum length is 15 cm in Kish Island. They found at depths of from 2 to 8 m (in Kish Island, Iran). They live typically off a mixture of algae, coral polyps, zooplankton, and in some cases crustaceans. They are not normally reef safe and when small will require gentle water circulation. This species has a toxin in its skin, which it releases when highly stressed or dying. This poison can kill all the aquatic life in the aquarium, if unlucky. Bluetail trunkfish can grow up to 15 cm.
  • Culcita novaeguineae (Müller & Troschel, 1842)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-05)
    Culcita novaeguineae or cushion star is a species of starfish. It has short arms and an inflated appearance and resembles a pentagonal pincushion. It is variable in colour and can be found in tropical warm waters in the Indo-Pacific. C. novaeguineae is living coral reefs at reef edge and slope at depths of 1 to 20 m. We report for the first time from Bali Waters (Indonesia). This species has exhibited a slight preference for the coral Acropora spp. over Poccilopora spp. and Porities spp. A mature C. novaeguineae is pentagonal in shape with an inflated appearance and much-abbreviated arms. It can grow to a diameter of 30 cm. Rows of tube feet are on the underside, and it has a central mouth. The color is very variable and includes a mottling with darker and lighter shades of fawn, brown, orange, yellow and green. The armored body wall is made of calcareous ossicles which are supported internally by pillars which buttress the ambulacra. The armouring contains pits into which the tube feet can be retracted. The body cavity is filled with water. Small cushion stars are very different in appearance. They are star-shaped, with five short, broad arms and a low profile. As they grow, the inter-arm areas fill in and expand relative to the tube-feet areas, and the arms get shorter relative to the disc which becomes inflated and more massive.
  • Pomacentrus tripunctatus (Cuvier, 1830)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-06)
    Pomacentrus tripunctatus or Threespot damsel is a small tropical species that occurs in shallow coral reef waters. A shallow water species, solitary, in holes of small rocks on sandy bottom with coral rubbles, usually alone. P. tripunctatus is found in shallow bays and silty coastal reefs and other 'dead' areas, up to 3m deep. We report for the first time from Persian Gulf (Kish Island, Iran). Maximum length is 7 cm in Persian Gulf. They found at depths of from 2 to 6 m (in Kish Island, Iran). Adults inhabit shallow bays, silty coastal reefs and harbors with sparse coral and algal growth. Adults are brownish with darker scale margins. They have a large dark spot on the upper caudal peduncle. Juveniles are lighter in color and have a large, blue-margined black spot on the dorsal fin. P. tripunctatus is Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding. Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate. Males guard and aerate the eggs.
  • Apogonichthyoides taeniatus

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-05)
    Apogonichthyoides taeniatus also known as Twobelt cardinal and striped cardinalfish, this species was named: Apogon taeniatus and Apagon bifasciatus, but Apogonichthyoides taeniatus accepted now. It is a marine fish of subtropical climate and associated coastal reefs and mangroves.
  • Apogonichthyoides taeniatus (Cuvier, 1828)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-06)
    Apogonichthyoides taeniatus also known as two belt cardinal and striped cardinalfish, this species was named: Apogon taeniatus and Apagon bifasciatus, but Apogonichthyoides taeniatus accepted now. It is a marine fish of subtropical climate and associated coastal reefs and mangroves. A. taeniatus is an extremely cryptic species. It is virtually never seen during the day. A. taeniatus also appears to be a very shallow water species. A. taeniatus is found in seagrass beds or areas with heavy algal growth. A. taeniatus is easily confused with A. pseudotaeniatus, which has a similar color pattern. A. taeniatus inhabits coastal shallow silty and mangrove areas and usually found at depths between 5–20 m. It can grow up to 5 cm maximum. We report for the first time from Iranian Waters) Persian Gulf, Kish Island), we found it at depth from 3 m, and Maximum length is 4 cm in Kish Island (Iranian Waters). Males incubate eggs in buccal cavity. Embryos do not feed externally in the buccal cavity. Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning. Internal fertilization and paternal care by mouth brooding is found to be a rare combination of reproductive strategy.
  • Chromis viridis (Cuvier, 1830)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-04)
    Chromis viridis (green chromis) is a species of damselfish. It is found in tropical and subtropical waters. C. viridis is encountered in wild specimens prefer to school in large shoals amongst branching corals like Acropora in sheltered areas such as subtidal reef flats and lagoons. We report for the first time from Iranian Waters) Persian Gulf, Kish Island), we found it at depth of 2-8 m, and Maximum length is 7 cm in Kish Island (Iranian Waters). Adults of this species can grow up to 10 cm at maximum length. When they are breeding, males turn more yellowish. The marriages are a pair matter, but they take place grouped. The males chose for the nest, a small dimple dug in the sand, the dead branch of madrepora or simply, one hospitable seaweed. Then they dance, moving up and down, like if they were jumping inside a virtual column of water, for attracting the attention of the females and show the competitors that is their place. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding. Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate. Males guard and aerate the eggs. Juveniles closely tied to individual coral heads.
  • Doryrhamphus excisus abbreviatus

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-04)
    D. excisus abbreviatus is classified by IUCN Red List, it belongs to a group of brightly-coloured flagtail pipefish. This species is endemic to the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez south to Massawa and Jiddah on the east coast, we report for the first time from Persian Gulf (Kish Island, Iran). Most Doryrhamphinae pipefishes will breed readily in captivity when given enough shelter and can live for about five to ten years. Males may be brooding at 33 mm Standard Length (Dawson 1981). Male Doryrhamphus brood eggs semi-exposed under the trunk, and sometimes have a thin skin covering over the sides of the brood (Kuiter 2000). The pouch of a 41 mm standard length male contained a total of 88 eggs with a maximum diameter of c. 1.0 mm.
  • Tetrosomus gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-04)
    Tetrosomus gibbosus, commonly called humpback turretfish, helmet cowfish, camel cowfish and thornbacked boxfish, is a species of boxfish native to the Indo-West Pacific. T. gibbosus is mainly found at depths of 37–110 m on slopes or over muddy bottoms, but can sometimes be seen near hallow seagrass beds also off the coral reef and in the contiguous submarine prairies, on the sandy and detrital. We report for the first time from Iranian Waters ) Persian Gulf, Kish Island), we found it at depth of 3m, and Maximum length is 30 cm in Kish Island (Iranian Waters). It reaches up to 30 cm in length, but is more common at around 20 cm. Like other boxfish, its flesh is poisonous and defending with the spines and poison. T. gibbosus is not a very good swimmer. The coloration varies from the sandy yellow to the blue, in the adult individuals. As for the Ostracion the skin emits defensive poisonous mucus, and in the small pools these toxins may aver fatal for the other fishes if it is repeatedly disturbed or if it passes away. T. gibbosus is a hermaphrodite protogynous species: which means that at the beginning all the animals are females and then, while growing, may transform into males. The humpback turretfish nourishes of sea-weeds, sponges, molluscs, worms and crustaceans it ferrets out on the bottom. The juveniles live in small schools, but the adults, apart the reproductive period, are usually solitary.
  • Chaetodon melapterus (Guichenot, 1863)

    Ketabi, Ramin; Jamili, Shahla (Kish International Campus, Tehran University, 2017-03)
    Chaetodon melapterus also known as Black-finned Melon Butterflyfish, Blackfin Butterflyfish and Arabian Butterflyfish is a piscine so stunningly gorgeous, but we daren’t look directly at it lest we succumb to its spell. This species is usually found in coastal reefs rich in coral growth interspersed with sand patches. C. melapterus lives in coral rich areas of shallow coastal reefs; occasionally in aggregations. They feed exclusively on coral polyps and nothing else. Maximum length is 13 cm in Persian Gulf (Kish Island, Iran). It is found at depths between 2-16 m. C. melapterus are usually encountered in pairs, but sometimes observed in larger aggregations numbering in excess of 20 individuals. C. melapterus is oviparous breeders and monogamous, they form pairs during breeding. Monitoring of this species is needed in conjunction with coral monitoring, as well as determination of the degree of co-dependence between this species and corals. C. melapterus is not recommended for reefs as they will pick at or eat a wide variety of corals, fan worms, and other invertebrates. C. melapterus are known to pick at Aiptaisia, a parasitic anemone.

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