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  • Effect of water-deficit stress on secondary metabolites of Melissa officinalis L.: role of exogenous salicylic acid

    Jamal Omidi, F.; Mohajjel Shoja, H.; Sariri, R. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Melissa officinalis is a perennial herbaceous plant from Lamiaceae family, widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries to add aroma. Drought stress in plants may happen due to the increase in water loss, insufficient water absorption or both. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important secondary metabolite in plants with hormone-like action in some biochemical pathways. Adding it during water-deficit stress, may alter a number of physiological processes, increasing the resistance of plant against possible damage by water loss. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of drought stress (DRU) on secondary metabolites of Melissa officinalis and also the efficacy of salicylic acid treatment to minimize the damages. According to the results, treatment of plant with 0.7 mM salicylic acid had considerable alteration in the quantity of important secondary metabolites. Protein concentration increased in all stages; Chlorophyll a reached to the highest amount; the amount of the MDA increased at the first and second stages in 1/3 fc drought treatment as well as at the third stage in 2/3 fc. Besides, total phenol content increased at stage I in 1/3 fc drought and the flavonoid content increased in 1/3 fc drought at all stages. Finally, content of anthocyanin was increased at first and third stages 1/3 fc drought, as well as at second stage in 1/3 fc drought. In conclusion, application of salicylic acid (0.7 mM) was useful for improving quality of lemon balm subjected to stress due to water deficit.
  • Models for length back-calculation in Caspian Kutum, Rutilus kutum (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from the Caspian Sea

    Kouhestan Eskandari, S.; Khalesi, M.K.; Khoramgah, M.; Asgari, S.; Mirzakhani, N. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    The Caspian Kutum, Rutilus Kutum (Kamensky 1901) specimens were sampled by purse seine in the northern Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea at four locations: Feridoonkenar Shahed, Mahmoudabad Khoram, Lariim Azadi fishing coop, and the Shiroud River in Ramsar city. “Back-calculation” is a retrospective method of estimating the characteristics of growth of fish in terms of length and rate of growth in the years preceding capture. Backcalculation of fish lengths at previous ages from scales or otoliths is a widely used approach to estimate both individual and population growth history. The back-calculated lengths of the Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum (Kamensky 1901) were obtained using six different models, namely scale proportional hypothesis, body proportional hypothesis, Fraser Lee, nonlinear scale proportional hypothesis, nonlinear body proportional hypothesis, and the newest method, Morita Matsuishi model. The results showed that the preferred backcalculation models is Fraser Lee model for both males and females, while the nonlinear body proportional hypothesis is only for the females.
  • Reproductive biology of an endemic fish, Alburnoides qanati Coad and Bogustkaya, 2009 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Southern Iran

    Tahami, M.S.; Esmaeili, H.R.; Monsefi, M. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    This study provides fundamental information on some key aspects of the reproductive traits of qanati tailor fish, Alburnoides qanati, an Iranian endemic, poorly studied cyprinid fish species. Sampling was performed on a monthly basis during one year (from March 2011 through February 2012) from a tributary of endorheic Kor River Basin, Southern Iran. The results of data analyzing showed that the sex ratio in the population of qanati tailor fish is 1:1 except for those in January and April. Based on the size, shape and weight of the gonads, degree of occupation of the body cavity, presence or absence of ripe oocytes, diameter of the oocytes in the ovary, and histological observations, five typical gonad maturation stages were described for females using macroscopic and microscopic criteria. Based on the percentage of the late gonad maturation stage (V) and high frequency of large oocytes it was concluded that A. qanati spawns during spring with its peak in April. These results were in accordance with those of three reproductive indices (gonado-somatic, modified gonado-somatic and dobriyal). Absolute fecundity was obtained between 732 and 2368. Study on its eggs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the fish have adhesive eggs, which could explain its low fecundity compared to other cyprinids.
  • Assessment of geostatistical and interpolation methods for mapping forest dieback intensity in Zagros forests

    Karami, O.; Fallah, A.; Shataei, S.H.; Latifi, H. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    During recent years, oak decline has been widely spread across Brant’s oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) stands in the Zagros Mountains, Western Iran, which caused large-area forest dieback in several sites. Mapping the intensity and spatial distribution of forest dieback is essential for developing management and control strategies. This study evaluated a range of geostatistical and interpolation methods to explore the spatial structure and provide areabased maps of the intensity of forest dieback across a representative test site - Ilam Province - that was severely affected by Oak decline. The geostatistical analysis provided in-depth measures of the spatial structure amongst the selective sampling units (120 quadratic sample plots of 1200 m2), which eventually resulted in an area-based maps of dieback intensity. The accuracy of the applied methods was assessed by mean error percentage (%ME), root mean squared error percentage (%RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). Results showed moderate spatial structure within the sampling units. Moreover, cokriging (associated with soil humidity and aspect as independent variables) approach resulted in the highest accuracy, followed by two other methods of kriging and Radial Basis Function. Results suggested that cokriging can accurately estimate the intensity of dieback and its spatial distribution in the study area. According to this, an average dieback intensity of 18.12 % was estimated within the study area.
  • Bacterial responses to environmental herbicide pollutants (glyphosate and paraquat)

    Mazhari, M.; Ferguson, J. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    The toxic effect of herbicides on non- target microorganisms may influence degradation of organic matter resulting in changes to nutrient cycling. In the present study, different strains of bacteria incubated in media containing different concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat were assessed over a period of two incubation terms. The deleterious impact of the herbicide was observed as glyphosate and paraquate treatments led to a reduction in the bacterial population. Analysis of the colony- forming unit (CFUs) showed a declining in microbial growth from 0 to 24 hours of incubation in all concentrations of glyphosate followed by a steady declining rate of the bacterial population after 48 h. The greatest bacterial population developed in media containing concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat was observed with strains S13.3, while strains S55 and S35 showed the lowest biomass production in response to all concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. Based on the results obtained, strain S13.3 was determined to be resistant to the herbicides examined and may be useful for bioremediation of these compounds in soil.
  • Serum profiles of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in Caspian horses during different seasons

    Effati, N.; Mohammadi, M.; Nazifi, S.; Rahimabadi, E. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Minerals play an essential role in the normal vital process. Calcium, phosphorous and magnesium are the most abundant minerals. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone play a key role in regulation of their homeostasis as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone on 30 Caspian horses of Guilan Province (south of the Caspian Sea) in two different seasons. So that, 15 stallions and 15 mares were sampled at the age groups ≤ 3 years and > 3 years respectively. Fasting blood samples were collected twice, in August and January 2015 from jugular vein of horses. Serum calcium, phosphorous and magnesium were measured by colorimetric methods, while 25(OH)D3 and parathyroid hormone were measured by ELISA. The calcium (11.50 vs. 14.25 mg.dL-1 ), magnesium (2.13 vs. 3.72 mg.dL-1 ) and vitamin D (1.66 vs. 2.48 ) levels were lower in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). The Caspian horses had higher phosphorous (4.52 vs. 3.26 mg.dL-1 ) in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). Effect of sex on the measured parameters was not significant. Effects of age on the calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were not significant, but ≤3 year - old horses had higher phosphorous (4.63 vs. 3.15 mg.dL-1 ) than >3 year - old ones (P < 0.05). The vitamin D level of mares was higher (3.10 vs. 1.43 ) in summer than in winter (P < 0.05). Effects of sex, season, age and their interactions on parathyroid hormone were not significant. In conclusion, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and parathyroid hormone levels in Caspian horses were within their physiological range, but vitamin D was low without any signs of deficiency. The Caspian horses had lower calcium, magnesium and vitamin D levels in winter than in summer.
  • Heavy metals in coastal sediments of South Caspian Sea: natural or anthropogenic source?

    Alizadeh Ketek Lahijani, H.; Naderi Beni, A.; Tavakoli, V. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    This paper focuses on heavy metal distribution patterns in sediments of central Guilan (CG) and east Mazandaran (EM) in the south Caspian Sea coasts, north of Iran. Sediment sub-samples were retrieved from core and surficial samples in different environments of marine and coastal lagoons as well as coastal outcrops. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-AES) analysis were used to determine the metal chemistry. Concentration of the selected heavy metals exhibited variations through sediment samples which are partially related to grain size and organic matter content. Geoaccumulation index and statistical procedures have been implemented for analyzing the absolute metal values. Result of the geoaccumulation index demonstrated that the metal distribution reflects the influence of geological background of the watershed area. Some elements including Pb, Ni, Cu, Sr and Ba showed elevated concentration in the CG that could be attributed to development of industrial activities. A comparison of the metal concentration in the marine sediments and the Late Holocene outcrops revealed that the level of the metals concentration at the sea generally corresponds to natural background. The northern part of Iranian multi-lithological catchments basin is the main source for the sediments that drained by the rivers to the South Caspian Sea basin.
  • Toxic metals in the muscle and liver of five main commercially important fishes from the Persian Gulf, Southern Iran

    Hosseini, M.; Naderi, M.; Gholami, S.; Hadipour, M. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the concentrations of six toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in the muscle and hepatic tissues of five commercially important fish species including narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, Black pomfret, Parastromateus niger, Silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus, blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflammus and Tigertooth croaker, Otolithes ruber, since they are very common in the household fish consumption. The fish samples were collected from three main landing areas along Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces during spring 2017. Our results indicated that lead concentration was higher than those of other measured heavy metals in all examined fish species, while it was an inverse situation for cadmium. We found that the concentration of the measured metals totally were higher in the liver than in muscle of all the examined fish. There was no significant intra-specific variation in metal concentration among the fish from the same species. Since it is very important to the consumer to choose between the species, we also detected the mean values of the metal concentration in the muscle of the relatively same aged species, sampled from same stations.
  • Environmental challenges in the Caspian Sea and international responsibility of its littoral states

    Nejat, S.A.; Hermidas Bavand, D.; Farshchi, P. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    The main challenges facing the environment of the Caspian Sea include the water level rise, environmental pollutions, the entrance of exotic species to the Caspian Sea, loss of the flora reservoirs and eutrophication. These challenges forced the coastal states to conclude the Framework Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea in 2003. The long duration of time taken to adopt this convention and its two protocols, non-significance of two other protocols , the competition over energy issues in the sea and conflict of opinions concerning the legal regime have affected the level of cooperation among five coastal states in this field. This analytical-descriptive study seeks to answer this fundamental question: “What is the responsibility of the Caspian littoral states for environmental damage?” With the reviews, we can say that the Caspian Sea’s coastal states are responsible individually or collectively for their own omission and actions resulting in the environmental damages. They have to recover damages through the restitution or the compensation. It should be noted that the speed up of argument over the legal regime may reduce the environmental problems of the sea.
  • Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus extracts against bacterial strains

    Habibi, Z.; Imanpour Namin, J.; Ramezanpour, Z. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    The study was conducted to analyze the existence of bioactive phytochemicals extracts in green alga Scenedesmus dimorphus and their antimicrobial role. Various solvents such as methanol, ethanol, N-hegzane and diethylether were used for extraction. The extracts of of Scenedesmus dimorphus were tested against two Gram - positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus), a Gram - negative bacterium (A. hydrophila) and Escherichia coli by the agar well diffusion method. Four different methanolic, ethanolic, hexane and diethylether extracts showed effective inhibition against different bacterial pathogens. Diethylether extract was very effective against bacterial strains compared to other extracts. Methanolic extract effectively inhibited A. hydrophila in comparison with other extracts, while ethanolic extract did not have any inhibitory effect on the bacterium. Methanolic, ethanolic, hexane and diethylether extracts were analyzed by GC mass. The most abundant compounds in methanolic extract of S. dimorphus included esters, plasticizer compound and terpens, while in the ethanolic, N-hexane and diethylether extracts, the most abundant compounds were found to be plasticizers, hydrocarbon and esters. These results indicate the presence of promising antimicrobial compounds in the examined algal species. Further phytochemical studies are required to elucidate the structutre and detailed activities of these compounds. So, we achieved antimicrobial activity in the methanolic, ethanolic, hexane and ether extracts of green microalgae against some pathogenic bacteria as well as employing GC mass autogram for S. dimorphus extracts for preliminary detection of active constituents.
  • Screening and identification of biosurfactant producing marine bacteria from the Caspian Sea

    Hassanshahian, M.; Ravan, H. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Marine microorganisms have unique physiological properties and novel metabolites such as biosurfactant to live in extreme habitats (e.g. oil polluted environment). The aim of this study was to characterize some biosurfactant-producing bacteria collected from sediment and seawater samples from the Caspian Sea. These bacteria were isolated using enrichment method in ONR7a medium with crude oil as sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of the bacteria including hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon test (BATH). The bacteria isolated were identified using molecular methods. Eighteen biosurfactant-producing bacteria (from 44 different colonies isolated) were selected and 9 isolates were screened as predominant biosurfactant producer belonging to Pseudomonas stutzeri (Strain S1-4-2), P. balearica (Strain S1-4-1), Pseudomonas sp. (Strain S2-1), P. stutzeri (Strain R3-2), P. chloritidismutans (Strain K4-1), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Strain K4-3), Acinetobacter radioresistens (Strain S1-2), Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (Strain K4-2) and Citrobacter freundii (Strain R3-1). The largest clear zone diameters for oil spreading method observed for P. balearica strain S1-4-1 (14 mm). Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity (100 %); surface hydrophobicity (BATH: 77 %) and reduction of surface tension (34.5 mN m-1 ). Thus, this strain selected as the best isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is sufficient diversity of biosurfactant-producing bacteria in the Caspian Sea and the environmental problem can be resolved by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water.
  • Allometric equations for determining volume and biomass of Acer monspessulanum L. subsp. cinerascens multi-stemmed trees

    Afroonde, A.; Kiani, B.; Attarod, P. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Due to the importance of Acer monspessulanum in Iranian mountain forests, a study was carried out to reliably estimate its woody biomass and growing volume via allometric equations. Four transects, five trees in each were chosen randomly. The characteristics of standing trees including: diameter at root collar, height, number of stems and crown width were measured, then trees were finally cut down. Trunk and branches were separated and weighed. Some disks were taken and moved to the laboratory to determine the dry/fresh weight ratio and wood specific gravity and subsequently to calculate the dry weight of trunk, branch as well as aboveground biomass. Linear regression analysis was conducted to create allometric equations. Results showed that there was a strong and significant correlation between volume/biomass of Acer monspessulanum and quantitative characteristics of standing trees. The most robust predictors of volume and aboveground biomass were found to be crown width and crown area (R2 = 0.83) followed by equivalent diameter at root collar (R2 = 0.81). The normalized rootmean-square error amounts were found to be under 20% for most models especially for predicting biomass of branches. Tree height combined with equivalent diameter at root collar (EDRC) explained 87% of the variations in volume and biomass, creating precise models. It is concluded that crown diameter and EDRC can predict biomass and the volume of A. monspessulanum as a multi-stemmed tree with high accuracy and precision.
  • Estimating the carrying capacity of tourism and the necessity of forest stands management (Case study: Darkeshforest, North Khorasan, Iran)

    Mashayekhan, A.; Pourmajidian, M.R.; Jalilvand, H.; Gholami, M.R. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    This study focuses on the carrying capacity estimation for Darkesh forest in Northeast Iran. Four factors were used for estimating the carrying capacity including tourist flows, size of the area, optimum space available for each tourist, and visiting time. Results showed that the physical carrying capacity was 2727 ha or 165 visitors/day, while the real carrying capacity was 2719 ha or 132 visitors/day. An average of 200 tourists per day visited the park during 2015, which was much higher than the estimated carrying capacity. Development of recreational uses in the study area would also affect the forest production and other benefits in long term. This study suggested that to prevent intense use of the forest area, a plan must be developed. On the other hand, the number of visitors has to be precisely calculated in order to maintain healthy forest stands and to secure the ecological benefits for future generations.
  • The effect of higher fuel price on pollutants emission in Iran

    Mousavi, S.N.; Mozaffari, Z.; Motamed, M.K. (2018)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    A key aspect of sustainable development in a country is how energy, environment and economic sectors interact. Greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts are among important environmental issues that have been in focus. The increase in the concentration of these gases in atmosphere to levels above the natural level results in global warming, depletion of the Earth’s protective layer against harmful solar radiation, and threatening whole natural life. The present study aimed at examining the factors affecting CO2 emission in Iran in 1981-2015. The studied variables included per capita CO2 emission, fuel price, per capita production, and per capita energy consumption. The relationship was examined by auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. It was found that CO2 emission is related to actual price of fuel indirectly and to per capita production and per capita energy consumption directly. According to the findings, 1% higher price of fuel would decrease CO2 emission by 0.14%, while 1% higher per capita production would increase it by 0.59%. Given the effectiveness of subsidy reform policy and the increased price of fuel on the alleviation of greenhouse gas emissions by road transport sector, it is advisable to gradually increase fuel price until it reaches FOB price in the Persian Gulf.
  • Streamflow droughts assessment in Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Kazemzadeh, M.; Malekian, A. (2017)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    In this paper, we analyzed the streamflow droughts based on the Percent of Normal Index (PNI) and clustering approaches in the Kurdistan Province, Iran, over the 1981-2010. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was considered for streamflow time series and the results of K-S test indicated that streamflow time series did follow the normal distribution at the 0.05 significance level. Generally, the results showed that mostly streamflow droughts have been commenced since 1997 and also in most of the stations the extreme streamflow droughts occurred in 1997-2001. Furthermore, the number of drought events in each station showed that the extreme streamflow drought status in the Shilan station was the highest number with value 12, while the Tunnel Chehelgazi showed the lowest extreme drought status with value 4. Meanwhile, we used clustering approaches in order to explore homogeneities area which suffered from streamflow droughts. We selected two different clusters. So that, 5 stations out of 6 stations were classified in cluster 1 having the same situation in most years. The Shilan station had the specific conditions compared with other stations and classified in cluster 2. As a result, the clustering analysis was able to explore homogenous areas suffered from the same streamflow droughts. Therefore, the results of this work showed that the study area suffered from streamflow drought events over the three last decades, especially in last 14 years which can lead to many impacts on environment and ecosystems.
  • Sexual dimorphism and morphometric study of Caspian pond turtle, Mauremyscaspica, (Testudines: Geoemydidae) in Golestan Province, southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Yazarloo, M.; Kami, H.G.; Bagherian Yazdi, A. (2017)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    The Caspian pond turtle, Mauremyscaspica, is a terrapin belonging to family Geoemydidae. Totally 130 specimens (67 males and 63 females) were collected manually and by net from different aquatic habitats in Golestan Province from 2016 through 2017. Morphometric characteristics such as length were measured using digital caliper and weight by electronic weighting scale. Skin of this turtle was dark olive green in color and had rows of longitudinal yellow stripes around the head and neck. Their carapace was relatively flat, the bridges between the dorsal and ventral shells were bony, and the ends of anal scutes were found to be pointed. Fingers and toes had swimming membranes. Sexes were identified using the location of vent on the tail. Sex ratios of males to females were nearly 1:1. The maximum straight carapace length (SCL2) was 80.66- 230.16 (156.72 ± 42.93) and 56.96 - 236.84 (147.02 ± 50.76) in males and females respectively. Ratios of SCL2 to maximum plastron length (PL2) were found to be 1.013 - 1.32 (1.15 ± 0.04) in males and 1.01 - 1.15 (1.08 ± 0.03) in females; ratios of SCL2 to straight carapace width (SCW) were 1.24 - 2.60 (1.40 ± 0.16) in males and 1.20 -1.47 (1.35 ± 0.07) in females; ratios of SCL2 to carapace height (CH) were 2.28 - 3.55 (2.79 ± 0.22) in males and 2.05 - 8.78 (2.87 ± 1.11) in females; ratios of SCL2 to tail length2 (TL2) were 2.33 - 7.59 (3.76 ± 0.91) in males and 2.34 - 4.78 (3.06 ± 0.62) in females. Ratios of straight width of femuro-anal suture (FASW) to anal seam length (AnSL) were 2.95 – 5.89 (3.78 ± 0.54) in males and 2.65 - 4.13 (3.23 ± 0.40) in females. The ratio of TL2 to TL1 and TL1 to RBrL are found to be the fast and simple grouping index to determine sex of the specimens.
  • Advanced oxidation processes against alkyl phenols in groundwater samples

    Zaribafan, A.; Baharlouie Yancheshmeh, M.; Fathi, T.; Ahmadkhani, R.; Haghbeen, K. (2017)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Spectrophotometric examinations showed the presence of phenolic compounds in the organic residue collected from four groundwater resources located in vicinity of an oil refinery at the outskirt of Tehran. The average concentration of total phenolic compounds was about 0.38 mg.L-1 in these samples using Folin-Ciocalteu method. GC-Mass analysis disclosed that alkylphenols were the major phenolic contaminants in the samples. Evaluation of the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) efficacy for removal of alkylphenols from real water samples is a hot topic of recent Environmental Research due to the decomposition of these compounds in soil and by microorganisms which may results in the formation of structures more resistance against various types of oxidation. To explore the efficacy of AOPs for removal of alkylphenols from the examined groundwater resources, the optimal conditions for three important AOP including Fe2+/H2O2/UV (Photo-Fenton), O3/UV and O3/UV/H2O2 were first sought using a recalcitrant lab sample containing different aromatic compounds with total concentration of 2 mg.L-1. Consequently, two methods of O3/UV (2 mg.L-1 O3, 15 min UVC), and O3/UV/H2O2 (2 mg.L-1 O3, 5000 mg.L-1 H2O2, 15 min UVC) were selected to be examined on the real samples. Although the selected methods were quantitatively effective on the lab sample, they resulted in average removal efficiencies of 79.71% and 84.16% on the real samples, respectively. With respect to the safety regulations, costs and easiness of implementation, the O3/UV method seems to be more promising for large-scale plans.
  • Analysis of vitellogenin gene structure in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) during exposure to Atrazine

    Oveysi, M.; Jamili, Sh.; Behdani, M.; Mashinchian Moradi, A.; Sharifpoor, E. (2017)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Chemical contamination of aquatic environments to EDCs has become a major focus of environmental toxicology research. The exposure of fishes to estrogenic EDCs in aquatic environments is most frequently assessed by analyzing Vitellogenin (Vg) (the egg yolk precursor protein) expression. Therefore, characterization of Vg gene is of high priority for EDCs bio-monitoring. So, we prepared liver tissue samples of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus for RNA extraction. Following the cDNA synthesis, specifically - designed primers were employed to amplify the Vg gene and ultimately sequence it. The evolutionary analyses of the sequence were performed using MEGA7 software. The obtained results indicated that the designed primers successfully amplified the partial cDNA sequence. Our results indicated that this sequence most probably belongs to the Vg1 form of the gene. Moreover, it was demonstrated that Caspian roach and Petroleuciscus esfahani share a common ancestor. Noteworthy, the study of Vg gene would be helpful to understand the molecular mechanisms of development and would be used to establish a bio-monitoring tool for detection of exposure to different EDCs.
  • Impacts of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50-Hz) on growth performance and survival rate of common carp, Cyprinus carpio fingerlings

    Mohammadi-Zadeh Khoshroo, M.; Shamsaie Mehrjan, M.; Samiee, F.; Soltani, M.; Hosseini Shekarabi, S.P. (2017)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    All organisms are probably exposed to different types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of extremely low-frequency EMFs (50 Hz) on some growth parameters and survival rate of common carp fingerling. The fry (n = 120, averaged 16.76 ± 0.88 g in initial weight) was exposed to ELF-EMF at four intensities of 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mT only once for 2 h and then reared for 60 days. The obtained results revealed that all growth indices were significantly (p < 0.05) improved by increasing in the EMFs intensity. 2 mT treatment indicated the highest final weight (43.95 ± 0.27 g), weight gain (6.83 ± 0.10 g), weight gain rate (20.94 ± 0.13 %), daily growth rate (0.38 ± 0.00 g day-1), specific growth rate (1.26 ± 0.01 % day-1) and the lowest food conversion ratio (p < 0.05). Survival rate had significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all exposed treatments compared to the control group. In conclusion, ELF-EMF can enhance the growth indices and survival rate of common carp as one of the most commercially - important cultured fish species over the world.
  • The mammals of Anzali Wetland in the Southern Caspian Sea

    Naderi, S.; Mirzajani, A.; Rajabi Maham, H.; Hadipour, E. (2017)
    Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences
    Anzali Wetland as a listed habitat in Montreux Record, was investigated for the mammal fauna during Jan. 2015 - Jan. 2016. About 165 km of water bodies and 200 km around Anzali Wetland were patrolled, respectively. By applying different methods, such as direct observation, different signs recording, using different sampling traps, nets and camera traps, twenty mammal species were identified from 5 orders and 13 families. While Wild boar, Golden Jackal and Common otter were widely distributed, Common badger, Asiatic wildcat and Jungle cat were observed in some parts of this wetland. Six rodent species were recognized in different parts of the wetland. Among four identified bat species, Nathusius’s pipistrelle has been reported only from this region in Iran. The most commonly recorded bat species was the Soprano pipistrelle, a species hereto recorded only from two Iranian localities. Two recognized species from order Eulipotyphla; Caspian shrew and a mysterious mole are important due to their narrow geographical distribution range as well as their taxonomic situation. Although there was no quantitative or qualitative data from the past, our results show that the situation of many mammal species are not suitable, and some of them are being increasingly threatened.

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