Recent Submissions

  • Chemical compositions, volatile compounds and sensory property of salted shrimp paste (Kapi) produced from Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri

    Pongsetkul, J.; Benjakul, S.; Sumpavapol, P.; Vongkamjan, K.; Osako, K. (2019)
    Chemical compositions, volatile compounds and sensory property of Kapi produced from two shrimp species, Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, were comparatively determined. Kapi produced from M. lanchesteri (KM) had the higher protein content but lower fat content, compared with that from A. vulgaris (KA) (p < 0.05). However, KA showed higher browning intensity (A420) and fluorescence intensity than KM, indicating browner and more yellowish color of the former. Both KA and KM contained varying volatile compounds, but N-containing compounds were predominant. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of KA, KM and commercial Kapi, the intensity of N-containing compounds correlated well with sensory property. KA generally contained higher N-containing compounds and had higher flavor and overall likeness scores, compared with KM. Thus, A. vulgaris could serve as a potential alternative raw material for Kapi production. Chemical compositions, volatile compounds and sensory property of Kapi produced from two shrimp species, Acetes vulgaris and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, were comparatively determined. Relationships between the volatiles and sensory scores of the samples, compared with commercial Kapi samples, were also investigated using principal component analysis (PCA). Kapi produced from M. lanchesteri (KM) had the higher protein content but lower fat content, compared with that from A. vulgaris (KA) (p < 0.05). However, KA showed higher browning intensity (A420) and fluorescence intensity than KM, indicating browner and more yellowish color of the former. Both KA and KM contained varying volatile compounds, but N-containing compounds were predominant. Based on PCA of KA, KM and commercial Kapi, the intensity of N-containing compounds correlated well with sensory property. KA generally contained higher N-containing compounds and had higher flavor and overall likeness scores, compared with KM. Thus, A. vulgaris could serve as a potential alternative raw material for Kapi production.
  • The relationships between gut length and prey preference of three pipefish (Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle, Nerophis ophidion Linnaeus, 1758) species distributed in Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Gurkan, S.; Taskavak, E. (2019)
    In this research, gut lengths and numerical occurrence of gut contents (NO%) of Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion were examined. The specimens were captured with beach seine net in different habitats (vegetated and sandy-vegetated etc.) at the coasts of Aegean Sea between 2006-and 2008. The zooplanktonic preys were mostly consumed by Syngnathus acus and Nerophis ophidion, whereas, Syngnathus typhle showed the most prey diversity. Thus, zooplanktonic organisms and other vegetative materials were consumed by three pipefish, however, vegetative tissues were mostly preferred by Syngnathus typhle. Feeding habits of three pipefish species are associated with gut lengths that show differences in increases or decreases depending on fish size and shape. In this study, S. typhle that has longer gut length than the other pipefish species explains the situation of being rich in organic gut content such as benthic zooplankton. Accordingly, probable presence or absent of the relationships between gut length and prey groups for three pipefish were discussed. The obtained results have supported low index values explaining the exact feeding habits of the pipefish.
  • Influence of vacuum packaging and frozen storage time on fatty acids, amino acids and ω -3/ ω-6 ratio of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Rahimzade, E.; Bahri, A.; Moini, S.; Nokhbe Zare, D. (2019)
    In this study rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were vacuum packed, frozen and stored at -18°C and the effect of this packaging method on proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acid profile and their changes compared to control conditions during 9 months of storage were studied. The results showed that 18 fatty acids were identified. The unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) were 56.77 and 57.23 % in control and vacuum packed samples in zero time and oleic acid and linoleic acid had high amounts among the UFA. The saturated fatty acid (SFA) were 29.51 and 29.31 in control and vacuum packed samples, respectively and stearic acid and palmitic acid were the most among the SFA. As a result of a frozen storage period of 9 months, a marked content decrease was found in the fatty acid groups such as MUFA, PUFA and ω -3 PUFA, as well as in the ω -3/ ω-6 ratio. However, a preserving effect on such fatty acid parameters could be observed due to the vacuum packed treatment. Results showed that moisture, ash, protein and fat content were 72.1, 2.27, 20.78 and 7.1 g/100g in fresh fillets. At the end of storage time moisture and protein content were decrease and fat and ash were increase in control and vacuum packed samples. On the other hand, the most abundant amino acids in rainbow trout fillets were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and leucine. The results indicate that vacuum packaging treatment, in all measuring factors had significantly reduced than those in control samples. Thus, vacuum packaging retain quality of fatty acid and amino acid of rainbow trout fillets within the cold storage and utilization of this method is recommended.
  • Algae of Lemna minor L. growing in natural habitat and aquarium

    Pala, G.; Selamoglu, Z.; Caglar, M. (2019)
    In this study, the epiphytic algae of Lemna minor collected from its natural habitat or grown in aquarium were analyzed for a period of six months from April 2016 to September 2016. While a total of 15 taxa, 1 belonging to Cyanophyta and 14 belonging to Bacillariophyta, were recorded for L. minor grown in aquarium, a total of 36 taxa, 3 belonging to Cyanophyta, 5 belonging to Chlorophyta, 1 belonging to Euglenophyta, and 27 belonging to Bacillariophyta, were recorded for L. minor collected from its natural habitat. While no monthly differences were detected among those species emerging in aquarium, differences were observed among species emerging in the natural habitat.
  • Effects of stocking density on growth performance and profitability of Labeo bata fry reared in earthen ponds

    Ahmed, T.; Faruque, M.; Kabir, M.; Mustafa, M. (2019)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stocking density on growth, production and profitability of farming Labeo bata fry in earthen rearing ponds for a period of 60 days. Labeo bata, fry (mean initial length, 3.42 ± 0.07cm and weight, 1.02 ± 0.06 g) were stocked at 750, 1000 and 1250 decimal-1 in treatment-1(T1), treatment-2 (T2) and treatment-3 (T3) respectively, each with two replicates. Growth performance in term of final length and weight, net length and weight gain, specific growth rate were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than those of T2 and T3. Feed Conversion Ratio followed the opposite trends as specific growth rate. Production in terms of weight was found to be higher in T2 followed by T3 and T1, because of higher stocking density compare to T1 and higher weight gain in comparison to fish reared under T3 as well as insignificance variation in survival rate between T1 and T2. Consistently higher net benefits were found from treatment T2, which could be recommended to adopt. Moreover, further studies are also required to find out suitable culture technique that could enhance the production experimenting with different feeding frequencies as well as by manipulating culture systems.
  • Species inventory of the Rotatoria in the Anzali Wetland, Iran

    Naser Alavi, G.; Bani, A.; Bagheri, S. (2019)
    This study aims to enlist Rotatoria in the Anzali wetland (southwest Caspian Sea), a wetland which is listed as an international wetland in Ramsar convention (1975) and is an important ecosystem for spawning and early rearing of larvae of anadromous fishes. Samples of rotifers were collected in three regions of the Anzali wetland between June 2015 and May 2016. A total of 29 genera of rotifers belonging to 17 family are listed and most of species was observed in this study was cosmopolitan. The most diverse genus was Brachionus, comprising 8 species which compared to previous study, have been seen some changes that may be due to change in quality of inlet water from rivers to the Anzali wetland. Overall, Many reasons could have contributed to the changes in the rotifers composition of the Anzali wetland, notably the serious environmental degradation since the early 1990s.
  • Serratia marcescens B4A chitinase thermostability enhancement by S390I QuikChange site directed mutagenesis

    Emruzi Tubkanlu, Z.; Aminzadeh, S.; Karkhane, A.; Alikhajeh, J.; Ghoroghi, A. (2019)
    Thermostable chitinases are useful for industrial and biotechnological applications. This paper reports the stabilization of chitinase from Serratia marcescens B4A through rational mutagenesis. Changing of Ser 390 to Ile in S. marcescens. The stabilization was enhanced through entropic stabilization by reduction of the loop length and also by increasing of the beta chain length. With this replacement, polar uncharged residue changed to non-polar one and increased the hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore Isoleucine has branched β-carbon that restricts the backbone conformation more than non-branched residues. Finally all of these factors lead to entropic stabilization and thermal stabilization. The results exhibited that the optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity of native chitinase were not changed by mutagenesis which showed that mutation didn’t affect the original characteristics of the enzyme, the Km values of native and mutant chitinase were different very little, showing that the affinity of enzyme towards the substrate and also the natural flexibility of chitinase did not change by mutation. Besides the Vmax value of the mutant chitinase was decreased, while its pH stability was increased briefly, but its thermal stability was increased remarkably. Mutation made chitinase to tolerate high temperatures up to 90°C. In addition its activity was increased at 50°C, 60°C for 120 min and up to 2 hours of incubation period and the mutant chitinase demonstrated a high level of activity at 60°C. These results show that entropic stabilization works well for chitinase and this approach may be generally applicable for stabilization of other proteins.
  • Evaluating the suitability of cryopreservation solutions for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos stored at -2 °C

    Keivanloo, S.; Sudagar, M.; Mazandarani, M. (2019)
    In the present study, cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was studied using a stepwise cooling protocol. Embryos at heartbeat stage were selected, placed in 15- ml plastic tubes and stored at -2 °C for 1, 7, 14, and 21 days in 2 different cryopreservation solutions: S1 (methanol + dimethyl sulfoxide + sucrose) and S2 (methanol + propylene glycol + sucrose). Embryo viability was assessed by survival rate, counting live larvae and number of failed eggs under a stereomicroscope. The results showed that storage of common carp embryos was possible for up to 7 days at -2 °C, while the survival did not occur when storage period were 14 and 21 days. The combination of methanol with propylene glycol (S2) gave higher survival rate after 1 and 7 days stored at -2 °C. Further studies are needed in order to extend the storage time and to improve the survival rate for this species.
  • Seasonal variations in the fatty acid profiles of the liver and muscle of Squalius cephalus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) living in Tödürge Lake (Sivas, Turkiye)

    GÖRGÜN, S.; Akpınar, M. (2019)
    In this study, seasonal variations in the fatty acid profiles of the liver and muscle of Squalius cephalus from Tödürge Lake were determined by Gas Chromatography (GC). C22:6 n-3, C20:5 n-3, C20:4 n-6, C18:1 n-9, C18:1 n-7, C16:1 n-7, C18:0 and C16:0 were the principal fatty acids showing the highest levels in the muscle and liver of Squalius cephalus in all seasons. Although C22:6 n-3, which is regarded as the most important polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), were found to be high in the spring (17.37%) and summer (20.45%) in the liver, the percentages of this acid changed between 15.10% (winter) and 17.77% (spring) in the muscle. In all seasons, total unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated plus monounsaturated fatty acids) of the muscle tissue were found to be between 60-70%. Based on these results, S. cephalus is a good food resource in terms of feeding with unsaturated fatty acids in all seasons, especially C22:6 n-3.
  • Effect of enviromental temperature on heat shock proteins (HSP30, HSP70, HSP90) and IGF-I mRNA expression in Sparus aurata

    Bildik, A.; Asıcı Ekren, G.; Akdeniz, G.; Kıral, F. (2019)
    Ambient temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting physiological mechanisms and biochemical reactions of living organisms. Thus the effect of ambient temperature on HSPs and IGF-I gene expression levels in the liver and muscle tissues of Sparus aurata were investigated in this research. The levels of HSPs, and IGF-I gene expression of the liver and muscle of Sparus aurata were analyzed in by qRT-PCR. The experiment was done in July (27 ◦C) and January (18◦C). HSP70 mRNA relative expression levels in the muscle on January were significantly higher than July (approximately 1.7 fold), whereas HSP30 gene expression in the liver on July was increased by 2.0 fold (p<0.05). Transcription of other heat shock proteins and IGF-I were not affected by water temperature changing. The HSP findings of the research show that these proteins are important and sensitive in the average adaptation.
  • First record of Nais elinguis Müller, 1773 (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Naididae), Spatio-temporal patterns of its population density and biomass production along two estuaries in the South Caspian Sea, Mazandaran Province, Iran

    Tavol Koteri, M.; Fatemi, M.; Mousavi Nadushan, R.; Khoda Bakhshi, M. (2019)
    The cosmopolitan oligochaete worm, Nais elinguis, is common to fresh and brackish water habitats. This species was found while investigating the limnology of two rivers alongside the Iranian coasts and has not been reported in the Iranian freshwater fauna and Caspian Sea before. N. elinguis was collected bimonthly from Cheshmehkileh and Sardabrood estuaries using a Van Veen grab (0.03 m2) and Surber (0.1 m2, 0.2 mm-mesh size) with three replicates from 6 stations from November 2014 through September 2015. The results of temporal distribution showed that the highest and lowest density and biomass of this species were in January (242.2±84.45 ind m-2 and 0.105±0.035 g m-2) and in September (33.35±23.5 ind m-2 and 0.010±0.006 g m-2) respectively which were significantly different (p<0.05). Among the sampling stations, station (S1) within the river with freshwater showed higher density and biomass (273.5±87.35 ind m-2 and 0.116±0.036 g m-2) than riverine brackish station (S2) within the mouth (39.8±22.6 ind m-2 and 0.013±0.006 g m-2) and marine brackish station (S3) (0±0 ind m-2 and 0±0 g m-2) which were significantly different (p<0.05). Density and biomass of this species in Cheshmehkileh River and estuary were more than that in Sardabrood. A significant correlation (p<0.05) between the density and biomass of N. elinguis with environmental variables was found.
  • Structure and ultrastructure studies of the digestive tract of the endangered Qinling lenok (Brachymystax tsinlingensis Li, 1966)

    Xiong, D.; Meng, Y.; Yu, H.; Liu, X.; Liu, H. (2019)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the structure and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Qinling lenok (Brachymystax tsinlingensis Li, 1966), a cold water Salmonidae fish, an endangered teleost species, with high potential for controlled rearing in Shaanxi Province of China, by light and electron microscopy. Morphological data of the digestive tract are important for understanding fish nutrition, pathological or physiological alterations. The histological structure of Qinling lenok consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. Taste buds were found in lips and esophagus. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. The U-shaped stomach was divided into cardiac, fundic and pyloric region. There are numerous gastric glands in the submucosa layer of the cardiac and fundic stomach, but none of them are present in the pyloric region. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells with microvilli at the apical surface, with an intestinal coefficient of 0.61. There are numerous goblet cells in the intestine. Finger-like pyloric caeca were found in the front of intestine tube, with number ranged from 42 to 88. In ultrastructural level, mucous and glandular cells in the stomach were found, the glandular cell with well-developed tubulovesicular system, a great amount of pepsinogen granules, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. The enterocytes with abundant microvilli contained mitochondria and lysosome, and mucous granules of goblet cells were apparent in the intestine. High density of lipid droplets of pyloric caeca might be concerned with fat-absorption. The present study suggests that the digestive tract of Qinling lenok is similar to other carnivorous fishes, in relation to its feeding habits.
  • Effects of soy protein base diet supplemented with lysine and methionine on digestive enzymes activity and hematological parameters in silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles

    Yaghoubi, M.; Torfi mozanzadeh, M.; Ghafle Marammazi, J.; Safari, O.; Gisbert, E. (2019)
    The effect of dietary partial replacement of fish meal (FM) with soybean protein (SP) alone or in combination with lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) supplementation were tested in a 60-day feeding trial for silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles. Seven isoproteic (ca. 50% crude protein) and isoenergetic (ca. 22.4 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated in which 45% (SP45), 60% (SP60) and 75% (SP75) of FM protein were replaced by SP and the control diet (FM) was prepared with FM as the major source of protein. In SP45+, SP60+ and SP75+ diets, 45 to 75% of FM was replaced by SP with supplementing blends of Lys and Met (98% of purity). The activities of the trypsin, lipase and α-amylase were higher in fish fed SP diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation than in the other groups (p<0.05). Fish fed SP75 and SP75+ diets had the lowest red blood cell count and hematocrit level (p<0.05). The results of the current study indicated that anti-nutritional factors in a soy-protein based diet rather than lysine and methionine deficiencies may have adverse effects on digestive enzymes activities and health condition in silvery-black porgy juveniles.
  • Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of Ag-Tio2 nanoparticles and optimization of its migration to sturgeon caviar (Beluga)

    Anvar, A.; Haghighat Kajavi, S.; Ahari, H.; Sharifan, A.; Motallebi, A.; Kakoolaki, S.; Paidari, S. (2019)
    Effect of nano composite films to prolong the shelf life of Iranian beluga caviar was investigated at different concentrations of silver nanoparticles. In this study 38 caviar packs each containing 5 g of caviar were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates. The concentrations of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 ppm of nanoparticles as well as a nano free pack as control were used. The size of nanoparticles was less than 50 nm in treatments number one to four and was less than 10 nm in treatment number five. Packed samples were inoculated with bacteria and fungi and microbiological tests were performed for each sample after 24 hours. Results of gram test and detecting the gram positive bacteria showed the considerable decreases in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium strains. Moreover, there was a considerable decrease in fungi and bacterial growth in 5000 and 6000 ppm nano-silver packages (p<0.05). The amount of silver nanoparticle released into the caviar samples were also measured by titration method and application of titrazol with concentrated sulphuric acid. There was no silver residual in different concentrations of silver nanoparticle packages. These results suggest using silver nanoparticles in accurate concentrations could be considered as one of the main solutions to further inhibit spoilage caused by pathogenic microorganisms, and to extend the shelf life of the valuable food products
  • A new ecotoxicity tolerance index of macrobenthos associated with Zoanthus sansibaricus in the littoral zone of Hormuz Island, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Mirzabagheri, D.; Amrollahi Biuki, N.; Taheri Zadeh, M. (2019)
    A general study with the objective to classify ecotoxicity status of macrobenthose associated with dominant toxic zoanthids in Hormuz Island is presented. Hence, a novel model based on hard bottom macrobenthos and the related substrate composition was suggested to be used for testing the accumulated palytoxin (PTX) in macrobenthose exposed to Zoanthus sansibaricus. Direct and rapid assessment index (Dara Index) of accumulated PTX in macrobenthos were re-evaluated for use in this classification. The new proposed ecotoxicity tolerance index (ETI) was tested and calculated based on the data of Dara Index. ETI was compared and evaluated against Dara Index for use in this classification. The macrobenthos groups of species included three categories, namely, sessile, sluggish and mobile species. The distribution of these three macrobenthose groups were grouped according to their presence or absence to associate with zoanthids and were weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a six step numerical scale of ecotoxicity status classification. Its advantage against the former Dara Index lies in the fact that it reduces the clustering number of the sampling sites involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The usage of ETI as a classification tool of ecotoxicity status indicates that tolerance of marine animals to the PTX may enable it to enter food chains and to be followed by potential exposure to humans. Hence, the advantages of ETI include high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Persian Gulf.
  • Prevalence, serotypes distribution and characterization of Salmonella in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey

    Pamuk, S.; İnat, G.; Sırıken, B. (2019)
    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in 100 free freshwater common carp samples using the classic culture technique. For the confirmation of the isolates at molecular levels, the invA gene was detected. Serotyping of the isolates was also detected. The presence of invA, class 1 (Cls1) integrons, and integrase (Int1) genes was demonstrated by PCR assay; and the resistance of the Salmonella spp. strains to antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion test. Salmonella were detected in 3% (n=7 isolates) of the samples. Three different serotypes were detected; S. Panama, Enteritidis and Quinella. S. Panama is predominant. The invA was detected in the isolates. To detect antibiotic susceptibility, 14 different antibiotics were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. The isolates were evaluated for β-lactamase production. All isolates were resistant to erythromycin, penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin. Multiple resistances were found in all isolates. S. Enteritidis and one S. Panama were the most resistant serovars. The Cls1 were detected in all isolates. In contrast, int1 were detected in 57.14%. In conclusion, the prevalence of Salmonella in the common carp can pose a risk to the public due to foodborne salmonellosis, multiple antibiotic resistance properties and the potential transfer of drug resistance genes to other members of the Enterobacteriaceae and humans via Cls1 integron.
  • Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the lesion of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger, 1938) with symptom of skin ulceration disease

    Tangestani, M.; Kunzmann, A. (2019)
    Echinoderm diseases have attracted little interest in contrast to the other commercial marine organisms. This study reports the pathogenesis pattern of juvenile Holothuria scabra. 11 pure bacteria were isolated from lesions of juvenile H. scabra with the symptoms of skin ulceration disease. Phylogenetic identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis revealed that they belonged to the genera Arcobacter bivalviorum, Pseudoalteromonas citrea, Pseudoalteromonas sp., Vibrio azureus, V. fortis, V. owensii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. rotiferianus, V. tubiashi and Vibrio sp..This study is the first report which find V. owensii, V. azureus and V. fortis as potential pathogens of holothuroids. All isolated bacteria showed in vitro susceptibility to the common antibiotics imipenem, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. These antibiotics might be effective in reducing the incidence of the skin ulceration disease in case of emergency.
  • Extraction and evaluation of gelatin from yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) skin and prospect as an alternative to mammalian gelatin

    Jamili, Shahla; Sadeghi, H.; Rezayat, M.; Attar, H.; Kaymaram, F. (2019)
    One of the mainly popular consumed colloid protein materials in pharmaceutics, medical, food and military industries is Gelatin. Especially from warm-water fish gelatin report poss similar characteristics to mammalian’s gelatin .Yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) gelatin skin, lots of waste in form of skin and bones of the fish are produced every day. Analysis factors were extracted alkaline gelatin from skin, physiochemical and rheological test (amino acids composition, SDS- page electrophoreses, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared), moisture content, pH, setting point and setting time, melting point and melting time, color and gelatin yield). In contrast cool water fish gelatin, yellowfin tuna had higher gelatin content (Proline and Hydroxyproline) than mammalian gelatin content. SDS-electrophoresis for yellow fin gelatin showed protein bands (α, β, γ) same as mammalian’s protein bands. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) had the same spectra for both of them. Factors were pH (6.1), Moisture (8.5%) Setting temperature and time respectively 4(c) and 60 (s) and Melting temperature and time respectively were 50 (c) and 45 (s). The color was transparent. In light of these results yellow fin tuna prospect as an alternative to mammalian’s gelatin.
  • Evaluation of hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) from nesting colonies of the northern coast the Sea of Oman

    Sinaei, M.; Bolouki, M.; Ghorbanzadeh, S.; Talebi Matin, M. (2019)
    The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been a species of global concern for decades. As an attempt to study health status of nesting green turtles, Blood biochemistry and hematological values were obtained from 18 clinically normal, nesting female green sea turtles on the northern coast of the sea of Oman. Mean curved carapace length (CCL) was 111±4 cm with a range of 103—122 cm. Barnacles were recorded on three turtles. No fibropapillomas were observed on any of the 18 turtle. The mean PCV was 0.41 (proportion of 1) with a range of 0.30–0.58. No basophils or hemoparasites were detected in any of the 18 turtles tested. All biochemistry and hematological values of green sea turtles were within published reference ranges of healthy sea turtle population. No statistically significant differences were noted between the two anticoagulants for Plasma biochemistry values. Plasma alpha–tocopherol concentrations in the 18 turtles tested was 7.8±2.8 g ml-1 with a range of 0.5-11.8 g ml-1. Plasma retinol was evaluated in 18 turtles and the concentration was 0.4 ±0.1 g ml-1 with a range of 0.2-0.6 g ml-1. The present study provides baseline data of the green sea turtle characterized by biological and non-biological factors, which may provide the basis for future studies.
  • Potential of poultry by-product meal as a main protein source in diets formulated for juvenile sobaity (Sparidentex hasta)

    Hekmatpour, F.; Kochanian, P.; Ghafle Marmmazi, J.; Zakeri, M.; Mousavi, S. (2019)
    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of using poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a partial replacement for fish meal (FM) in the diets for juvenile sobaity. Six iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets were formulated to contain graded levels of PBM, at 0 (as control diet), 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55% of FM replacement. Each diet was fed to groups of 20 juvenile sobaity in triplicate 300-L tanks, three times a day to apparent satiation. Survival, feed conversion ratio and efficiency ratio showed that there were no significant differences between fish fed PBM based diets compared to fish fed the reference diet. Growth performance and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the PBM15 and 25 were higher than in other treatments. The somatic indices, biochemical content of whole body and fillet, hematological factors were not significantly affected by the replacement level of FM with PBM, with the exception of serum cholesterol and triglyceride content. The results of the present study indicated that PBM is a suitable replacement for fish meal in juvenile sobaity diet up to 55% substitution.

View more