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  • Advanced oxidation processes against alkyl phenols in groundwater samples

    Zaribafan, A.; Baharlouie Yancheshmeh, M.; Fathi, T.; Ahmadkhani, R.; Haghbeen, K. (2017)
    Spectrophotometric examinations showed the presence of phenolic compounds in the organic residue collected from four groundwater resources located in vicinity of an oil refinery at the outskirt of Tehran. The average concentration of total phenolic compounds was about 0.38 mg.L-1 in these samples using Folin-Ciocalteu method. GC-Mass analysis disclosed that alkylphenols were the major phenolic contaminants in the samples. Evaluation of the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) efficacy for removal of alkylphenols from real water samples is a hot topic of recent Environmental Research due to the decomposition of these compounds in soil and by microorganisms which may results in the formation of structures more resistance against various types of oxidation. To explore the efficacy of AOPs for removal of alkylphenols from the examined groundwater resources, the optimal conditions for three important AOP including Fe2+/H2O2/UV (Photo-Fenton), O3/UV and O3/UV/H2O2 were first sought using a recalcitrant lab sample containing different aromatic compounds with total concentration of 2 mg.L-1. Consequently, two methods of O3/UV (2 mg.L-1 O3, 15 min UVC), and O3/UV/H2O2 (2 mg.L-1 O3, 5000 mg.L-1 H2O2, 15 min UVC) were selected to be examined on the real samples. Although the selected methods were quantitatively effective on the lab sample, they resulted in average removal efficiencies of 79.71% and 84.16% on the real samples, respectively. With respect to the safety regulations, costs and easiness of implementation, the O3/UV method seems to be more promising for large-scale plans.
  • Streamflow droughts assessment in Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Kazemzadeh, M.; Malekian, A. (2017)
    In this paper, we analyzed the streamflow droughts based on the Percent of Normal Index (PNI) and clustering approaches in the Kurdistan Province, Iran, over the 1981-2010. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was considered for streamflow time series and the results of K-S test indicated that streamflow time series did follow the normal distribution at the 0.05 significance level. Generally, the results showed that mostly streamflow droughts have been commenced since 1997 and also in most of the stations the extreme streamflow droughts occurred in 1997-2001. Furthermore, the number of drought events in each station showed that the extreme streamflow drought status in the Shilan station was the highest number with value 12, while the Tunnel Chehelgazi showed the lowest extreme drought status with value 4. Meanwhile, we used clustering approaches in order to explore homogeneities area which suffered from streamflow droughts. We selected two different clusters. So that, 5 stations out of 6 stations were classified in cluster 1 having the same situation in most years. The Shilan station had the specific conditions compared with other stations and classified in cluster 2. As a result, the clustering analysis was able to explore homogenous areas suffered from the same streamflow droughts. Therefore, the results of this work showed that the study area suffered from streamflow drought events over the three last decades, especially in last 14 years which can lead to many impacts on environment and ecosystems.
  • Sexual dimorphism and morphometric study of Caspian pond turtle, Mauremyscaspica, (Testudines: Geoemydidae) in Golestan Province, southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Yazarloo, M.; Kami, H.G.; Bagherian Yazdi, A. (2017)
    The Caspian pond turtle, Mauremyscaspica, is a terrapin belonging to family Geoemydidae. Totally 130 specimens (67 males and 63 females) were collected manually and by net from different aquatic habitats in Golestan Province from 2016 through 2017. Morphometric characteristics such as length were measured using digital caliper and weight by electronic weighting scale. Skin of this turtle was dark olive green in color and had rows of longitudinal yellow stripes around the head and neck. Their carapace was relatively flat, the bridges between the dorsal and ventral shells were bony, and the ends of anal scutes were found to be pointed. Fingers and toes had swimming membranes. Sexes were identified using the location of vent on the tail. Sex ratios of males to females were nearly 1:1. The maximum straight carapace length (SCL2) was 80.66-230.16 (156.72 ± 42.93) and 56.96-236.84 (147.02 ± 50.76) in males and females respectively. Ratios of SCL2 to maximum plastron length (PL2) were found to be 1.013-1.32 (1.15 ± 0.04) in males and 1.01-1.15 (1.08 ± 0.03) in females; ratios of SCL2 to straight carapace width (SCW) were 1.24-2.60 (1.40 ± 0.16) in males and 1.20-1.47 (1.35 ± 0.07) in females; ratios of SCL2 to carapace height (CH) were 2.28-3.55 (2.79 ± 0.22) in males and 2.05-8.78 (2.87 ± 1.11) in females; ratios of SCL2 to tail length2 (TL2) were 2.33-7.59 (3.76 ± 0.91) in males and 2.34-4.78 (3.06 ± 0.62) in females. Ratios of straight width of femuro-anal suture (FASW) to anal seam length (AnSL) were 2.95–5.89 (3.78 ± 0.54) in males and 2.65-4.13 (3.23 ± 0.40) in females. The ratio of TL2 to TL1 and TL1 to RBrL are found to be the fast and simple grouping index to determine sex of the specimens.
  • Analysis of vitellogenin gene structure in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) during exposure to Atrazine

    Oveysi, M.; Jamili, Sh.; Behdani, M.; Mashinchian Moradi, A.; Sharifpoor, E. (2017)
    Chemical contamination of aquatic environments to EDCs has become a major focus of environmental toxicology research. The exposure of fishes to estrogenic EDCs in aquatic environments is most frequently assessed by analyzing Vitellogenin (Vg) (the egg yolk precursor protein) expression. Therefore, characterization of Vg gene is of high priority for EDCs bio-monitoring. So, we prepared liver tissue samples of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus for RNA extraction. Following the cDNA synthesis, specifically - designed primers were employed to amplify the Vg gene and ultimately sequence it. The evolutionary analyses of the sequence were performed using MEGA7 software. The obtained results indicated that the designed primers successfully amplified the partial cDNA sequence. Our results indicated that this sequence most probably belongs to the Vg1 form of the gene. Moreover, it was demonstrated that Caspian roach and Petroleuciscus esfahani share a common ancestor. Noteworthy, the study of Vg gene would be helpful to understand the molecular mechanisms of development and would be used to establish a bio-monitoring tool for detection of exposure to different EDCs.
  • Amino acid and fatty acid profiles of materials recovered from Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), using acidic and basic solubilization/ precipitation technique

    Saffar Shargh, A.; Zakipour Rahimabadi, E.; Alizadeh, E.; Gheybi, F. (2017)
    Isoelectric solubilization /precipitation (ISP) process was used to isolate protein from muscles of Prussian carp,Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782). Fish protein and lipid were recovered from whole gutted Prussian carp using acidic and basic isoelectric solubilization/precipitation followed by assaying amino acid and fatty acid profile. Essential amino acids content in acidic and basic pH treatment of ISP of Prussian carp were 216.6 and 218.7 mg.g-1,respectively. Results showed that identified amino acids in Prussian carp protein isolated by ISP method, could meet all needs of adults, but a supplementary protein must be used for children. Limiting amino acids in both acidic and basic treatments were methionine and cysteine. Nineteen fatty acids of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) groups were identified in lipid recovered in isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process. Total PUFA in basic treatment was noticeably higher than in acidic one. N-3/n-6 ratio in basic pH treatment was also higher than in acidic one.
  • Effects of pH, particle size and porosity of raw rice husk and its silica on removing lead and hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution

    Moeinian, K.; Abdul latif, P.B.; Rastgoo, T.; Mehdinia, S.M. (2017)
    Adsorbent properties and aqueous characteristics are very important parameters in the removal efficiency (RE) of environmental pollutants. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of pH, particle size and porosity of raw rice husk and its silica on removing lead and hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) from aqueous solution. The raw rice husk was collected from north of Iran and the rice husk silica was prepared at 800ºC after acid leaching. The effects of the adsorbent particle sizes (0.07-0.1, 0.1-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-1.5 mm), porosity and pH from 2 to 8 were investigated by varying any of the process variables while keeping the other variables constant (adsorbent dosage= 1.5 g.l-1, contact time = 60 min, chromium and lead initial concentration = 5 mg.l -1). The results of this study showed that the RE of Cr+6 is intensively pH - dependent. Using 1.5 g.l-1 adsorbents, particle size = 0.5 - 1.0 mm, 5.0 mg.l-1 initial concentration of Cr+6 and 60 min contact time, the maximum RE obtained by raw rice husk and its silica at pH 2 were up to 98.8 and 88.4%, respectively. However, at the same condition with changing pH (pH 7),the maximum RE decreased up to 69.4 and 60.4%, respectively. Moreover, a positive strong significant correlation was detected between decreasing the adsorbents particle sizes and lead removal efficiency in the two adsorbents (P < 0.01). The scanning electron microscope images of the two adsorbents showed that silica derived from raw rice husk has more porosity. In conclusion, the acidic condition of aqueous for Cr+6 and neutral condition for lead, increases the adsorbents porosity, while decreased adsorbent particle sizes causes an elevation in the RE of the two pollutants.
  • The mammals of Anzali Wetland in the Southern Caspian Sea

    Naderi, S.; Mirzajani, A.; Rajabi Maham, H.; Hadipour, E. (2017)
    Anzali Wetland as a listed habitat in Montreux Record, was investigated for the mammal fauna during Jan. 2015 - Jan. 2016. About 165 km of water bodies and 200 km around Anzali Wetland were patrolled, respectively. By applying different methods, such as direct observation, different signs recording, using different sampling traps,nets and camera traps, twenty mammal species were identified from 5 orders and 13 families. While Wild boar,Golden Jackal and Common otter were widely distributed, Common badger, Asiatic wildcat and Jungle cat were observed in some parts of this wetland. Six rodent species were recognized in different parts of the wetland. Among four identified bat species, Nathusius’s pipistrelle has been reported only from this region in Iran. The most commonly recorded bat species was the Soprano pipistrelle, a species hereto recorded only from two Iranian localities. Two recognized species from order Eulipotyphla; Caspian shrew and a mysterious mole are important due to their narrow geographical distribution range as well as their taxonomic situation. Although there was no quantitative or qualitative data from the past, our results show that the situation of many mammal species are not suitable, and some of them are being increasingly threatened.
  • Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A. (2017)
    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province, the Southern Caspian Sea during their upstream migration to the freshwater. All fish were injected with hCG at the doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 BW-1. The injection was a two - step process (50% of hormone in each step) by 12 h interval. After the first injection, fish were retained in the cages in the river beds and 24 hours after the second injection, fish were checked for egg and sperm release after mild abdomen pressure. Blood samples were taken for determining sex steroid levels. Results showed that hCG hormone injections caused increase in migration of germinal vesicle in the oocyte of female and sperm release in males. Significant differences were found in the serum E2 and 17α-OHP levels in hCG - injected fish compared to the control. However, no significant differences were found in serum T3 and T4 levels in the hCG -injected fish. According to the results, the appropriate hCG dosage to induce the reproduction acceleration in Caspian lamprey is 1500-2000 BW-1.
  • Assessment of surface water quality of Mencha River, Northeastern Algeria by index method

    Krika, A.; Krika, F. (2017)
    Mencha River is one of the largest river in the region of Jijel, Algeria. The human activities such as urban discharges, industrial, agricultural and livestock have significant effects on the quality of water. Because of its importance in the agricultural activities and dense population residing at its banks, the river faces several challenges from various anthropogenic activities. This situation exposes surface water to a severe pollution. The objectives of this study are to use different indexes to assess the current pollution status in Mencha River. Indexes used in this study were Organic Pollution Index (OPI) and Microbiological Quality Index (MQI). Based on the data collected throughout this study, results indicated that the upper reaches of the river (station 01) has had good water quality (OPI=4, MQI=4), while the station 04 presented a poor quality (OPI=2.75, MQI=2.33). Indeed, several pollution sources exist in this site. The agricultural activity, among different sources, was the strongest point in the downstream section of the river, as it contains high amounts of chemicals, causing major decrement in water quality. The used indexes also showed that at stations 02 and 03, the water quality was moderate (OPI=3.25, MQI=3). This study can be used to support the evaluation of regulatory and monitoring decisions.
  • Life history traits and gonad histology of an endemic cyprinid fish, Mond spotted barb, Capoeta mandica from Southern Iran

    Esmaeili, H.R.; Choobineh, R.; Zareian, H.; Gholamhosseini, A. (2017)
    The life history traits and gonad development of an endemic cyprinid fish, the spotted barb, Capoeta mandica (Bianco & Banarescu 1982), from southern Iran was investigated by regular monthly collections from February 2006 through January 2007 and on the basis of microscopic and macroscopic analyses. No information on the spawning characteristics of the fish are available to date. A total of 335 specimens were captured using electrofishing including 253 males and 102 females, resulting in 2.5:1 (male: female) sex ratio, which is significantly different from the expected ratio. The commonly known five standard maturation stages were determined based on the size, shape and weight of the gonads, degree of occupation of the body cavity, presence or absence of ripe oocytes, or milt, diameter of the oocytes in the ovary, and histological observations. These stages were correlated to the reproductive indices. The ovum diameters ranged from 0.04 to 1.31 mm, with the highest mean value in May. The condition factor of male and female specimens was the highest in April. The female GSI increased from March to May, peaking in the middle of spring and decreased significantly in June. Based on the gonad maturation stages, gonadosomatic index (GSI), modified GSI, mean egg diameter, condition factor (K) and Dobriyal index (DI), it was concluded that the spotted barb spawns during May and June. The provided data, contribute baseline data towards management ecology and conservation of this endemic fish species.
  • Effect of age on reproductive performance of Kutum, Rutilus frisii (Nordmann, 1840) in Shirood River, the southern coast of the Caspian Sea

    Bavand Savadkouhi, E.; Khara, H. (2017)
    In this study, we investigated the age-dependent changes in reproductive efficiency of Kutum, Rutilus frisii caught from Shirood River, the Southern Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Province, Iran). Age-dependent reproductive performance of brooders was assayed on two age and sex groups. Results revealed that there were no significant differences in sperm characteristics between age groups. All female characteristics revealed change except relative fecundity between two age groups. The higher fertilization rate (87%) and also survival rate (91%) were found when the 4 year-old males were crossed with 4 year - old females (P < 0.05). Our results confirmed the agedependent changes of reproductive efficiency in Kutum. So that, the cross between 4 year-old males and 4 year - old females could be useful for enhancement of reproductive efficiency in Kutum .
  • Stock assessment of juvenile sturgeons in the Iranian water of the Caspian Sea by bottom trawl survey

    Tavakoli, M.; Behrooz Khoshghalb, M.R.; Kor, D.; Ghadirnejad, H. (2017)
    The sturgeon stock assessment was performed to aim at estimation of absolute and relative abundance and determination of species composition at lower 10 m depths using the Si-Sara2 RV vessel in the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea in Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces during 6-30 September 2011-2012. In this study, 40 stations were selected on the basis of stratified random sampling design and then the stock estimation was performed using the swept area method. The study was carried out using bottom trawling with 9 m head rope. The time and speed of trawling in each station were 30 minutes and 2.5 knots respectively. The Catch per Unit of Effort (CPUE) in 2011–2012 were 7.03 and 6.96 individuals per trawling, respectively. The catch per unit of area in these years were found to be 1662 and 1644 fish in nm2, respectively.Total abundance of sturgeon juveniles was 13,327,164 individuals in 2011. So, the species composition included A. persicus (87.8%) and A. stellatus (12.2%). Total abundance of sturgeon juveniles was found to be 14,364,882 individuals in 2012 and the species composition comprised A. persicus (61.4%) and A. stellatus (38.6%). In 2011 the biomass of sturgeons in Iranian coastal water of the Caspian Sea was 295 tons and the composition of biomass included A. persicus (81.5%) and A. stellatus (18.5%), respectively. In the cruises conducted in 2011, this amount was estimated to be 217 tons comprising A. persicus (54.2%) and A. stellatus (45.8%), respectively. The results of this study in 2011–2012 showed remarkable abundance of juvenile sturgeons in Iranian coastal waters of the Caspian Sea in late summer and early autumn. So, by conserving these valuable stocks, the number of spawners will be increased in the future.
  • Reproductive biology of Mossul bleak (Alburnus mossulensis) in Bibi-Sayyedan River of Tigris basin in Iran

    Keivany, Y.; Ghorbani, M.; Paykan-Heyrati, F. (2017)
    Reproductive characteristics of Mossul bleak, Alburnus mossulensis, a native species of Cyprinidae family in Bibi-Sayyedan River of Semirom, Isfahan, were investigated by monthly sampling during December 2010 to December 2011. Five hundred and fourty three specimens (256 females, 159 males and 31 immature) were caught by a sein net (5 mm mesh size). The collected sampeles were anesthesized in 1% clove oil solution and transported to the laboratory on ice and subjected to dissection and biometric measurments. Age of males and females ranged from 0+ to 5+ years. The sex ratio was 1M: 2.2F (p < 0.05). The females outnumbered the males in all age classes. The largest female was 16.8cm in total length and 49.12g in weight and the largest male was 14.1cm in total length and 28.19g in weight. The age and total length at first maturity of females and males were estimated as 1 year and 5.3cm total length, and 2 years and 4.4cm, respectively. The minimum, maximum, and avarge absolute fecundity were 2064, 10316, and 5505 ± 2686, respectively and also the relative fecundity was 203 ± 58 egg/g body weight. Macroscopic analysis of gonads and gonadostomatic index values suggested that spawning of A. mossulensis occurs from March to June with a peak in April. Thus, A. mosullensis is considered a group-synchronous type species with a capacity for multiple ovulations within a reproductive season (multiple spawner).
  • Effects of cadmium on morphological structure of sperm in Caspiomyzon wagneri (Kessler, 1870) (Petromyzontiformes : Petromyzontidae)

    Eagderi, S.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Poorbagher, H.; Nasrollah Pourmoghadam, M.; Nemati Mobin, N. (2017)
    The present study aimed to investigate effects of the heavy metal Cd on the sperm morphological indices of Caspimyzon wagneri. The sperm were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg.L-1 Cd for three minutes, three and 36 hours. The sperms exposed to Cd showed an increase in the length, width and surface of the head, flagella degradation and slightly flagella breakage. With increase of Cd concentration or the exposure duration, the damages found in sperms increased. But when exposure to contaminant exceeds than certain period of time,damage effects caused changes in the sperm structure as head length reduction and head width increasing and thereby reducing the sperm’s head surface, complete cutting of flagella at all samples and deformation of the sperm’s head from oval to circular, which these changes became visible during 36 hours of exposure to cadmium.Therefore, the results revealed that the arrival of pollutants including cadmium to the natural reproduction ground of this species due to induction the harmful effects on sperm morphology factors will have adverse effects on sperm function and fertilization rate and reduce them, and as such will be considered a serious threat to the survival generation of this rare species.
  • Variations in fish body and scale shape among Aphanius dispar (Cyprinodontidae) populations: insights from a geometric morphometric analysis

    Khosravi, A.; Shaker Golmakan, M.; Teimori, A. (2017)
    Phenotypic variations in fish body and scale shape were investigated among the three populations of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell, 1829) in Southern Iran through the use of landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses.This species is widely distributed in the region, and therefore, considerable morphological variations exist among the geographically allopatric populations. Based on the Principle Component Analysis (PCA), variation in body shape of the females is prominently related to the dorsal fin region, while in the males it is related to the dorsal fin and caudal peduncle. Moreover, the shape variations in the scales are obviously linked to the tip of anterior portion of the scales, and the left and right boundaries between anterior and posterior regions of the scales. The lateral sides of the fish scales in site I are concave, while they are laterally convex in sites II and III. The observed variation seen in the fish body shape and scales among the three studied sites are probably caused by the different ecological conditions of their habitats particularly variation in water flow.
  • Changes in biochemical and physiological responses of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. after long-term exposure to Pb (II)

    Heidary, S.; Hajimoradloo, A.; Bani, A.; Aghamaali, M.; Ghorbani, R. (2016)
    In this study, the chronic toxic effects of Pb (II) on common carp, Cyprius carpio were investigated using several biomarkers at different levels of biological functions for assessing changes in ecosystem quality. In a bioassay,common carp juveniles were individually exposed to different dose of heavy metal, Pb II (0, 0.45, 0.89, 1.34 mg.l-1) for 28 days. Morphological indices such as hepatosomatic index, condition factor and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and also the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured. These results indicated that there was significant lower condition factor in fish exposed to the highest concentration of Pb (p<0.05). The activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD & CAT) and LPO level was significantly elevated after long-term exposure to higher concentration of Pb (p<0.05). Briefly, our findings suggested that common carp exposed to lead, develop oxidative stress, hence long-term exposure to higher concentrations of Pb could seriously affect the health status of fish.
  • Evaluation of electronarcosis and clove oil for short-term anesthesia in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. 1758

    Monsef Rad, S.F.; Paighambari, S.Y.; Haji Moradlou, A.; Mashayekhi, F.; Qorbani, R. (2016)
    Anesthesia is considered to be the best way to ensure animal welfare during handling etc. Clove oil and electronarcosis are among the most popular chemical and physical anesthetics used in fisheries and biology;however there is a little information available on the effect of anesthesia using direct electric current in fish. In the present study, the impacts of clove oil (30 mg.l-1) and electro-anesthesia (constant direct current, 0.5 (DC) were assessed in common carp, Cyprinus carpio during narcotic stage in two experimental sets. Experiment 1 was conducted to quantitatively compare induction of anesthesia and recovery time. The biochemical and hematological effects of anesthetics were analyzed as experiment 2. The results revealed that induction and recovery times in fish anesthetized with electric current were significantly lower than clove oil treatment.Significant differences were observed in cortisol concentrations, red blood cells and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration between anesthetic methods. Our results suggest that constant direct current electronarcosis was more quickly than clove oil and associated with lower side effects in common carp.
  • Bioaccumulation of copper nanoparticle in gill, liver, intestine and muscle of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juvenile

    Bagherzadeh Lakani, F.; Meshkini, S.; Yazdani Sadati, M.A.; Falahatkar, B. (2016)
    Copper (Cu) is an essential element required by all living organisms, since at least 30 enzymes are known to use Cu as a cofactor. Cu is also toxic in excess and liver and gills are known to be target organs for it. In the present study, 240 Siberian sturgeon juvenile (with initial weight 29.2 ± 3.1 g and initial length 21.8 ± 1.4 cm) were randomly distributed in 12 fiberglass tanks at 4 different copper nanoparticle (Cu-NPs) treatments with 3 replicates. Treatments included control (T0 = no added Cu-NPs), 50 (T50), 100 (T100), 200 (T200) µg.l -1 Cu-NPs (mean primary particle size of 2 - 6 nm) in a semi-static waterborne exposure regime. Water exchanged were 20% daily with redosing after each change. The experimental period lasted 28 days, 14 days exposure to Cu-NPs and 14 days as recovery time. Fish liver, gill, intestine and muscle were sampled at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Samples were weighed, dried (100 ◦C for 48 h) then digested in concentrated nitric acid in a water bath, cooled, and analyzed for Cu concentration in the tissues with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscope. Most of the Cu-NPs were accumulated in the intestine, gill, liver and muscle. The accumulation of NPs in tissues was increased in all treatments from day 7 through 14. In the recovery period, Cu-NPs in tissues decreased but it was still higher than the control treatment. The current findings indicate that preventing the entry of Cu-NPs into the aquatic environment would seem to be essential.
  • Fatty acid composition of fresh and smoked Black and Caspian Sea sprat, Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann, 1840) treated with different salt composition

    Zakipour Rahimabadi, E.; Faralizadeh, S.; Khanipour, A.A. (2016)
    The effect of salting by different salt composition on fatty acid profile studied in hot smoked Black and Caspian Sea sprat, Clupeonella cultriventris. After initial prepare activities, samples were exposed to brining process within two salt concentrations including of 100 % NaCl (treatment 1 or T1) and 75 % NaCl- 25 % KCl (treatment 2 or T2) under 15% brine solution for 3 hrs. The smoking process included turning the samples into drying and hot smokes by slow and high rates of smoking machine (Atmoos) set and packaged. Fatty acid profiles of treated samples were compared with fresh fish samples (control). Smoking process decreased the content of SFA and contemporary increased the content of PUFA in comparison to control samples. These changes were slightly higher in T2. N-3/n-6 ratio of control samples (7.30) was increased in T1 samples (7.71) and decreased in T2 samples (6.86) after smoking process. Atherogenic index (AI) value was decreased after smoking process in both treatments with higher decrement for T2. Thrombogenic index (TI) value was also decreased after smoking process in both treatments. Partial sodium replacement did not affect fatty acid composition, PUFAs content, AI and TI values.
  • Karyotype analysis of chub, Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey

    Kilic, D.; Sisman, T. (2016)
    The karyotypic characteristics of chub, Squalius cephalus have been investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes spreads obtained from gill and kidney tissues. The fish used in the study were caught with fishing nets from Dumlu Stream, one of the main tributaries of the Karasu River. The live fish were transported to the laboratory, kept in a well aerated aquarium before analysis and then were injected intraperitoneally with doses of phytohemagglutinin, 0.01 ml.g-1 BW of 1% solution with 48-h interval to induce cell divisions. At the end of the period, the fish were injected intraperitoneally with doses of colchicine (0.01 ml.g-1 BW of 6% solution) and left for 3 hours before anesthesia and sacrificing. The best treatment parameters for preparing good metaphase chromosome spreads from the gill and kidney cells were performed as hypotonic (0.075 M KCl) treatment for 50 minutes, fixation with cold Carnoy solution at 3:1 ratio (methanol: acetic acid) and a concentration of 5% Giemsa for 35 minutes. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n = 50. The fundamental arm number (FN) was 92. The karyotypes were composed of 5 metacentric, 11 submetacentric, 5 subtelocentric and 4 acrocentric chromosome pairs (10 M + 22 SM + 10 ST + 8 A). No sex chromosomes were cytologically detected in this fish.

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