• Fifth session of the International Oceanographic Commission

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCO, 1966)
      The IOC Working Group on International Oceanographic Data Exchange met at Charlottenlund castle from 31 March to 2 April 1966 with Dr. John B. Tait in the chair. The meeting was welcomed by Mr. H. Tambs-Lyche, Secretary-General of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). After the selection of Mr. Charles D. Sauer (Canada) as Chairman to take office at the close of the present meeting, and designation of Professor W.S. Wooster (SCOR) as Rapporteur.
    • Actionsheet on Implementation of Decisions and Recommend Actions of the Fourteenth Session of the IOC Committee on IODE: ANNEX III

      IOC for UNESCO (1992)
      The Action Sheet is an up-dated version of the status of implementation of decisions & recommendations of IODE-XIV as of 1 November 1995. This updated version is a Supplement to Document IOC/IODE-XV/6 "Report on Intersessional Activities of the Chairman of the IOC Committee on IODE".
    • Commission océanographique intergouvernementale - Rapports des organes directeurs et des principaux organes subsidiaires - Seizième session

      IOC for UNESCO (2000)
      RESUME La seizième session du Comité de la COI sur l'IODE a réuni près de 100 participants venus de 37 pays et d'un certain nombre d'organisations partenaires. Le Comité a recommandé qu'un soutien spécifique soit apporté aux coordonnateurs régionaux de l'IODE. Compte tenu du succès du "Projet pilote concernant la redéfinition du MEDI", le Comité a recommandé (i) de transformer le MEDI en un programme permanent de l'IODE ; (ii) de mettre en place un Groupe directeur pour MEDI ; et (iii) d'inclure l'outil logiciel MEDI dans les activités de formation et les produits/projets de renforcement des capacités de l'IODE. Le Comité a reconnu l'importance pour l'IODE de participer activement, par l'intermédiaire de ses centres de données, à la planification des programmes d'étude et de surveillance du milieu marin. Le Comité a par conséquent recommandé la création d'un Groupe directeur chargé d'établir, d'entretenir et de renforcer la coopération entre l'IODE et les programmes de recherche et de surveillance. Le Comité s'est félicité de la création de la JCOMM et a décidé qu'il faudrait instaurer des rapports constructifs entre la Commission mixte et l'IODE. Il a recommandé d'accorder, au sein du système IODE, une plus grande attention aux données obtenues par télédétection, aux données biologiques et chimiques, ainsi qu'aux données relatives à la pollution et aux zones côtières. Il a également recommandé la création d'un Groupe d'experts sur les pratiques en matière d'échange et de gestion des données biologiques et chimiques. Au vu de la réussite du projet GODAR, le Comité a approuvé la mise au point d'un Projet de base de données océaniques mondiales et a entériné l'expansion du site Web de l'IODE, du portail de données et d'information de l'IODE et des services et produits connexes. Le Comité a recommandé à la COI de participer à la mise au point d'un langage de balisage extensible (XML) pour les données marines et d'en promouvoir l'utilisation au niveau national. Il a recommandé la constitution d'un Groupe directeur chargé du Dossier d'information de l'IODE. Notant le succès de réseaux régionaux de données et/ou d'information comme RECOSCIX, ODINAFRICA et MEDAR/MEDATLAS, il a en outre recommandé la mise en place d'autres réseaux régionaux. RESUMEN Asistieron a la 16ª reunión del Comité de la COI sobre el IODE aproximadamente 100 participantes de 37 países y varias organizaciones asociadas. El Comité recomendó que se prestara apoyo específico a los Coordinadores Regionales del IODE. En vista del éxito logrado por el "Proyecto piloto sobre la revisión del MEDI", el Comité recomendó: a) dar al MEDI el carácter de programa permanente del IODE; establecer un Grupo de Dirección del IODE para el Programa MEDI; y iii) incluir el soporte lógico del MEDI en las actividades de capacitación del IODE y en los productos y proyectos de aumento de capacidad. El Comité reconoció la importancia de que el IODE, a través de sus centros de datos, participe activamente en el planeamiento de los programas marinos científicos y de observación. El Comité recomendó por lo tanto que se estableciera un Grupo de Dirección sobre la Instauración, el Mantenimiento y el Fortalecimiento de la Cooperación entre el IODE y los Programas de Investigación y Observación. El Comité celebró la creación de la JCOMM y decidió que era preciso establecer una constructiva relación entre ésta y el IODE. El Comité recomendó que en el sistema de IODE se prestara más atención a los datos teledetectados y a los datos biológicos y químicos, así como a los relativos a la contaminación y a las zonas costeras. El Comité recomendó que se estableciera un Grupo de Expertos sobre Gestión de Datos Biológicos y Químicos y Prácticas de Intercambio. Habida cuenta del éxito del proyecto GODAR el Comité aprobó la elaboración de un proyecto de base de datos oceánicos mundiales y respaldó el desarrollo del sitio Web del IODE, del Portal de Datos e Información del IODE y de los servicios y productos conexos. El Comité recomendó que la COI participara en la preparación de un XML para datos marinos y propiciara su uso en el plano nacional. El Comité recomendó que se creara un Grupo de Dirección para el Juego de Materiales del IODE. Observando los buenos resultados de las redes regionales de datos e información tales como RECOSCIX, ODINAFRICA y MEDAR/MEDATLAS, el Comité recomendó que se organizaran redes regionales adicionales. РЕЗЮМЕ В работе 16-й сессии Комитета МОК по МООД участвовало около ста представителей 37 стран и ряда партнерских организаций. Комитет рекомендовал оказать конкретную под- держку региональным координаторам МООД. Ввиду успеха «Пилотного проекта по пере- смотру МЕДИ» Комитет рекомендовал (i) сделать МЕДИ одной из постоянных программ МООД; (ii) учредить Руководящую группу по МЕДИ и (iii) использовать программное обеспечение МЕДИ в мероприятиях МООД по подготовке специалистов и в продук- тах/проектах по укреплению потенциала. Комитет признал важность активного участия МООД через ее центры данных в планировании программ научных исследований и мониторинга морской среды. В этой связи Комитет рекомендовал учредить руководящую группу по установлению, поддержанию и укреплению сотрудничества между МООД и программами научных исследований и мониторинга. Комитет приветствовал создание ОКОММ и принял решение о том, что между ОКОММ и МООД следует установить конструктивные взаимоотношения. Комитет рекомендовал уделять в рамках системы МООД большее внимание данным дистанционного зондирования, биологическим и химическим данным, данным о загрязнении и данным о прибрежной зоне. Комитет рекомендовал учредить группу экспертов по практическим методам управления и обмена биологическими и химическими данными. В связи с успехом проекта ГОДАР Комитет одобрил разработку Проекта по базе данных о Мировом океане и поддержал дальнейшее развитие веб-сайта МООД, портала данных и информации МООД и соответствующих служб и продуктов. Комитет рекомендовал МОК участвовать в разработке морского формата XML и содействовать расширению использования XML на национальном уровне. Комитет рекомендовал учредить руководящую группу по справочному комплекту МООД. Отмечая успешное функционирование региональных сетей данных и/или информации, таких, как РЕКОСИКС, ОДИНАФРИКА и МЕДАР/МЕДАТЛАС, Комитет рекомендовал развивать новые региональные сети.
    • An Ocean Theme for the IGOS Partnership

      IOC/UNESCO (2000)
      The Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) established, in 1999, a thematic approach to the implementation of the IGOS. Recognising that other themes will emerge, the “Ocean Theme” was chosen to be the “pathfinder” in this approach and an Ocean Theme Team was assembled to formulate guidance. One goal of the Ocean Theme Team is to consider and study the full range of current and planned observations, while identifying potential gaps in future observations that might compromise ocean observational records. This document presents a proposed set of long-term ocean observations and identifies a number of challenges for the improvement of knowledge about both the oceans and observing techniques. The overall strategy is to create an observing system for the oceans that serves the research and operational oceanographic communities. The set of observations is based on an evaluation of the range of requirements that have already been presented by GOOS, GCOS, and GODAE. The next five years must include development of institutional structures committed to (1) managing the total data flow (in situ as well as satellite); (2) managing the production, distribution and quality assessment of relevant data products; and (3) working with end-users to ensure that the evolving system is responsive to their needs. It is also recognised that observation protocols evolve with time and, therefore, that the stated observational requirements will need to be reviewed in future. It is the recognised applications that ultimately drive the shape of the requirements for the ocean observing system. The observations on which we focus here are needed to address important issues in ocean science, and through combinations of measurements and models, to support the production of an extensive range of products for a broad community of users. The applications are directly linked to societal needs, including among other things numerical weather prediction, seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts, and climate assessment. The data are needed for deriving fields of information about the ocean and for initialising and validating the models used to derive other products. Aside from observations we also need to improve, through the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) and the Ocean Biology Project, how we assimilate the data into models.
    • An Ocean Theme for the IGOS Partnership

      IOC/UNESCO (UNESCO, 2000)
      The Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) established, in 1999, a thematic approach to the implementation of the IGOS. Recognising that other themes will emerge, the “Ocean Theme” was chosen to be the “pathfinder” in this approach and an Ocean Theme Team was assembled to formulate guidance. One goal of the Ocean Theme Team is to consider and study the full range of current and planned observations, while identifying potential gaps in future observations that might compromise ocean observational records. This document presents a proposed set of long-term ocean observations and identifies a number of challenges for the improvement of knowledge about both the oceans and observing techniques. The overall strategy is to create an observing system for the oceans that serves the research and operational oceanographic communities. The set of observations is based on an evaluation of the range of requirements that have already been presented by GOOS, GCOS, and GODAE. The next five years must include development of institutional structures committed to (1) managing the total data flow (in situ as well as satellite); (2) managing the production, distribution and quality assessment of relevant data products; and (3) working with end-users to ensure that the evolving system is responsive to their needs. It is also recognised that observation protocols evolve with time and, therefore, that the stated observational requirements will need to be reviewed in future. It is the recognised applications that ultimately drive the shape of the requirements for the ocean observing system. The observations on which we focus here are needed to address important issues in ocean science, and through combinations of measurements and models, to support the production of an extensive range of products for a broad community of users. The applications are directly linked to societal needs, including among other things numerical weather prediction, seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts, and climate assessment. The data are needed for deriving fields of information about the ocean and for initialising and validating the models used to derive other products. Aside from observations we also need to improve, through the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) and the Ocean Biology Project, how we assimilate the data into models.
    • An Ocean Theme for the IGOS Partnership

      IOC for UNESCO (2000)
      The Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) established, in 1999, a thematic approach to the implementation of the IGOS. Recognising that other themes will emerge, the “Ocean Theme” was chosen to be the “pathfinder” in this approach and an Ocean Theme Team was assembled to formulate guidance. One goal of the Ocean Theme Team is to consider and study the full range of current and planned observations, while identifying potential gaps in future observations that might compromise ocean observational records. This document presents a proposed set of long-term ocean observations and identifies a number of challenges for the improvement of knowledge about both the oceans and observing techniques. The overall strategy is to create an observing system for the oceans that serves the research and operational oceanographic communities. The set of observations is based on an evaluation of the range of requirements that have already been presented by GOOS, GCOS, and GODAE. The next five years must include development of institutional structures committed to (1) managing the total data flow (in situ as well as satellite); (2) managing the production, distribution and quality assessment of relevant data products; and (3) working with end-users to ensure that the evolving system is responsive to their needs. It is also recognised that observation protocols evolve with time and, therefore, that the stated observational requirements will need to be reviewed in future. It is the recognised applications that ultimately drive the shape of the requirements for the ocean observing system. The observations on which we focus here are needed to address important issues in ocean science, and through combinations of measurements and models, to support the production of an extensive range of products for a broad community of users. The applications are directly linked to societal needs, including among other things numerical weather prediction, seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts, and climate assessment. The data are needed for deriving fields of information about the ocean and for initialising and validating the models used to derive other products. Aside from observations we also need to improve, through the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) and the Ocean Biology Project, how we assimilate the data into models. In terms of a long-term continuity challenge, the observations and key issues and objectives may be summarised as follows. Ocean Topography: Continuation of a TOPEX/Poseidon-class high-precision satellite (i.e. Jason-1), an ERS/ENVISAT-class altimeter and the implementation of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO) profilers. The key issues are the future funding of Jason beyond Jason-1 and of the ARGO profilers. The principal data product is a 10-day global map of sea-surface height (SSH) at a resolution of 0.5°.
    • Reports on Activities of the IODE Groups of Experts: IODE Group of Experts on Technical Aspects of Data Exchange (GETADE)

      Reed, G. (2002)
      The IODE Group of Experts on the Technical Aspects of Data Exchange (GETADE) has the following terms of reference (IODE-XV, 1996): (i) Collaborate with IGOSS-CP, IODE GE-MIM and the data management groups of other international bodies and scientific programmes in the development of technical solutions for the management, exchange and easier integration of oceanographic data and information with data from other disciplines. (ii) Collaborate with IODE GE-MIM in the development of a common WWW interface for IODE Centres to deliver data and information in a consistent manner. (iii) Develop a set of documents to be used by data originators or data centres which describe guidelines for formatting ocean data and information. (iv) Continue the developments of a common data format which conforms to other major data collection programmes, meets the needs to handle more diverse data types and is independent of the exchange medium. This will include as appropriate the specification of software modules that may be required. (v) Liaise with other programmes and agencies concerned with oceanographic data exchange to ensure as much as possible a closer alignment of data structure and content. At the 8th Session of GETADE (TADE-VII, 2000) the Group discussed at length the direction in which it felt GETADE should develop in the next years. The Group identified the following medium-term objectives for GETADE: Objective 1: Develop End-To-End Data Management framework strategy and appropriate projects, products and services, based on user requirements. Objective 2: Develop IODE Global metadata management system. Objective 3: Develop marine XML as a mechanism to facilitate format and platform independent information, metadata and data exchange. Objective 4: Develop the IODE Resource Kit as a marine data and information management reference tool for scientists and data/information managers. Objective 5: Organize integrated national and regional level capacity building projects and programmes, linking equipment, training and operational activities. Objective 6: Develop a high-quality IODE web presence and IODE Data/Information Management Portal, as a mechanism to promote IODE, to reinforce the ‘IODE family’ principle, and to guide users to marine information, metadata and data sources.
    • Marine Environmental Data Inventory (MEDI)

      Reed, G. (2002)
      The Marine Environmental Data Inventory (MEDI) is a directory system for datasets, data catalogues and data inventories within the framework of the IOC's International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) programme. It has been set up to ensure the widest possible coverage of data holdings and included a review of existing national and international data directory systems as well as implications of inter-operability with similar systems within other international organizations. The development of MEDI was recommended in 1971 by the Joint Task Team on Interdisciplinary and Inter-organizational Data and Information Management and Referral (IMAR). The MEDI Catalogue was published in 1979 (1st Edition, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 10), 1985 (2nd Edition, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 16) and 1993 (3rd Edition, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 16). The IODE Committee, during its Fifteenth Session recommended (Recommendation IODE-XV.1) that a Pilot Project be undertaken to: ‘Test the ways and means of applying modern methodology to the further development of the MEDI system and, on the basis of these investigations, to draft a specification for a revised MEDI’. The Sixteenth Session of the IODE Committee recommende(Recommendation IODE-XVI.1) MEDI becomes a permanent program of IODE. A Steering Group was established tasked with the responsibility for the further development and enhancement of the MEDI software tool, in response to user feedback and additional requirements.
    • Development of a Marine XML: ICES-IOC Study Group on the Development of Marine Data Exchange Systems Using XML (SGXML)

      Gelfeld, R.; Isenor, A. (2002)
      The first meeting of the SGXML resulted in the initial development of a plan to guide an investigation into how XML technology might best be used in an oceanographic context. From an IOC/IODE perspective, the requirement was to design a framework for an XML structure that data centres can use. It is thought that a mutually acceptable structure will solve many problems. A series of short presentations were given to illustrate XML developments in the various organizations represented. These presentations, predominantly served to initiate a series of discussions. The main requirements for an XML based exchange system involved the development of a document type definition (DTD) and standardised syntax for common content (code tables). With these, it should be possible to exchange data knowing the details of the content. Deriving a common data model is the key to XML developments. Related to this are various data relationships (internal and external), normalization, common dictionary development, common code tables and general data model description. Then, the description could be mapped to an XML syntax and thus produce a marine XML. It was recognized that the definition of tags, etc. was important. However, the importance of a common data dictionary stems from the distributed data system approach. If such a system sends out a request for data (e.g. using spatial-temporal-parameter query) and collects together data from different databases, and then pulls all collected data together, it would presently result in many different names for the same parameter. However the Group considered that all dictionaries must be considered equal and a system for mapping between the different dictionaries is necessary. An essential component of the development is a general data model containing a common structure. The Group plans to instigate development of a common data model on the basis of the full application domain (marine data in general). Russia will be leading this issue at a national level, to produce a general data model as the basis of a DTD for the widest possible domain. IOC has registered the domain name marinexml.net, which it established as a community portal for marine XML discussion.
    • The Global Directory of Marine and Freshwater Professionals: OceanExpert

      Pissierssens, P. (2002)
      OceanExpert started as the Global Directory of Marine (and Freshwater) Professionals (GLODIR) in 1997 after the IODE Group of Experts on Marine Information Management (GE-MIM) had noted that the International Directory of Marine Scientists project, developed and maintained in the 1970s and 1980s by several UN agencies had been stopped despite its high appreciation by the ocean research community. The first version of the new GLODIR was launched in 1997 as a web product enabling experts to enter and edit their information. Whereas the first version used the full ASFA subject descriptor set to enable experts to define their expertise, this was quickly dropped as experts showed little enthusiasm to spend the time required to pick descriptors from this extensive list. It was therefore decided to use a far more limited list of subject descriptors. In 1999 a number of IASMLIC members agreed to cooperate in GLODIR as national or regional ‘input coordinators’. This led to a rapid increase (doubling!) in the number of entries and GLODIR passed the cape of 10,000 records at the end of 1999. At that time we decided to add the citation field enabling experts to include short descriptions of their most important and/or recent scientific publications. This also proved to be a success as within a year over 15,000 citations were added. Once a year all experts registered in GLODIR received an email inviting them to update their record. On average 30-40% of the experts responded to this request. A big problem turned out to be the password required for editing records: in many cases the registered experts forgot this password and needed to obtain it from us. Another problem was that experts who had not provided an email address (or who had been registered by the national/regional coordinators without an email address): although we attempted to send out printed update requests to over 3000 experts this proved to be an impractical, expensive and time consuming exercise that could not be maintained. By the year 2002 the number of records reached 13,500, of which 3000 did not have an email address.