• A study of the field trial effects of Eltosil® (recombinant bovine somatotropin) on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

      Haghighi, Masoud; Sharifrohani, M.; Sharifpour, I.; Sepahdari, A.; Leshtoaghaei, G.; Ghanbari, F. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2009)
      The major reason application of growth hormone (GH) in fish was commercial use of rapid growth and more replication fish. Numerous studies demonstrated that recombinant bovine somatotropin increased growth rates in several fish species. However, such studies have not been done yet in Iran. This research was taken in two steps. In the first step of experiments, 1200 rainbow trout larvae (Oncorhynchus mykiss) weighing 0.5±0.05 gram were randomly allotted in two groups including: 1) the control group and 2) Eltosil® group, each in three replicate. These larvae were randomly divided in six 100 liter square troughs with a continuous water flow of 1 liter per minute. In the second step of experiments, 600 rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) weighing 45±1 grams were randomly allotted in two groups including: 1) the control group and 2) Eltosil® group, each in three replicate. These fry were randomly divided in six 2,000 liter round concrete ponds with a continuous water flow of 5 liter per minute. Through and ponds were supplied with a well water (temp. range: 15 2; O2: 7.2 0.2; pH= 8 0.3). In the first step of experiments, the fish were hand-fed with commercial pellets (Biomar) ten times daily at the beginning of the experiments and reached four times daily during continuous growth. In the second step of experiments, the fish were hand-fed with commercial pellets (Cheeneh) four times daily at the beginning of the experiments and reached two times daily during continuous growth. In this research, the fish received of 200g Eltosil® per 100kg BW. The administration method of Eltosil® -mixed feed to fish was once a week for 4 consecutive weeks at each treatment stage, totally 8 times for 12 weeks (once a week, 4 times in the first step; withdrawal for four weeks in the second step; once a week for 4 times in the third step). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of Eltosil® (oral recombinant bovine somatotropin 1%) on growth performance in rainbow trout. Accordingly, to calculate growth factors, fish were weighed weekly and their body lengths were measured every other week. At the end of each rearing period (on days 28, 56, 84) the means of whole body weight (WBW), weight gain (WG), average daily growth (ADG), total length (TL), average daily length (ADL), grams of weight gain per gram of food (G/F) in control and Eltosil® groups were calculated. Also, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), food conversion rate (FCR), and the percentage of survival ratio in the control and Eltosil® groups were calculated. Moreover, at the end of the rearing period (on day 84), comparative growth rate (CGR), means of WBW, WG, TL, ADL and FCR in the control and Eltosil® groups were calculated. The results obtained in the first step of this research demonstrated that there were no significant differences between growth factors in the control and the Eltosil® groups (p> 0.05) on days 28; 56; 84 of rearing periods. Also, the results of the second step showed that there were no significant differences between growth factors in the control and Eltosil® groups (p> 0.05) on days 28 and 56 of rearing periods. However, in second step of experiments, there were significant differences between means of growth factors in WBW (p= 0.019), WG (p< 0.05), ADG (p= 0.009), TL (p< 0.001), and ADL (p= 0.04) of the control and Eltosil® groups on day 84 in rainbow weighing 45±1 grams. In the same period, there was greater 11.2% CGR in Eltosil® group than the control group. There was no significant difference between the percentage of survival ratio of the control and Eltosil® groups in any rearing periods (p> 0.05). In this research generally, oral administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (Eltosil®) for eight weeks increased final WBW, WG, ADG, TL, ADL, and CGR in rainbow trout fry weighing 45±1 grams on day 84. This data showed that oral administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (Eltosil®) was a suitable way to improve growth performance in rainbow trout fry weighing 45±1 grams; but it was not in rainbow trout fry weighing 0.5±0.05 gram.
    • A study on environmental pollutants (pesticides, heavy metals & detergents) in surface water, underground water and wastewater of Mangol Dam basin (Mazandaran province)

      Najafpour, Shaban; Porang, N.; Negarestan, H.; Rezaei, M.; Ramin, M.; Farabi, M.V.; Varedi, E.; Vahedi, F.; Olumi, Y.; Younesipour, H.; et al. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2015)
      At the present study, the environmental pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), heavy metals (during three seasons) and surfactants (during four seasons) were done 2009 to 2010 that located in Mangol Dam with longitude and latitude 52° 22' 49" N and 43° 15' 43" E, respectively. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal pollutants matters in water samples of under-groundwater and surface water in 12 stations and the results are as follow: The maximum residues fluctuations of OCPs were determined in between all water samples such as aldrin and endrin about 1.51 and 2.85 µg/l, respectively. The mean concentration of aldrin and endrin about 0.66 ± 0.59 and 0.71 ± 1.07 µg/l, respectively were determined. The maximum seasonal concentration of OCPs were detected in fall, winter and spring for such as endosulfan sulfate, γ-BHC, heptachlor, endrin aldehyde compounds about 2.85, 0.34, 0.14 and 0.14µg/l, respectively. The maximum seasonal percentage range of OCPs were detected in fall, winter and spring in water samples such as endosulfan sulfate, DDD and β-BHC were 42, 25 and 25 %, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentrations of Zn and Fe elements were detected in spring about 1.12 and 8.22 µg/l, respectively. Also for Hg in spring was determined about 17.2 mg/l. The mean concentration of Zn, Fe and Hg in water sampled were 0.23±1.01 and 1.21±2.00 µg/l, respectively and 4.65±6.38 mg/l. The maximum seasonal percentage range of heavy metals were detected in fall, winter and spring in water samples such as Ni, Zn and Fe were 66, 83 and72%, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentrations of heavy metal were detected in Sorkhroud and Polechelave stations during fall, winter and spring for only Fe about 1.48, 3.3 and 8.22 µg/l, respectively. The maximum concentration of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in last month of summer was 971µg/l. The mean concentration of surfactant during fall, winter, spring and summer was 418.62±52.16 µg/l. The maximum seasonal percentage range of surfactant uring fall, winter, spring and summer in all stations of sampling were 76, 76, 100 and 100 %, respectively.
    • A study on methanol extract of garlic (Allium sativum) on immunity level of Mugil cephalus larvae

      Zorriehzahra, Seyed Jalil; Akbari, P.; Kakoolaki, S.; Jadghal, S.; Salehi, H.; Gholipour Kanani, H.; Feridoni, M.S.; Akhlaghi, M. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2017)
      This experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different levels of Garlic (Allium sativum) methanol extract on the growth performances (final weight (FW), daily growth ratio (DGR), feed conversion rate (FCR), voluntary feed intake (VFI) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) and some of hematological parameters (hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 360 of larvae (with an average weight of 0.75±0.03g) in 4 treatments: control group without using Echinacea extract, another group (treatment 2, 3 and 4) the amounts of this extract were 50,100 and 200 g/kg food. The highest FW (4.22±0.11g), DGI (1.72±0.50%) and the lowest FCR (0.95±0.05) and VFI (1.77±0.05%), were observed in treatment 4. But treatment 4 in all of these growth parameters did not show a significant difference compared with treatment 3 (P> 0.05). After 60 days, treatments 3 and 4, showed significantly higher RBC, WBC, Hb and Hct than those fed the control diet. Finally, the present results suggest that diet containing 100 and 200 g kg-1 extract could improve growth and hematological parameter of M. cephalus.
    • A study on methanol herbal plant extract of garlic (Camellia sinensis) on immunity level of Mugil cephalus

      Kakoolaki, S.; Jedgal, S.; Salehi, H.; Zorriehzahra, S.J.; Hoseinzadeh Sahafi, H.; Afsharnasab, M.; Sepahdari, A.; Akbari, P.; Feridoni, M.S. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2017)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea on a non-specific immunity of Mugil cephalus. Three hundred and sixty Gray mullet larvae with average weight of 0.75 ± 0.02 g and an average length of 4.40 ±0.81cm collected from Ramin port where is located at 5 km far from the Chabahar and finally transferred to lab of trial in Offshore Research Center. This research was designed based on 3 treatments, each with 3 replicates. The major factors examined containing growth factors mainly consists of average weight, average daily gain, protein efficiency rate, protein productive rate, hematological and biochemical factors including globin, albumin, total protein, lysozyme, ultimately, immunological factors, and respiratory burst and phagocytosis percent. In general, the results of this study showed that the addition of 200 mg of green tea extract per kilogram of diet led to a significant increase in final weight, food intake, daily growth rate and efficiency of protein gray mullet were compared to control. Fish fed diet 50 to 200 ppm green tea extract, showed a significant increase in the number of erythrocytes to control. The number of white blood cells from control with 200 ppm of green tea extract regularly gradually increased. The highest amounts of hemoglobin in the samples containing 200 ppm of green tea extract were measured. The hematocrit in control and the highest levels in samples with 200 ppm of green tea extract were measured. The total protein, albumin and globin in the blood serum fed treatments with green tea extract showed a significant increase compared to the control treatment (p<0.05). The highest total protein, albumin and globin treatment with 200 ppm of green tea extract of food was observed (p<0.05). The highest activity of lysozyme, phagocytosis respiratory burst were observed in treatment green tea extract 200 ppm of food. Treatment with 200 ppm of food. showed a minimal mortality after challenge with bacteria photobacterium damselae compared to the control treatment.
    • A study on physico-chemicals parameters, environmental pollutants, bacterial and macrobentos distribution at the surface waters, undergrand waters and wastewater of Mangol Dam basin (Mazandaran province)

      Pourgholam, Reza; Motalebi, A.A.; Negarestan, H. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2014)
      At the present study, the water quality parameters monthly, environmental pollutants (pesticides, heavy metals and surfactants) seasonally, macrobenthos and bacteria (monthly) were done 2009 t0 2010 that located in Mangol Dam with longitude and latitude 52° 22' 49" N and 43° 15' 43" E, respectively. All water samples were collected from under-groundwater, surface water and wastewater in 12 stations and the results are as follow: The mean concentrations of DO, BOD_5, COD, HCO^3-, CO_3^2-, TA, Ca^2+, Mg^2+, TH, TSS, TDS, Cl^-, PO4^3-, NH^4+, NO^2- and NO^3- were determined about 11.86±0.49, 5.95±0.11, 4.96±0.59, 28.1±6.1, 14.34±1.64, 36.30±2.33, 64.66±2.34, 28.84±1.52, 271.62±8.41, 0.37±0.03, 0.45±0.02, 28.02±1.96, 0.06±0.01, 0.010±0.001, 0.01±0.001 and 0.96±0.03 mg/l, respectively and also temperature, pH and EC were 12.7±0.61°C, 8.00±0.02 unit, 0.57±0.02 ms/cm in all samples. The surface water quality of Haraz River and its tributaries were suitable for usual applications such as aquatic matters, but based on BOD_5 need to more attention for human usages. The water quality index (WQI) of surface water was classified in group II at all stations that shows serious water quality changes due to domestic and agriculture sewage. The groundwater was affected by different matters that caused change of water quality parameters. The wastewater was classified from good to moderate based on BOD5. The quality of wastewater was declined at down-stream with decreasing DO and pH and increasing BOD5 pollutants. The mean concentrations of aldrin and endrin were about 0.66 ± 0.59 and 0.71 ± 1.07 µg/l, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentration of organochlorin pesticides (OCPs) were detected in fall, winter and spring for endosulfan sulfate, γ-BHC, heptachlor, endrin aldehyde compounds about 2.85, 0.34, 0.14 and 0.14µg/l, respectively. The maximum seasonal percentage range of OCPs in fall, winter and spring for endosulfan sulfate, DDD and β-BHC were 42, 25 and 25 %, respectively. The maximum seasonal concentrations during fall, winter and spring were detected in Sorkhroud and Polechelave stations for only Fe about 1.48, 3.3 and 8.22 µg/l, respectively. Also for Hg in spring was determined about 17.2 mg/l. The mean concentration of Zn, Fe and Hg in water sampled were 0.23 ± 1.01 and 1.21 ± 2.00 µg/l, respectively and 4.65± 6.38 mg/l. The maximum concentration of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in summer was 971µg/l. The mean concentration of surfactant during fall, winter, spring and summer was 418.62 ± 52.16 µg/l. The maximum seasonal percentage ranges of surfactant during fall, winter, spring and summer in all stations of sampling were 76, 76, 100 and 100 %, respectively. Tottaly 15 families of macrobenthos were identified in Haraz River. The maximum mean of abundance and biomass in Sorkhroud and Nour-roud stations were 1177±256 ind/m^2 and 3609±935mg/m^2, respectively. During Seasons, the maximum mean abundance and biomass were detected in fall and winter with 1185±444 ind/m^2 and 3891±849 mg/m^2, respectively. Water quality were classified by Hilsenhoff Biotic Index such as Sorkhrood station as "Very Poor", Isar town station as "Fairly Poor" and Karesang and Nor-roud stations as "good" qualification. The maximum of total coli forms and fecal coli forms in surface water were observed in Sorkhrood about 4.9 and 2.3CFU/100ml, respectively. The maximum of total coli forms and fecal coli forms in groundwater were observed in Halomsar and Absak stations about 4 and 1.7CFU/100ml, respectively. Maximum of total coli forms and fecal coli forms in wastewater were observed in Nor-roud station about 3.1 and 1.6CFU/100ml, respectively. The Ovary of nematode in wastewater were observed in Nor-roud and Isar Town stations about 30 through 124, respectively.
    • A study on some biological aspects of longnose trevally (Carangoides chrysophrys) in Hormozgan waters

      Kamali, Easa; Valinasab, T.; Dehghani, R.; Behzadi, S.; Darvishi, M.; Foroughfard, H. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2016)
      Aspects of the biological features such as age and growth, the reproductive cycle , food and feeding of the Longnose Trevally (Carangoides chrysophrys) were studied from a total 376 specimens collected by use of trawl fishing in Hormuzgan waters between February 2014 and February 2015. The minimum and maximum total length during different months were between 25.5 and 80 cm respectively. Weight-length relationship for Longnose Trevally was W= 0/0064L 2/9004. This fish had an isometric growth. Fishes aged using sections of their otoliths. The equation of growth for Longnose Trevally obtained Lt=85(1-e-0/266(t+1/443)). Total mortality rate for Longnose Trevally was 0.412. LM50 and TM50 for Longnose Trevally was 46 cm, 2 years. Sex ratio(femail : male) for Longnose Trevally was 1/42:1. Maximum absolute and relative fecundity for Longnose Trevally were 479992 and 354 respectively. The highest GSI in April (2.86) and the lowest was in June 2014 (0.43). It has a long spawning season from January to May and spawning peak was observed in May. Longnose Trevally was Relatively low feed (CV= 65.49). Main food for Longnose Trevally were bony fish (Fp= 91.67). Random diet of Longnose Trevally were crustaceans (Fp=4.17) (shrimp, crab and squilla) and mollusks (Fp=4.17) (cutlle fish, Squid), respectively.
    • A study on some non alive effective factors in incidence of white spot disease in Iran (Chabahar province)

      Sepahdari, A.; Kakoolaki, S.; Hosseinzade sahafi, H.; Salehi, H.; Zoriehzahra, S.M.; Gholiporkanani, H. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2016)
      Decline in capture fisheries and sea food demand lead to improve shrimp aquaculture activities. There are valuable capacities for shrimp culture in Guater site in Chabahar which could be mentioned as making employment. White spot disease collapses the shrimp farming activities in recent years. Although Guater were the main site for shrimp culture but this site were affected by white spot disease (WSD). Environmental stressors were the main criteria for attention in this regard. An investigation was carried out to monitor management practices and to find out whether there is any relationship with occurrence of white spot disease and environmental parameters. Desirable climate fluctuation happened in monsoon seasons in Guater area parallel with shrimp culture. Evidence of thermal shock beside presence of pathogens makes suitable condition for evidence of disease. Therefor one of the most important embarks is reducing the risk of this accident by selecting suitable time for post larvae stocking. Based on our study the best time for this purpose in Guater site is from March to June .Other recommended footsteps in relation to reduce outbreaks are: settlement bio security, using immune system simulators, embrace SPF brood stocks.
    • A study on stocks of trap s fishes in Abumusa Island

      Behzadi, Siyamak; Darvishi, M.; Khajenouri, K. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2007)
      This report is about coral-reefs around Abumosa lsland from January 1998 till February 1999 by trap and underwater visual census. Total species belonging to genus and family were idemtified and length-weight relationship were estimated for more frequent species. Small tooth emperor (Lethrinus microdon) was predominate from other species. Catch per unit of effort (CPUE) calculated for each trap (large, medium and small). Efforts were based on number of trap and day. Cupue of small and large traps was further in late summer compare other seasons. Results of catch analysis showed that no differ catch value (eatable, fishes, ornamental fishes and total catch) between small-medium and medium-large traps. Value catch wasn t significant difference between three depth (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30m) and four geographical side, too. But, catch value of ornamental fishes was significant difference between depths 0-10 and 20-30 meter.
    • A study on the diversity and abundance of ichthyoplankton in coastal waters of the Kharg and Dylam (Persian Gulf)

      Noorinezhad, Mohsen; Owfi, F.; Omidi, S.; Eslami, F.; Mohammad Nezhad, J.; Niamaimandi, N.; Mohsenizadeh, F.; Izadpanahi, G.; Rabbaniha, M. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2009)
      The present investigation was undertaken to identify fish larva and estimate their abundance, diversity and evenness indices. Twelve stations were sampled monthly during daytime hours by Bongonet in the kharg and khargoo regions of Persian Gulf from January 2005 through December 2006. Forty family of fish larva were identified, Families of Silaginidae, Clupeoidea, Blenidae and Athrinidae consisted of more than 61 percent of all specimen; The abundance of specimen were more during spring through fall months and least during winter. The number and abundance of identified families varied from cruise to cruise and station to station; the average amount of diversity, Species Richness and evenness in investigated region were computed 1.93, 12 and 0.68, respectively. Temperature and salinity of water during this study were between 16-34°C and 35-42 gr/lit. There weren’t any significant correlation between fish larva indices and above factors.
    • A study on the parasites (protozoan and metazoan) of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) in the Aras reservoir

      Yahyazadeh, Mir Yousef; Afsharnasab, M.; Shiri, S.; Alizadeh, Zh.; Mehrabi, M.R.; Sepahdari, A.; Kakoolaki, S.; Shirvalilo, M.; Javidi, R.; Sharif Rohani, M. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2016)
      Aras reservoir freshwater crayfish is an important economic fisheries resource of West Azarbaijan, Iran. This study was concluded to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic infestation of Crayfish in this area during different seasons of 2012. Among 390 different sizes of Astacus leptodactylus which were examined, arrange of ectocommensals or ectosymbionts from a number of different phyla including 9 phylum and 11 class infested the different anatomic units of the surface and appendages such as gills, head , thorax, abdomen, walking legs, uropod, telson, antennae and antennulae of freshwater crayfish. Common groups such as peritrich ciliates, suctorian ciliates, free living nematodes, branchiobdellids, and Algae, copepods, rotifers and oligochaetes have also been observed in association with freshwater crayfish.
    • A study on the status of shrimp diseases in Iran and whole the world and to present the best practice management in shrimp farms

      Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Kakoolaki, S.; Sepahdari, A.; Hosseinzadeh, H.; Gholipour Kanani, H. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2016)
      Shrimp culture in Chabahar in the Sistan and Belochestan province is one of the most important potential for development. From 1386 the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed and collapsed all activity in this area. This virus hugged mortality in the world and in Iran from 1381 in Abadan area this disease induced high mortality in shrimp culture. Different methods applied for prevention WSSV in the world and the main methods consist of used specific pathogen free post larvae, immune stimulant, biosecurity and vaccine. Biosecurity is the best method for prevention the WSSV disease and include different part such as used crab fence, low stocking density, used best quality PL, aeration in the pond and sanitation all equipment and farm. Temperatures play an important role in outbreak of disease. Because in Chabahar area the culture time is in the monsoon season and changing the temperature in this season is trigger factor for WSSV outbreak. In this research study we recommended the season’s culture changing from August to March for prevention the temperature variation in this area and applied biosecurity for control the WSSV outbreak.
    • A study on water quality and physio- chemicals parameters in surface water, underground water and wastewater of Mangol dam basin (Mazandaran province)

      Nasrollahzadeh Saravi, Hassan; Negarestan, Hossein; Porang, Nima; Ramin, Mahmood; Varedi, Seyyed Ebrahim; Farabi, Seyyed Mohammad Vahid; Vahedi, Fariba; Olomi, Yosef; Yonesipour, Horieh; Nasrollah Tabar, Abdollah; et al. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2015)
      This study was conducted to determine water quality of surface water (7 stations), ground water (5 stations) and wastewater (4 stations) at Haraz River during instruction of Mangol Dam in 2009-2010. This study is to follow physico-chemical fluctuation of waters and compared the data obtained with previous studies and standard levels. Results of current study showed that annual mean with standard error of temperature, DO, BOD_5, COD, HCO^3-, CO_3^2-, TA, Ca^2+, Mg^2+, TH, TSS, TDS, Cl^-, PO_4^3-, NH^4+, NO2- and NO3- were observed 12.7 (±0.61) centigrade, 10.13 (±0.12), 2.1 (±0.1), 7.71 (±0.99), 28.1 (±6.1), 14.34 (±1.64), 36.30 (±2.33), 64.66 (±2.34), 28.84 (±1.52), 271.62 (±8.41), 0.37 (±0.03), 0.30 (±0.02), 28.02 (±1.96), 0.06 (±0.01), 0.010 (±0.001) and 0.94 (±0.03) mg/l, pH was 8.00 (±0.02) and EC 0.50 (±0.02) ms/cm in surface water. The annual mean with standard error of temperature, HCO^3-, CO_3^2-, TA, Ca^2+, Mg^2+, TH, TSS, TDS, Cl^-, PO4^3-, NH^4+, NO^2- and NO^3- were observed 21.62 (±1.03) centigrade, 54 (±5), 11 (±5), 57 (±5), 208.6 (±42.5), 109 (±23), 1088 (±165), 0.065 (±0.017), 0.97 (±0.11), 317.8 (±76.2), 0.25 (±0.06), 0.06 (±0.01), 0.0007 (±0.0001) and 0.78 (±0.05) mg/l, pH was 7.37 (±0.07) and EC 1.98 (±0.23) ms/cm in underground water. In addition, the annual mean with standard error of temperatute, DO, BOD5, COD, TSS, TDS, and NO3- were observed 12.7 (±0.61) centigrade, 13.59 (±0.87), 9.80 (±0.12), 2.22 (±0.18), 7.54 (±1.02), 0.50 (±0.03), 0.320 (±0.008) and 0.990 (±0.016) mg/l, pH was 7.95 (±0.02) and EC 0.64 (±0.01) ms/cm in wastewater. Quality of surface water of Haraz River and its branches were almost contained suitable for usual applications, but sometimes the quality of surface water based on BOD5 need to more attention for man uses (such as supply of drinking water). In addition, the quality of surface water was relatively suitable for aquatic based on the aquatic standard levels. Results also showed that water quality index (WQI) was declined from upstream to downstream and some parameters were not in standard ranges. The quality of surface water classified in group II at all stations based on water classification rules which it shows serious water quality changes due to environmental destroyed and domestic, agriculture sewage pollutions. Groundwater were affected by different springs at middle and downstream which they caused change physico-chemical characteristics and water quality. Wastewater was classified from good to moderate based on BOD5. The quality of wastewater was declined at downstream with decreasing DO and pH and increasing BOD5 and pollutants.
    • A survey about existence currency of warm water fish in northern Alborz

      Behmanesh, Shahram; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.; Sepahdari, A.; Abdolhai, H.; Kakoolaki, S.; Moazedi, J.; Bakhtyari, M.; Vahabnejad, A.; Fallahi, M.; Sharifpor, I. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2016)
      Aquaculture is the most important part of Fisheries Organization duties in Iran. During several planning and developing programs, aquaculture productions had a considerable growth. Due to good potential, these productions were higher than the planed one. The North Alborz regions were investigated by four groups of experts. The regions which investigated were including 3 important provinces (e.g. Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan). The area where investigated was 940 km along with coastal zone of Caspian Sea or 58678 km2 in total. Around 27% of aquaculture production came from this region. However, subdivision of fisheries can play important role in the economics in the region. The fisheries sub-sector has an important role in the economy of the region, and despite the great potential for agriculture and tourist industries in the North Alborz, there is a significant role in the prosperity of the fisheries activities. In the present study shows that Mazandaran and Guilan provinces has more potential in reservoirs and aquaculture production when compared with other provinces. Productions in Mazandaran either in reservoirs were less than Guilan province. Due to lee in reservoirs, Mazandaran had less investment when compared with Guilan province. The figures show that carrying capacity of aquaculture production for 3 provinces (Mazandaran, Guilan and Golestan) was higher than other provinces in the entire country. Due to, large land base, less investment, more interesting of farmers, no needs of complicated technology, farmer would be able to develop reservoirs as consequences to enhance productions. However, developing reservoirs and supporting of it's; can increase the contribution of warm water species in inland water.
    • A survey of algal bloom impacts on abundance and distribution of macro benthos in Hormozgan province coastal waters

      Aghajary Khazaei, Shiva; Khodadadi Jokar, K.; Ebrahimi, M.; Akbarzadeh, Gh.A.; Eslami, F. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2016)
      The investigation of the algal bloom effects on Macro benthos abundance and diversity was seasonally carried out in coastline waters of Hormozgan province in 1391. Fourteen stations were selected for sampling; as 8 stations in coast of Bandar Abbas, 3 in Jask Port (east of Hormozgan) and 3 stations in Lengeh Port (west of Hormozgan). Polychaets, oligochaets, mollusks, crustacean and others like nematodes, nemertean’s, foraminifera’s, and ophiuroides were identified. Crustacean with 333950 ind.^-2 were dominant group whereas nemertean with 5050 ind.^-2 were minimum in density. Results showed that mean abundance of macro benthos was at most in spring (5614±3992 end) ^-2 and with 1244±380 ind.-2 was at least in autumn. Related results to stations showed that mean abundance in Jask Port and Lengeh Port were more than Bandar Abbas City. Among 8 stations in Bandar Abbas, Langargah with 168±977 ind.^ -2 was at most and Posht-e- shahr was at least in abundance (82±256 ind. ^-2). In Lengeh and Jask ports the stations far from coasts showed more abundance than station near coast. Monthly investigation showed that Macro benthos community was much more in April with 1011±6783 ind.-2 than December with 6±28 ind.^-2 , respectively. Shannon -Winner diversity index was low (0.61.2) in three stations, Evenness ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 and Margalof ranged from 2 to 4. Among four stations, mean wet weight varied from 12.18±6/95 gr in Jask Port (maximum) to 6.24±3/85gr in Bandar Abbas (minimum) .Seasonally, in spring the wet weight of macro benthos was 15.15±16/32 (maximum) and with 1.43±0.88 gr showed the minimum value in summer. There was a negative correlation between silt and macro benthos abundance and a positive correlation existed between macro benthos community and sand. There was no significant correlation between macro benthos community and TOM. To pay attention to results like diversity, abundance, wet biomass and correlation; it seems that algal bloom has no obvious negative effect on Macro benthos communities.
    • A survey of feeding habits of economic benthic feeder fishes in the southern of Caspian Sea (Rutilus frissi kutum, Rutilus rutilus caspicus, Cyprinus carpio, Liza auratus and Liza saliens)

      Naderi, Mehdi; Pourgholam, R.; Fazli, H.; Daryanabard, Gh.R.; Afraei, M.A.; Soleymanrodi, A.; Roohi, A.; Nasrolahzadeh, H.; Kor, D.; Salarvand, Gh.R.; et al. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2015)
      Present study analyzed the stomach contents of individuals belonging to five fish’s species in order toInvestigate seasonal changes in feeding strategy and diet composition in the South coast of the Caspian Sea (Gilan and Mazandaran provinces) from late March until late May 2010 using the research ship Gillan and fishing with batoom trawl nets and fishing blades insoles bony fishes in the depths of less than 60 meters. The average length and the total weight of Rutilus frisii kutum, Rutilus rutilus caspicus, Cyprinus carpio, Liza auratus and Liza saliens respectively were 36/9 ± 8/5 cm , 562/9 ± 353/2 g, 23/2 ± 3/2 cm , 202 ± 101/6 g, 24/6 ± 8/1 cm , 249/8 ± 242 g, 32/2 ± 8/9 cm , 320/9 ± 242/8 g, 22/7 ± 2/6 cm and 82/9 ± 52/2 g repectively. Using the method of Shorygin and Costello highly nourishing food strategy and different species of fishes were studied. The results of this study showed that Rutilus frisii kutum fed generally of Balanus and Cerastorderma In order of importance after Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Crabs, Fish eggs, Filamentous alge in GI Rutilus frisii kutum presence, but feeding it of Bivalvia (in particular Cerastorderma) was much more than the other food. The results of present study showed that under the influence of compatibility and behavioral mechanisms, ecological, physiological and nutritional importance of Rutilus frisii kutum Bivalvia. The results of studies were showed that Bivalvia was feeding the dominant Rutilus frisii kutum , while the results of this study showed that despite Bivalvia present importance in feeding the of this species, it seems that its presence in such digestion decreased. As well as the dominant food of Rutilus rutilus caspicus was fish, but generally from Detrite fed. This study showed that feeding the dominant species of Cyprinus carpio, Liza auratus and Liza saliens of Detrite was. The most important food items after ditrit for the Cyprinus carpio in order of importance include the Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Abra ovata, Nereis, Fish eggs, Filamentous alge, was. The Liza auratus dietary habits also showed that after ditrit the most importance in nutrition related to Foraminifera, Porifera and Balanus, and for Liza saliens to Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Porifera. The results showed that the mullet the greater the intensity of feeding fishes than other species were, Rutilus frisii kutum in between of Cyprinidae the greater the intensity of feeding fishes than other species were (0/05 > P). The values of this indicator in the lower longitudinal in all fish species investigated were more than high longitudinal groups. The feeding intensity at different times of sampling for all species investigated showed that in all species at times extremely reduced the reproductive index (0/05 > P). As well as the diversity foods in the lower longitudinal in all fish species investigated were more than high longitudinal groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrated Food strategy have changed based on physiological changes, metabolism activity, behaviour, and the amount of food available.
    • A survey of some biological aspects of cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

      Daghooghi, Behnam; Darvishi, M.; Behzadi, S.; Safaei, M.; Forooghifard, H.; Kamali, I.; Valinassab, T.; Matinfar, A. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2008)
      Biology aspects of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) were investigated from October 2005 to December 2006 in Northern waters of Persian Gulf (Hormozgan province).The reproduction cycle, sexual maturity, sex ratio, Fecundity, Lm50, feeding, length frequency, growth parameters and mortality of cobia were studied from total of 509 specimens ranged from 19 to 159 fork length. Gonadosomatic index peaked during spring and summer with main peak in June. Spontaneous spawning occurs around the year with peak in June. The overall female to male ratio was significantly 1 : 1.49 (P<0.05). Batch fecundity were estimated 1684954±118990 in 15 females. Relationship between total length and fecundity were calculated F=1.3717TL 2.9567 (r^2= 0.82). Feeding studies indicated that the bony fishes were main food of cobia (76%) and followed by crustaceans (25%) and mollusks (11%). Rays were least food items (22%). Maximum and Minimum GaSI were observed in March (33%) and August (0.07%) respectively. Females reached 50% sexual maturity at 81.25 cm TL. The total length -weight relationship was W=0.0042L3.1162 (r^2=0.9852). Thetotal length-fork length relationship was TL= 1.1561FL-2.533 (r^2= 0.9933). Growth parameters K, L, and t_0 were calculated by von bertalanfy growth equation: 0.11 (year1), 168.65 cm, 3.49 and -0.97 respectively. The instantons rate of total mortality (z), natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality estimated by catch curve analysis were 0.30, 0.25, 0.14 (year1). Exploitation rate and Tmax were 0.36 and 28 year respectively.
    • A survey on biodiversity of Cyprinid fishes of Iran

      Ramin, Mahmoud; Doustdar, M. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2017)
      A survey on Biodiversity of Cyprinidae family in Iran Cyprinidae family is the biggest and most important fish families with 367 Genera and 3006 species in the world. Members of this family is the most important freshwater species are present in a variety of freshwater ecosystems. Some of them can also live in brackish waters. Iran has about 93 species in the family Cyprinidae and consist half of the fishes in inland waters. In the past two decades many changes occurred in aquatic ecosystems, Fish habitat conditions changed and a lot of them are affected and some species are endangered or put under pressure. Restricted fish migration, Some Exotic species and have been entered in water resources and have narrowed arena on continued existence of native species. On the other hand, climate change and drought on water resources aggravate existing conditions. It is necessary effects of these changes in the family Cyprinidae be reviewed and analyzed.
    • A survey on black mouth Croaker (Atrobucca nibe) resources in the north-west of Oman Sea

      Salarpouri, Ali; Kaymaram, F.; Valinassab, T.; Behzadi, S.; Darvishi, M.; Kamali, E.; Rezwani, S.; Memarzadeh, M.; Karami, N. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2015)
      Blackmouth croackers (Atrobucca nibe) resources are the most important commercial stocks in the north-west of Oman Sea, exploited as lantern fisheries by catch with trawlers vessel. At least 50 specimens were sampled monthly from September 2012 to July 2014. Results showed blackmouth croacker have several small peak in gonado-somatic index, but the most frequency of adults occurred in May. The female: male ratio was calculated 1:0.8 and the LM_50 was estimated at 35 cm. The mean of absolute and relative fecundity were estimated 92988 and 223 respectively. LM_50 and LC_50 were calculated and the results showed this species mainly caught before length of maturity, and the mass populations have not sufficient opportunity to reproduction. The mean of egg diameter for black mouth croaker were calculated at 533±103. Linear model of Fecundity= 9597.6TL-233880 was calculated for length-fecundity relationship . Results of feeding showed lantern fishes (65%), shrimps (11%), Japanese threadfin bream (13%) and the other fishes (11%) were the main feeding regime of black mouth croaker. This species was carnivore, the food prefect mainly consisted of lantern fishes (57.7%) and shrimps (28.2%). The vacuity index (87.7 %) indicated this spices was low appetite fish. Total length range was 18 to 47.5 cm with mean length of 28.7 cm, and the class of 23-24 cm was the most frequent length in fishing ground. The length-weight relationships in A. nibe were calculated for female and male W= 0.0121L2.9385 and W= 0.0075L3.0737 respectively, both have isometric growth. Growth parameters of L_∞ and K were estimated 50 cm and 0.2 y^-1 respectively. Parameters of t0, Tmax and Ǿ were calculated -0.7 year, 14 year and 2.69 respectively. This species have two recruitment period, and the peak of recruitment was occurred in May with 23.14 percent. Total mortality , natural mortality and fishing mortality rates were calculated 0.53 y^-1, 0.46 y^-1 and 0.07 y^-1 respectively. Due to the calculated exploitation rate (0.13), it is appreciated the improvement of black-mouth croaker in the Oman Sea. Base on seasonal and monthly CPUE it was resulted the peak of fishing density were occurred in the winter. Results showed the main distribution of black-mouth croaker concentrated on the continental slope in 200 m depth, but these stocks move to deeper waters (more than 200m) in warm season and extend to shallow waters (less than 200m) in winter.
    • A survey on effects of shrimp aquaculture on the coastal waters of Bushehr (Helleh and Mond)

      Omidi, Soheila; Izadpanahi, Gh.; Haghshenas, A.; Asasi Samani, N.; Alboosharif, A.; Afsharnasab, S.; Noorinezhad, M. (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2009)
      The effects of aquaculture industry on the environment were evaluated by studying the water quality of Bushehr costal water during culture season 2005 and 2006. The variations of selected parameters such as total phosphorus, ammonia, chlorophyll a, pH, salinity and... Were monitored in effluent canal, influent canal and open sea in Helleh and Mond regions as monthly. Following occurrence of White Spot Disease (W.S.D) in the shrimp ponds of Bushehr province, shrimp culture suspended and entrance of effluent waters completely were blocked since August 2005, despite the absence of aquaculture sewage evaluation of environment and sampling were continued. During releasing of sewage of shrimp ponds to the coastal waters of Bushehr in Jun 2005, the average amount of ammonia in Helleh and Mond were obtained to be 0.161 mg/l and 0.194 mg/l, however the average amount of total phosphorus in Helleh and Mond regions were 0.149 mg/l and 0.043 mg/l, respectively. Although effluent water suspension, amount of ammonia and total phosphorus were increased in both region especially in June 2006. Comparing present data in Jun 2005 and recorded data from culture period 1997-2003 with permitable range of municipal and aquaculture waste show that; aquaculture industry on both regions have not had any obvious negative effect on the coastal waters of Bushehr but it seems if other sources of pollutions in the region is not controlled, then the aquaculture industry can contribute to occurrence of environmental problems.
    • A survey on effects of shrimp aquaculture on the coastal waters of Bushehr (Helleh region)

      Mirbakhsh, Maryam; Ghaednia, Babak; Najdian, Aida; Alboosharif, Ali; Esmaeili, Fariba; Soltani, Mehdi (Iranian Fisheries Science Research InstituteTehran, Iran, 2008)
      This survey was designed in the Helleh and Delvar regions, to understand effects of aquaculture industry on coastal waters of Bushehr, in 2003. In Delvar region, five stations were selected comprise; effluent canals of Delvar 18 and 14, sea (south and north of site), influent water (Piyazi bay). In Helleh region, two stations; effluent canal and Ramleh bay were selected. Sediment and water samples were collected from effluent canal, influent canal and sea during the 9 month period (before until after culture season). The variations of selected water quality parameters were controlled monthly. Results show that, the maximum amount of ammonium in Helleh region was 0.33 mg/lit and in regions of Delvar 18 and 14 were 0.19, 0.20 mg/lit. However the maximum amounts of phosphate in Helleh region was 0.26 mg/lit and in regions of Delvar 18 and 14 were 0.24, 0.23 mg/lit. Correlation coefficients assess between phosphate concentration of effluent canal and sea station (gate of Ramleh) in Helleh region was r=0.91 (α=0.01). Also correlation coefficients