• 17, 20 α Dihydroxy Progesterone (17, 20 α DP) production by different tissue in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Gold Fish (Carassius auratus)

      Ebrahimi, M. (1999)
      Different tissue (muscle, heart, eye, testis and blood) and sperm from Common carp and Gold fish, in order to evaluate activity of 20α hydroxy steroid Dihydrogenase (20α HSD) enzyme to convert radioactive 17α HP and amount of 0.01, 1 or 10 mg of nonradioactive hormones, were studied. Converting of substra to 17, 20α DHP was more than 30% in 100mg of eye, heart and testis tissue, 12% in 20cc blood and 18% in 20cc sperm, but it was less than 5% in 100 mg of muscle tissue. 17, 20α DHP was the only metabolite in non gonadal tissues incubations no significant enzyme activity was found in lense-eyeball fluid and retin of common carp. Possible relationship between 20α and 20β dihydroxy steroid dehydrogenase enzymes in fish, 20 hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and aldo and Keto reductase enzymes has been discussed.
    • A case of white eye syndrome in cultured whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in concrete ponds

      Ghajari, A.; Meerbakhash, M.; Yeganeh, V.; Saaydi, A. (2012)
      A month after movement of 1800 pieces of L. vannamei (average weight of 16g) from culture ponds in Heleh region to concrete ponds of Bandargah hatchery (Bushehr province) some shrimps showed symptoms such as decrease in growth rate, loss of appetite, dark pigmentation of cuticle and presence of black foci on it, redness of uropods and white, irregular and circular spots on the eye with 2-5mm diameters. For detection of etiological agent samples were taken for PCR, bacteriological and histo-pathological tests. Nested PCR test using IQ2000 kits for detection of major shrimp viral pathogens (IHHNV, WSSV, YHV and TSV) were conducted and all results were negative. In histo-pathological tests, lesions in eyes were liquefactive necrosis of cone cells and cone crystals with infiltration of hemocyte and formation of micro abscess in the diapteric region of eye. In bacteriological tests, a gram negative pleomorphic bacterium of the genus Aeromonas was isolated. However, it seems that this bacterium is the secondary agent and for detection of the primary agent more research is needed.
    • A needs assessment of fish (common carp) culture agency members in Guilan and Mazandaran Province

      Alipour, H.; Touraji, M. (2013)
      The main objective of this study is an investigation of educational needs of fish is cammon carp Proudation cooperatives and effective factors on mentioned educational needs. This research was applicable from objective point of view and descriptive-correlation method considering its method, which has been done with survey approach. The statistical population is the members of the fish is cammon carp Proudation cooperatives in Guilan&mazandaran Province which were included 2235 persons. Among this population, 160 persons were selected using Cochran formula and proportional stratified random sampling method. Managers production Which were 19 production cooperatives in the province, was census through the survey method Meanwhile, the total number of 38 experienced experts in fishculture of Guilan & mazandaran provinces Fisheries Researeach organization .The main tool for data collection was questionnaire and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, The main tool for data collection survey questionnaire and its reliability by a panel of experts confirmed were valid questionnaire study using the alpha coefficient to mean parts inventory intensive manufactures 73% and surveys of experts and managers of cooperatives by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 78% was calculated More than 70 percent of the average of the current knowledge of warm water fish production in Guilan and Mazandaran is moderate to high. Educational needs of producers fish in warm- water showed a significant relationship between income level and their knowledge. Results showed that the management of health and diseases in warm-water fish farms, fish farms, water management, and site selection and construction of warm water from the producers' point of view, experts and managers of cooperatives is the educational priority.
    • Aboundance, diversity and distribution of Ichthyoplanktons in creeks and coastal waters of Khouzestan Province

      Dehgan Madiseh, S.; Savari, A.; Kochinian, P.; Marammazy, J. (2000)
      This study was carried out on Iranian coastal waters of Khouzestan province during 1995-98. Ichthyoplankton sampling was performed in order to determine its abundance, distribution and diversity. Monthly sampling was carried out from 12 fixed stations in Mahshar-Abadan creeks and 4 stations in west coasts of Khouzestan province waters, by a paired 500 micron Bongo net in oblique hauls from the bottom to the surface. Larvae of 21 families were identified in coastal waters. 16 families of fish larvae were also found in creeks. Most frequent larval families in the creeks were found to be Gobiidae (86%), Engraulidae (9.13%), Clupeidae (2.5%), and in west coasts, they were Gobiidae (49%), Engraulidae (14.5%) and Sciaenidae (7.8%). Other families were found to have a lower frequency and occured only in limited samples. There were distinct differences in fish families occured in two studied areas, although no significant differences were found in diversity of fish families there. The highest frequency of the larvae among most of the families was in March-August period. In the west coastal area, more than 50% of the total identified larvae occured in May, while in creeks, it was in April and June. Presence of larvae from different families showed significant differences. Grouping based on diversity and distribution by one way ANOVA showed the presence of two major spawning seasons in spring and autumn, plus two minor ones in summer and winter. Most of identified specimens were exclusive to neritic and intertidal zones, which live in soft clay substrate.
    • Abundance and distribution pattern of plankton in Anzali Lagoon

      Sabkara, J.; Makaremi, M. (2004)
      A comprehensive hydrobiological and hydrological investigation conducted in Anzali lagoon from 1997 to 2000. During this study, a total of 5 phylum and 62 genera of phytoplanktons and 10 phylum and 50 genera of zooplankton were identified. The results showed that for phytoplanktons the abundance of Cyanophyta, Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrophyta were calculated 61.8%, 29.1%, 8.2% 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively. The most abundance of zooplankton belongs to Rotatoria (60.8%), after that other group of zooplankton had more abundance consist of Copepoda and its nauplii (17.2%), Ciliophora (9.6%) and Rhizopoda (6.6%). Other zooplanktons had very few abundance. According to obtained results, western region of lagoon (Abkenar) is a rich region of planktons in which the most dominant phylum of phytoplanktons was from Cyanophyta with genera of Oscillatoria, Anabaenopsis, Microcystis. The most abundance of zooplanktons were genera of Polyarthra, Brachionus and Keratella and from Arthropoda phylum, the most abundance genus was found Cyclops and its nauplii. The Planktonic study indicated that Anzali lagoon is one of the richest lagoon in Iran with high production and potential water for feeding of fishes and their larva.
    • Abundance and diversity of Clupeidae species in Mazandaran and Golestan coastal waters, north Iran

      Afraei, M.A.; Parafkandeh Haghighi, F.; Janbaz, A.A. (2006)
      As part of the identification and distribution mapping of Clupeid fish in southern Caspian Sea, we studied abundance and species diversity of the fish in Mazandaran and Golestan Coastal waters during August-April 1999 to 2001. In the 336 specimens studied, four species were identified including Alosa braschnikowi, Alosa caspia, Alosa saposchnikowi and Alosa kessleri. The most abundant species was Alosa braschnikowii comprising 84.4% of the individuals and Alosa kessleri was the least abundant comprising 3.2% of the sample. We also traced an increasing trend in abundance of Alosa braschnikowii from east to west such that 43.8% of the fish found in Golestan Province waters and 56.2% in Mazandaran Province waters. The highest fork length and weight was recorded as 395 mm and 760.3 grams respectively for Alosa braschnikowi and the lowest was recorded for Alosa caspia with 110 mm and 109 grams respectively. In Alosa braschnikowi male were dominant and relative abundance of male and female in Mazandaran Province was 44.2% and 55.8% respectively. In Golestan, the relative male and female abundance of Alosa braschnikowi was 30.6% and 69.4% respectively. Female to male sex ratio in the A. braschnikowi was 1:1.26 and 1:2.26 respectively in Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. Overall female to male sex ratio was calculated as 1:1.6 for the species. The caught A. braschnikowi were in I+ to 6+ age groups with the 2+ group comprising 28.9% and 1+ and 6+ comprising 8.9% of the sample.
    • The abundance and species composition of sturgeon in the northern Caspian Sea

      Kor, D.; Fatemi, M.R.; Kaymaram, F. (2009)
      This study was carried out in the northern Caspian Sea on Gidrobiolog vessel in summer 2006 to assess the abundance and species composition of sturgeons. We used bottom trawl (9m) and gillnets with mesh size 60, 110, 250 and 290mm. Totally 104 sturgeons were caught which included ten Acipenser guldenstadtii (69.9%), two Acipenser persicus (15.4%) and one Acipenser stellatus (7.7%) in the trawl samples. The species caught by gillnet were 34 A. guldenstadtii (37.4%), 53 A. persicus (58.2%) and four Huso huso (4.4%). The average total length and weight of A. guldenstadtii caught by trawl were 65.8 plus or minus 5.14cm and 1248.5 plus or minus 495.75g respectively and for those caught in gillnet were 83.14 plus or minus 2.99cm, 3101 plus or minus 443.66g. The average total length and weight of A. persicus caught by gillnet were 75 plus or minus 3.60cm and 1806.79 plus or minus 158.05g.
    • Abundance of phytoplankton in Khoran creeks of Laft and Khamir in Hormuzgan province

      Eslami, F.; Saraji, F. (2004)
      This study was carried out from April 1999 to March 1999. During this study 55 genus of phytoplankton were seen including: diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) and blue green algae (Cynaophyceae). The most population was seen in diatoms (25583 cells/lit), dinoflagellates (687 cells/lit) and blue green algae (75 cells/lit), respectively. The highest record of diatoms was seen in winter (66922 cells/lit), but blue green algae were dominated in summer (157 cells/lit). The highest population of phytoplankton was seen in during June in surface water of eastern creek (156660 cells/lit). In statistical study, difference between stations of two branches of creek (east branch and west branch) wasn't significant.
    • Abundance, spawning season and type of Gattan (Barbus xanthopterus Heckel, 1843) in south of Karkheh River and Hour-Al-Azim marsh (Khuzestan Province)

      Eskandary, Gh.; Safikhani, H.; Dehghan Madiseh, S.; Esmaeily, F.; Amirineya, S. (2000)
      In this study 401 specimens of Gattan (Barbus xanthopterus) caught by drifting and set gillnets, cast nets and forks were studied. Samples were collected monthly (October 1996 to September 1997) from Hamidieh Dam to Hour-Al-Azim Lagoon. Morphometric and meristic parameters and biological characteristics were studied in the laboratory. The Highest frequency of Gattan in the river was in March and in Hour-Al-Azim was in December. The length range of the fish in the river was broader than in the hour, and fishes with lengths more than 700mm were only observed in the river. Sharp decrease in GSI in May and occurence of spawning in May and June showed that reproduction of this species occurs in spring (in a two month period) and is relatively short. Minimum and maximum ova diameter were 0.01mm and 2.25mmin stages II and IV of gonad maturity respectively. An increasing trend in ova diameter up to April and decreasing in June showed one time spawning of this species. Surface water temperature in the spawning season was between 25.5oC and 28.65oC and turbidity was in its lowest level in this period. Sex maturation in males occurred in length of 151-200mm (one year old), and in females in 501-550mm (3 years old). Average sex ratio (male to female) was 1:1.31 which is not significantly different from 1:1 (95% confidence limit).
    • Accumulation of heavy metals in the muscle, liver and gill tissues of Epinephelus coioiedes

      Gorjipoor, E.; Sadough Niri, A.; Hosseini, A.R.; Bita, S. (2009)
      We studied concentration of heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni in the muscle, liver and gill tissues of Epinephelus coinoiedes caught in autumn 2006 from Hendijan Coastal waters in the Persian Gulf. After biometrical measurements, the muscle, liver and gill tissues of 30 randomly selected fish were separated; metals were extracted from the tissues using chemical digestion method with pure nitric acid and their concentrations were determined by AAS. Mean concentrations (ppm/dry weight) were compared with the international standards such as WHO, UKMAFF and NHMRC. The mean concentration for Cd and Pb in all tissues with the exception of muscle tissue, were found higher than permissible limit. We found a positive linear relationship between accumulation of Ni, Pb and Cu in muscle tissue with total weight and total length factors (P0.05).
    • Accumulation of metals, Ni and V in the muscle in eight species of fishes from Bahrekan of Hendijan port (Persian Gulf)

      Omidpour, A.; Askary Sary, A.; Javadzadeh Pourshalkouhi, N. (2017)
      This study was carried out to determine and comparison of concentration metals nickel and vanadium in muscle of eight species of fish, Epinephelus coioides, Platycephalus indicus, Cynoglossus arel, Acanthopagrus latus, pampus argenteus, Tenualosa ilisha, Liza macrolepis and Liza klunzingeri from Khuzestan province in 2013. 120 samples of fish collected from Bahrekan in Khuzestan province. Chemical digest samples of fish by wet method and nickel and vanadium measured by Perkin Elmer 4100 atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. In this study concentrations of nickel and vanadium in species of fish were significantly different (P<0.05). The highest of concentrations Ni was in Epinephelus coioides (0.587 mg/kg/ww) and lowest in muscle of Pampus argenteus (0.223 mg/kg/ww), respectively. The highest concentration of V was in Epinephelus coioides (0.184 mg/kg/ww) and lowest in muscle of Platycephalus indicus (0.109 mg/kg/ww), respectively. In this study concentration of V in muscle of fishes were lower than that limitation of WHO (0.5 mg/kg), but the concentration of Nickel in the muscle of fishes were higher than WHO standard limits (0.38 mg/kg).
    • Acorn meal as a nutrient in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet

      Shadnoush, Gh.R. (2006)
      A complete random design involving four diets was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of dietary acorn meal on final weigh, food consumption and food conversion ratio of rainbow trout. Juvenile Rainbow Trouts with an average weight of 74 grams were reared after antiseptic processes in Boldaji station of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province for 135 days. We formulated diet treatments 1 - 4 containing 0, 2, 4 and 6 percent of acorn meal respectively. In doing so, we considered nutritive requirements of rainbow trout based on NRC using UFFDA dietary software. We also used local material in providing the diet. The food was given three times a day the amount of which was based on fish biomass in each pound. Once every two weeks, after anaesthetizing 50 percent of fishes in each pound, we measured fish weight and length. The results showed that treatment 4 containing 6% of acorn led to the highest fish weight increase while being significantly different with other treatments. In terms of fish length, the longest length was observed in treatment 4, which had significant difference with treatment 1. Food consumption differences was not significant between treatments, but was higher in treatment 4. However, food conversion ratio was significantly affected by treatments, the highest of which was in treatment 4 significantly different with that of treatment 1. The results showed that acorn meal can be used as a nutrient in rainbow trout diet, improving fish weight and length gain while having no physiological effects on the fish.
    • Acorn meal as a pellet binder and its effects on chemical carcass characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

      Shadnoush, G.R.; Shadnoush, F.; Taheri Mirghaed, A. (2008)
      A complete random design involving four diets was conducted to determine the effects of acorn meal as a pellet binder and pellet stabilizer and to assess its effects on chemical carcass characteristic of Rainbow Trout. Juvenile rainbow trout with an average weight of 74 grams were reared after application of antiseptic processes in Boldaji station of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province for 135 days. The diets l-4 were formulated such that they contained 0, 2, 4 and 6 percent acorn meal, respectively. In doing so, we considered nutritive requirements of rainbow trout based on NRC using UFFDA dietary software. We also used local material in providing the diets. The feed was given three times a day the amount of which was based on fish biomass in each pound. In the end of the experiments and after 24 hours of fasting, 10 fish from each pound were randomly sampled. Chemical carcass characteristic were determined using AOAC procedure after the gut, internal organs, head and fins were removed. Pellet stability was also determined. Chemical carcass characteristics for the four treatments were nearly the same except for the ash (P>0.05).The least pellet stability was in control diet which had no acorn meal and the highest was in diet containing 6% acorn meal (P<0.05).The results showed that acorn meal can be used as a pellet binder which improves pellet stability while having no significant effect on Carcass chemical characteristics and physiology of the fish.
    • Acute LC50 and bioconcentration of Mercury Chloride in Rutilus frisii kutum

      Gharaei, A.; Esmaili, A.S.; Nazari, R.M.; Karami, R.; Shahriari, M.M. (2006)
      To determine the acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of mercuric chloride in Rutilus frisii kutum, specimens of the fish were exposed to various concentrations of the chemical in water. We carried out ten treatments with three replicates and one control for each of the chemicals using the static O.E.C.D. method in 55 liter tanks each containing 14 fingerlings. During the experiments, the average pH was recorded as 7.8, total hardness was measured to be 255 mg/l, average water temperature was 27±1 degrees centigrade and dissolved oxygen was 7.2 mg/l. Mean LC50 values of Hgcl2 for juvenile R. frisii kutum with mean weight 0.2 grams were 0.102 and 0.086 mg Hg/l at 24h and 96h, respectively. The bioaccumulation values during 24h in muscle tissue, kidney and gill were 1.55, 16.1 and 22.7 mg Hg/l respectively. The values during 96h exposure were 2.8, 16.8 and 26.65 mg Hg/l in tissue, kidney and gill respectively. The bio concentration values for muscle tissue, kidney and gill during the first 24h were 14.75, 153.39 and 216.11 after 96h were 33.8, 198.1 and 313.5 times that of the environment. These results show the bioaccumulation to be the highest in gill followed by kidney and muscle tissue. The study suggested direct relationship between mercury concentration in and its bioaccumulation in the fish organs tissue.
    • Adaptation, growth and survival of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bafgh brackish water

      Sarsangi, A.H.; Mohammadi, M.; Mashaii, N.; Rajabipou, F.; Bitaraf, A.; Askari, H.M.; Moazedi, J.; Nezamabadi, H.; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H. (2012)
      An experiment was conducted to evaluate the possibility of adaptation, growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with 0.3g initial weight and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) with 0.7g initial weight in underground brackish water. Fry of Nile tilapia and red tilapia imported from Indonesia and after passing larviculture (25g) were examined separately in fiber glass tank by two replicate. Fish were fed at a restricted feeding program according to standard table during the light period. The results showed that some growth factors such as final weight, final length, daily growth rate, specific growth rate and weight gain in Nile tilapia were slightly higher than red tilapia but other factors such as survival and feed conversion rate in red tilapia were slightly higher than Nile tilapia. There were no significantly differences at 99% level among these factors. Length-weight relationship equation was w = 0.012×TL3.189 in Nile tilapia and w = 0.014×TL3.119 in red tilapia (r2 = 0.99), b value were 3.189 and 3.119 respectively in Nile and red tilapia representing isometric growth. According to the reliable growth and high survival rate (98%), it seems that both Nile and red tilapia could be good candidates for rearing in brackish water condition.
    • Affective Factors on Fish Consumption Pattern in Households (Case study: Sari)

      Amirnejad, H.; Heidari Kamalabadi, R. (2015)
      Aquatics, especially fish, are important sources of animal protein that plays an important role in household food basket and could account as a good substitute for food and protein needs. The purpose of this study was to determine factors of social, economic and cultural influence on fish consumption and current fish-use pattern in Sari, using a discriminant analysis model. The results of discriminant analysis showed that the region of residence, fish health awareness, the assessment of poultry meat benefits, the assessment of fish meat benefits, consumption awareness, the normative pressure of consumption and meal planning criteria had the biggest impacts on fish consumption in the city of Sari. Actions, such as informing the society about the nutritional values of marine products, eliminating misconceptions and creating a habit of household eating fish as well as promoting fish as part of household food culture can be effective steps to increase fish consumption.
    • Age composition and prediction of optimum fishing mortality (Fmsy) for the Beluga, Stellate Sturgeon, Persian Sturgeon and Russian Sturgeon in the south part of the Caspian Sea

      Taghavi, S.A. (2000)
      Eight years (1990-1997) of the Beluga, Stellate Sturgeon, Persian Sturgeon and Russian Sturgeon in the south part of the Caspian Sea were analyzed for age composition. Yield-per-recruit curves were derived for each species based on growth parameters and mortality rates, and the optimum fishing mortality in terms of yield-per-recruit was calculated as a basis for sturgeon fishery management in the Caspian Sea. The results of eight years catches from this part of the Caspian Sea show that the age structure of all species has changed and a trend to become younger for fish of both sexes is apparent. On the other hand, fishing composition, is confined to some special age groups. Inspection of yield-per-recruit model confirms the overfishing of the sturgeons in the Caspian Sea and suggested that the fishing mortality showed be reduced by decreasing fishing effort. It seems that the population of the Beluga, probably because of the higher quality of its caviar, are more depleted, therefore in order to maintain the spawning stock, the harvesting of Beluga showed be much restricted for several years.
    • Age determination and growth parameters in Golden Snapper (Lutjanus johnii) of Hormozgan Waters

      Kamali, A. (1999)
      Golden snapper is one of the valuable fishes of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. To determine the age and growth parameters a research study was conducted in Hormozgan waters from May 1996 to July 1997. Samples (the total amount was 613) were collected on a monthly basis. The age determination of 597 fish were performed using apparent growth rings (dark and light layers) on the otoliths. Growth layers of urohyal bone were used for age determination in some samples. Growth parameters were calculated according to the Von Bertalanffy formula. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation for this species was as TL= 122(1-e (-0.128(t+1.29)). The Lee equation, based on urohyal bone readings, was calculated as TL=-3.718[LC+3.718)(Oi/OR)]. Back calculation was performed to determine the length on the basis of Lee formula in the urohyal and the mean length of the age groups of 1-8 years was obtained. The T-test was applied to compare two methods of age determination (based on otolith and urohyal) and there was not any significant difference (P > 0.05).
    • Age determination of John's Snapper (Lutjanus johnii) using Otolith sections

      Kamali, E.; Valinassab, T.; Emadi, H. (2006)
      The age structure of John's Snapper (Lutjanus johnii) in Hormozgan waters, south Iran was studied. We conducted monthly sampling starting in May 1996 and ending in July 1997. Totally, 613 fish specimens were collected, of which 567 and 308 specimens were aged based on whole and sectioned otoliths respectively. The snappers were found to be aged from 1 to 17 years old. Results showed that each year only one pair of opaque and translucent zones was formed. Age determination based on the two methods was significantly different especially in the fish aged 1 to 6 years (P0.05). Age-length relationship of the species based on sectioned otolith reading and total fish length using the least squares method was obtained as Lt = 89(1-e-0.165(t+1.476)). Also, the length-weight relationship for the fish was determined as W=(4x10-5)xL2.8214.
    • Age structure and growth rate of (Squalius cephalus Linnaeus, 1758) in Tuji tributary from Talar River, Mazandaran Province

      Gorjian Arabi, M.H.; Hosseini, S.A.; Roohi, M.; Patimar, R.; Vatandust, S.; Alijanpour, E. (2012)
      A structure and growth pattern of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Tuji tributary of Talar River, Mazandaran Province, was studied during the period from August 2008 till August 2009. In total, 298 fish were caught by electrofishing and fixed in 10% formalin. The weight and length of fish were measured and the age was determinated by scallometric method. The age data showed that fishes were between 0+ to 4+ age groups. Pauli`s applied growth pattern showed a positive alometric for male and female and total fish and a negative isometric for unmature fishes. The average instantaneous growth rate of European Chub showed that the age groups 2+ and 3+ with 1.1 had the fastest growth compare to 3+ and 4+ age groups with 0.89. Condition factor of specimens showed that the highest one with 1.58 (r2 = 0.983) belong to females and the lowest with 1.17 (r2 = 0.901) belong to unmature fishes. The total sex ratio (123 males to 115 females) showed no significant differences between them.