• 12 January 2010 Haiti Earthquake and Tsunami Event : Post-Event Assessment of CARIBE EWS Performance.

      Aliaga, Bernardo; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Mosquera, Diana Patricia; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2010)
      The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean killed over 230,000 people, displaced more than 1 million people and left a trail of destruction. Considering that the Caribbean is a region prone to tsunamis, and recognising the need for an early warning system, the Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 as a subsidiary body of the IOC-UNESCO with the purpose of providing assistance to all Member States of the region to establish their own regional early warning system. The main objective of the CARIBE EWS is to identify and mitigate the hazards posed by local and distant tsunamis. The goal is to create a fully integrated end-to-end warning system comprising four key components: hazard monitoring and detection; hazard assessment; warning dissemination; and community preparedness and response. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in Hawaii is the interim tsunami warning service provider for the Caribbean. The West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Centre (WC/ATWC) is providing tsunami warning service for the USA territories in the Caribbean region. The magnitude 7.0 earthquake in Haiti on the 12 January 2010 was one of the most severe earthquakes that occurred in this country in the last 100 years. It caused a large number of casualties and material destruction.In addition, the earthquake generated a tsunami that caused a runup of 3m at both Jacmel and Petit Paradis, Haiti and 1m in Pedernales, Dominican Republic. Furthermore, it was recorded with an amplitude of 12 cm (peak to trough) at the Santo Domingo sea level station in the Dominican Republic. The arrival time was at 22:40 UTC, namely 47 minutes after the earthquake occurred. This tsunami recalled the need to effectively implement the CARIBE EWS to be prepared for future potentially destructive tsunamis in the region. The event therefore presented an ideal opportunity to evaluate the performance of the CARIBE EWS to highlight both the strengths and weaknesses of the system, to identify areas that require further attention, and to provide a benchmark of the present status of the system. The UNESCO IOC Secretariat for the CARIBE EWS sent out a post-event survey questionnaire to Member States and territories that have identified their Tsunami Warning Focal Points (TWFP). Out of 28 questionnaires sent out, 23 responses were returned to the CARIBE EWS Secretariat in Paris. The objectives of the survey were to confirm that the NTWCs received bulletins from the interim advisory service in a timely manner, to determine what actions were taken by the NTWCs, and to find out if the Member States activated their emergency response plans based on the available information. The survey was very useful to get an overview of the current status of the CARIBE EWS. Tsunami bulletins were received timely by most of the countries that answered the survey. On the other hand, it was identified that sea level was scarcely monitored during the event, and that some National Warning Centres (NWC) do not know how to access sea level data over the GTS or over the IOC Sea Level Observation Facility website. Most NWCs did not use any numerical models during the event. It was observed, as well, that countries placed in watch level were able to distribute warnings and even preventively evacuate some areas. It is beyond the scope of this report to conduct a detailed interpretation of the results, and the survey results have been presented so that individual Member States and the ICG can draw conclusions from this exercise and decide on future action. Although progress has been made since 2005, it should be recognized that the CARIBE EWS is not yet fully implemented and much remains to be done to bring the system to full operational status. The ICG will continue to monitor the system to ensure continuous improvement during the development phase.
    • 17ª Reunión del Comité de la COI sobre Intercambio Internacional de Datos e Información Oceanográficos (IODE-XVII)

      IOC for UNESCO (2003)
      El presente documento comprende un párrafo introductorio y las decisiones adoptadas por el Comité de la COI sobre Intercambio de Datos e Información Oceanográficos en su 17ª reunión, en la forma siguiente: Sección 1: decisiones adoptadas por el Comité sobre IODE respecto de cada punto del orden del día; y Sección 2: resoluciones y recomendaciones aprobadas por el Comité sobre IODE. Este Resumen dispositivo existe en español, francés, inglés y ruso. El informe resumido completo se publica en inglés solamente. El informe se presentará a la Asamblea de la COI en su 22ª reunión, en junio de 2003, para que lo suscriba.
    • 2010 IODE Officers Meeting, IOC Project Office for IODE, Ostend, Belgium, 8-11 March 2010

      IOC Project Office for IODE (IOC Project Office for IODEOstend, 2010)
      Table of Contents 1 OPENING OF THE MEETING 1 2 REVIEW OF THE IODE-XX ACTION SHEET 1 3 DECISIONS OF IOC-XXV AND JCOMM-III RELATED TO IODE 15 4 STATUS OF THE IODE PROGRAMME 15 4.1 IODE Groups of Experts 15 4.1.1 GE-BICH 15 4.1.2 GE-MIM 16 4.1.3 JCOMM/IODE ETDMP 16 4.1.4 GE-OBIS 16 4.2 IODE Global Projects 16 4.2.1 IODE OceanDataPortal 16 4.2.2 IODE/JCOMM Ocean Data Standards 17 4.2.3 IODE OceanTeacher 17 4.2.4 MIM activities (OceanDocs, ASFA, OpenScienceDirectory) 18 4.2.5 DM projects and activities (GTSPP, GOSUD, GODAR, MarineXML, MEDI, ...) 18 4.3 IODE ODINs 19 4.3.1 ODINAFRICA 19 4.3.2 ODINCARSA 19 4.3.3 ODINECET 20 4.3.4 ODINBlackSea 20 4.3.5 ODINWESTPAC 21 4.3.6 ODIN-PIMRIS 21 4.3.7 ODINCINDIO 22 5 INTEGRATION OF OBIS INTO IODE 22 6 IOC STRATEGIC PLAN FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 25 7 RENEWAL OF MOU FOR IOC PROJECT OFFICE FOR IODE 26 8 COOPERATION WITH OTHER PROGRAMMES AND ORGANIZATIONS 26 8.1 Cooperation with SCOR on data citation 26 8.2 Cooperation in EU supported projects 26 8.3 Cooperation with ICSU on WDS 26 8.4 Cooperation with JCOMM (other) 28 9 PREPARATIONS FOR IODE-XXI 29 10 IODE 50TH ANNIVERSARY 30 10.1 Conference 30 10.2 Other IODE-50 activities and products 31 10.3 Media 33 11 REVISION OF IODE-XX WORK PLAN AND BUDGET FOR 2010-2011 33 12 ANY OTHER BUSINESS 33 12.1 Secretariat support 33 12.2 Election of IODE Co-Chairs 34 12.3 Secondments to the IOC Project Office for IODE 34 13 ADOPTION OF THE SUMMARY REPORT 34 14 CLOSING OF THE MEETING 34
    • 2012 IODE Officers Meeting, 30 January - 3 February 2012

      IOC Project Office for IODE (IOC Project Office for IODEOstend, 2012)
      1 OPENING OF THE MEETING 1 2 REVIEW OF THE IODE-XXI ACTION SHEET 1 2.1 EVENTS ORGANIZED SINCE IODE-XXI 1 2.2 PROGRESS REPORT ON THE IODE-XXI WORK PLAN 1 2.2.1 Resolutions adopted by IODE-XXI 1 2.2.2 ACTION ITEMS EXTRACTED FROM THE SUMMARY REPORT 2 6.1.1 IODE Group of Experts on Biological and Chemical Data Management and Exchange (GE-BICH) 3 6.1.2 IODE Group of Experts on Marine Information Management (GE-MIM) 3 3 DECISIONS OF IOC-XXVI RELATED TO IODE 13 4 STATUS OF THE IODE PROGRAMME 13 4.1 IODE GROUPS OF EXPERTS 13 4.1.1 GE-BICH 13 4.1.2 GE-MIM 13 4.1.3 JCOMM/IODE ETDMP 14 4.1.4 GE-OBIS 15 4.2 IODE GLOBAL PROJECTS 15 4.2.1 IODE OceanDataPortal 15 4.2.2 IODE/JCOMM Ocean Data Standards 17 4.2.3 IODE OceanTeacher 18 4.2.4 MIM activities (OceanDocs, ASFA, OpenScienceDirectory) 19 4.2.5 DM projects and activities (GTSPP, GOSUD, GODAR, MarineXML, MEDI, .) 19 4.3 IODE ODINs 19 4.3.1 ODINAFRICA 19 4.3.2 ODINCARSA 20 4.3.3 ODINECET 20 4.3.4 ODINBlackSea 20 4.3.5 ODINWESTPAC 21 4.3.6 ODIN-PIMRIS 21 4.3.7 ODINCINDIO 21 4.3.8 General observations related to ODINs: 21 5 INTEGRATION OF OBIS INTO IODE 22 6 STRATEGIC ISSUES 22 6.1 INTER-SESSIONAL WORKING GROUP FOR UPDATING THE IOC STRATEGIC PLAN FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND INFORMATION EXCHANGE (2012-2015) 22 6.2 INTER-SESSIONAL WORKING GROUP TO IDENTIFY A SET OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT CRITERIA FOR IODE NODCS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THOSE DEFINED FOR THE WDS 23 6.3 INVITATION TO ADOPT ICAN (INTERNATIONAL COASTAL ATLAS NETWORK) INTO IODE 23 7 RENEWAL OF MOU FOR IOC PROJECT OFFICE FOR IODE 24 8 COOPERATION WITH OTHER PROGRAMMES AND ORGANIZATIONS 24 8.1 COOPERATION WITH SCOR AND MBLWHOI ON DATA CITATION 24 8.2 COOPERATION WITH ICSU ON WDS 24 8.3 COOPERATION WITH JCOMM (OTHER) 24 8.4 COOPERATION OF IODE IN IMARINE 25 8.5 COOPERATION OF IODE IN GEO/GEOSS 25 8.6 COOPERATION OF IODE IN GEOWOW 26 8.7 COOPERATION OF IODE IN SEADATANET2 26 8.8 COOPERATION WITH EUMETSAT 26 8.9 COOPERATION WITH POGO 26 8.10 NEW OPPORTUNITIES 27 9 PREPARATIONS FOR IOC/EC 27 10 PREPARATIONS FOR IODE-XXII 28 11 REVISION OF IODE-XXI WORK PLAN AND BUDGET FOR 2012-2013 28 12 ANY OTHER BUSINESS 28 12.1 SECRETARIAT SUPPORT 28 12.2 ELECTION OF IODE CO-CHAIRS 29 13 ADOPTION OF THE SUMMARY REPORT 29 14 CLOSING OF THE MEETING 29
    • 27 February 2010 Chile Earthquake and Tsunami Event: Post-Event Assessment of PTWS Performance.

      Aliaga, Bernardo; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Mosquera, Diana Patricia; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2010)
      A series of severe earthquakes hit Central Chile on Saturday, 27th February 2010. The main shock off Concepcion at 06:34 UTC (3:34 AM local time) had a magnitude of 8.8 Mw. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center PTWC in Hawaii, USA issued a regional warning at 06:46 UTC (12 minutes after the event). This was the first ocean wide test of a system that was put in place nearly 45 years ago by UNESCO’s Member States through its Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), after a 9.5 magnitude earthquake on 22 May 22 1960 off Chile triggered a wide ocean tsunami that caused 61 fatalities in Hawaii and 142 fatalities in Japan, several hours after the earthquake. As indicated above, 12 minutes after the 27th February 2010 earthquake the Pacific Ocean Tsunami Warning System (PTWS) went into action, with timely and adequate information produced and disseminated across the Pacific Ocean. There were no fatalities reported far from the epicenter, however, near the epicenter off the Chilean coast, official accounts indicate over 156 fatalities due to the tsunami. Preliminary measures of a Rapid Survey Team deployed the week after the event by UNESCO showed run up measurements as high as 30 meters with most common measurements between 6 and 10 meters in the most affected area of the Chilean coast. This earthquake and tsunami event presented an ideal opportunity to assess the performance of the PTWS. To that end the UNESCO/IOC Secretariat for the PTWS sent out a post-event survey questionnaire to the Tsunami Warning Focal Points (TWFPs) and Tsunami National Contacts (TNCs) from its 32 Member States and territories. This report has been prepared by the Secretariat based on the responses received from 19 TWFPs and TNCs. Factual details of the earthquake event and the tsunami are presented and the results of the survey are listed in tables and displayed as timelines and maps. We underscore that all TWFPs received the first PTWC bulletin. In addition, most of the countries reported PTWC as source of awareness of the earthquake. Fourteen countries issued a tsunami warning and in 9 Member States coastal zones were evacuated. It would be pertinent that each Member State analyze if an evacuation would have been necessary in zones where no evacuation was made. In four countries, some areas were evacuated preventively (self-evacuation). Moreover, it was observed that sea level was monitored by most of the countries. In addition, some countries used results from numerical modelling and calculated earthquake parameters. Based on data and information collected from Member States the PTWS acted promptly and efficiently throughout the Pacific. However, and at the same time, this event demonstrated the need to reinforce the work of PTWS for near field events, particularly with denser sea level real time networks close to active subduction areas. Indeed, as it has been demonstrated by the case of the sea level station located in Talcahuano, Chile, sea level stations close to the epicenter may be partially or totally destroyed by the impact of an earthquake and/or a tsunami. Given the critical role sea level readings have in all tsunami warning systems, the sea level monitoring networks should be densified close to active subduction areas and redundancy of sensors and transmission paths be strongly considered. Most of the issues revealed by the survey can be addressed both by the PTWS and at the national level through increased regional cooperation and training where needed. Post-event assessments assist in this process by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the PTWS at regional, national and local levels and by raising the awareness of how Member States responded, both individually and collectively. The true value of such assessments is that it allows Member States to share information and experiences for the mutual benefit of improving the PTWS performance for all members.
    • 2nd Joint GOSUD/SAMOS Workshop, U.S.Coast Guard Base, Seattle, Washington, 10-12 June 2008.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2008)
      On 10-12 June 2008, the NOAA Climate Observation Division sponsored the 2nd Joint Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD)/Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Workshop in Seattle, WA, USA. The workshop focused on the ongoing collaboration between GOSUD and SAMOS and addressing the needs of the research and operational community for highquality underway oceanographic and meteorological observations from ships. The SAMOS initiative is working to improve access to calibrated, quality-controlled, surface marine meteorological data collected in-situ by automated instrumentation on research vessels (primarily) and select merchant ships. GOSUD is an IODE project which focuses on the collection, quality evaluation, and distribution of near surface ocean parameters (for the moment mainly salinity and sea temperature) from vessels. The workshop organizing committee (Shawn Smith, Mark Bourassa, Loic Petit de la Villéon, David Forcucci, and Phillip McGillivary) brought together a panel consisting of operational and research scientists, educators, marine technicians, and private sector and government representatives to address several key topics (see below). Participants from the U.S. government represented NOAA (AOML, COD, ESRL, NDBC, NODC, NWS, PMC, and PMEL) and the United States Coast Guard. CIRES, LUMCON, Florida State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Oregon State University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Stony Brook University, and the Universities of Delaware, Maryland, Miami, and Rhode Island represented the United States university community. A significant international presence included representatives from the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia); Environment Canada (Canada); LEGOS, IFREMER, and Meteo France (France); the University of Hamburg (Germany); the Directorate of Civil Aviation (Kuwait); the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (Nigeria), University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and the NOCS (UK). Educators were present from ACT, IIRP, and MATE. Finally, Earth and Space Research, the RMR Company, and two consultants represented the private sector. The workshop was comprised of invited and contributed talks, poster presentations, plenary discussions, and the SAMOS and GOSUD technical working group meetings. Broad topic areas included new opportunities for international collaboration, emerging technologies, scientific application of underway measurements, and data and metadata issues. New sessions included a technician’s round-table discussion and developing educational initiatives. Scientific discussion centered around the need for high-quality meteorological and thermosalinograph observations to support satellite calibration and validation, ocean data assimilation, polar studies, air-sea flux estimation, and improving analyses of precipitation, carbon, and radiation. Determining the regions of the ocean and observational parameters necessary to achieve operational and research objectives requires input by the scientific user community. The CLIVAR community should be one way to approach the scientific community. This input will allow SAMOS and GOSUD to target their limited resources on vessels operating in the high priority regions. The vessel operators and marine technicians were very supportive of the activities of SAMOS and GOSUD. They requested a clear set of guidelines for parameters to measure, routine monitoring activities, and calibration schedules. The operators also desire additional routine feedback on data flow and data quality. A clear need for training and educational material was noted by the technical community. The dissemination of best practices guides for existing techs and pre-cruise training for new techs were suggested. The result of the workshop was a series of action items (Appendix A) and seven recommendations.
    • 6th International XBT Science Workshop, Ostend, Belgium, 18-20 April 2018.

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
      The 6th International XBT (Expendable bathythermograph) Science team workshop took place at the IODE Project Office of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, in Ostend, Belgium from 18 to 20 April 2018 following on from the 5th IODE Steering Group for the International Quality Controlled Ocean Database (SG-IquOD) meeting at the same venue. The workshop was divided in oral presentations and plenary discussions, held with the objective of exchanging ideas on how to proceed with the implementation, maintenance, and enhancement of the XBT network. A total of 19 scientists participated (4 remotely) from Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Africa, UK, and the USA. XBTs represent the largest fraction of the temperature profile observations since 1970s until the full implementation of Argo profiling floats in approximately 2005. These historical XBT profiles comprise most of the temperature data base that is used to compute time series of ocean heat content. One focus of the XBT Science team (along with IQuOD) is to improve and understand the accuracy of these historical data so that we can understand the uncertainties in this climatically important time series. The global XBT network is logistically complex and so requires strong collaboration between many organizations and countries (Figure 1). Many of these transects have now been in place for multiple-decades. Today, XBT transects mainly operate in High Density (also referred as High Resolution) and Frequently Repeated modes. High Density transects are occupied at least 4 times per year XBT deployed at approximately 25 km intervals along the ship track. Frequently repeated tracks are occupied at around 18 times per year with XBT deployments at 100 km intervals. The repeat sampling nature of XBT transects along fixed transects makes the XBT profiles our best present observing system for the important boundary current systems (including the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) that convey heat, freshwater and nutrients around the global ocean. XBT observations are currently used mainly to: (i) Monitor the variability of location and transport of key surface and subsurface ocean currents and boundary currents, (ii) Monitor the variability of the meridional heat transport and the Meridional Overturning Circulation across ocean basins, (iii) Provide a significant amount of upper ocean thermal observations, particularly in areas undersampled by other observational platforms, used for global ocean heat content estimates, and (iv) Initialization and validation of numerical ocean forecast models. A strong synergy exists between XBT observations and observations from other platforms, such as altimetry, surface drifters, Argo, etc. the enables more robust scientific analysis.
    • Action Paper

      IOC; UNESCO (UNESCO, 2007)
    • Action Paper: presented at the Twenty-first Session of the IOC Committee on International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE-XXI), Liège, Belgium, 23-26 March 2011.

      IOC Project Office for IODE (UNESCOParis, 2011)
      The Action Paper will be the main working document for the 21th Session of the IOC Committee on IODE. It includes (i) the draft introductory text that will be used for the summary report of the Meeting; (ii) (in yellow text boxes) the decisions requested from the Committee; (iii) draft recommendations and resolutions; and (iv) resource requirements. Regarding resource requirements it is noted that in Annex I a summary overview is provided of financial requirements for the period 2011-2013. Participants in the Session are requested to carefully read the Action Paper as well as other working documents and prepare for short plenary interventions prior to the Session. Conserve nature: Participants are requested to bring their personal set of documents (electronic or paper) as no printed copies will be available at the venue.
    • Actionsheet on Implementation of Decisions and Recommend Actions of the Fourteenth Session of the IOC Committee on IODE: ANNEX III

      IOC for UNESCO (1992)
      The Action Sheet is an up-dated version of the status of implementation of decisions & recommendations of IODE-XIV as of 1 November 1995. This updated version is a Supplement to Document IOC/IODE-XV/6 "Report on Intersessional Activities of the Chairman of the IOC Committee on IODE".
    • Ad Hoc Planning Meeting for the JCOMM Pilot Project for the WMO Integrated Global Observing Systems (WIGOS)

      JCOMM/IODE (UNESCO, 2008)
      The ad hoc planning meeting for the JCOMM Pilot Project for the WMO Integrated Global Observing Systems (WIGOS) was held in Ostend, Belgium on 29 March 2008 at the kind invitation of the IOC Project Office for the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). The aim of the Pilot Project is to promote and develop integration of marine and other appropriate observations into the global observing system through three core deliverables: (i) integration of instrument best practices, (ii) development of interoperability arrangements between the ocean data systems and the WMO Information System (WIS), and (iii) the integration of quality management systems. The meeting agreed that the cooperation with the ocean community was essential to the success of the Pilot Project, especially regarding interoperability issues with the IODE Ocean Data Portal (ODP) being developed by the ocean community. The synergies between the ODP and WIS are potentially important regarding historical and recent data. In the process, the ownership of IOC for some of the components of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), and the WMO and IOC respective data policies will be respected, as well as specific data policies for specific data sets. Development of standards and their wide acceptance within the meteorological and oceanographic communities is also an important activity that will addressed by the Pilot Project. It will link naturally with the development of a Standards process recently started by JCOMM and IODE (see http://www.oceandatastandards.org). The meeting addressed the instrument best practices issues, recognized the need for traceability to agreed standards, and recommended to establish cooperation with the WMO Commission on Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) and to build on its experience with regard to instrument intercomparisons, instrument centres, etc. The various related publications available via WMO and IOC will be reviewed and updated as required. JCOMM has also recently proposed to compile a catalogue of best practices to be eventually published as a JCOMM Technical Document. Related activity will be included in the Pilot Project plan. The meeting proposed to explore establishment of one or more marine and oceanographic instrument centre(s) and reviewed the methodology proposed by CIMO for conducting instrument intercomparisons to ensure homogeneity, and compatibility of the observations. The meeting agreed to explore how JCOMM and ocean instrument comparisons can profit from the CIMO experience. The meeting reviewed its project plan and proposed some changes. It particularly identified partners willing to pursue participation in the Pilot Project by providing data sets to the ODP and WIS (e.g. World Ocean Atlas, World Ocean Database, Surface currents from HF radars, sea level data and marine climatology summaries). Other potential partners to provide additional data-sets (e.g. Argo, GHRSST, ocean model fields and SeaDataNet), metadata (e.g. META-T), technology (e.g. End-To-End), or training facilities or materials for Capacity Building purposes (e.g. ODINs) were listed and the Pilot Project will approach them to seek their participation. Because of the strong potential synergies between the ODP and the JCOMM Pilot Project for WIGOS, the meeting proposed to establish a joint Steering Group with balanced representation from the IOC and WMO communities. Terms of Reference and Membership for the Steering Group will be finalized soon. The first meeting of the Steering Group is planned to be held in September 2008. The meeting will work at defining a more detailed implementation plan based on the project plan.