Recent Submissions

  • IODE Quality Management Framework for National Oceanographic Data Centres and Associate Data Units.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2019)
    The International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE)1 programme of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO2 maintains a global network of National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC) and Associate Data Units (ADU) responsible for the collection, quality control, archive, and online publication of many millions of ocean and marine observations which are made available to Member States. In addition, it coordinates a network of marine information (library) managers. The IODE Committee has long held the view that there is a need for a quality management framework to ensure that NODCs and ADUs are established and operate according to defined principles, including adherence to agreed standards and the requirements of the IOC Oceanographic Data Exchange Policy. This will ensure NODCs and ADUs are able to provide data of known quality to meet the requirements of a broad community of users.
  • IOC and the Ocean Decade: contribution and interaction.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2021)
    This document prepared by the Secretariat illustrates the continuous alignment and synergies between the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) and relevant programmes and activities of the IOC, in particular the High-Level Objectives and Functions of IOC defined in its Medium-term Strategy and the Outcomes set out in the Decade Implementation Plan. This information is particularly noteworthy as the Ocean Decade has now received endorsement by the UN General Assembly at its 75th session in December 2021.
  • MSPglobal - Compendium of existing and emerging cross-border and transboundary MSP practices.

    Quesada da Silva, Michele; Hwedie, Kwadwo Osei; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro; Begmatova, Madina; Khalil, Aya; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2021)
    The project 'Supporting internationally accepted maritime spatial planning guidance' - MSPglobal for short - is an initiative by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC-UNESCO) and the European Commission's Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) to support their Joint Roadmap to Accelerate Marine / Maritime Spatial Planning processes worldwide (MSProadmap) (#OceanAction15346). Launched in November 2018 for a period of three years, MSPglobal aims to support international marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) for the sustainable development of the blue economy, by enhancing cross-border and transboundary cooperation where it already exists and promoting MSP processes in areas where it is yet to be put in place. More specifically, it seeks to: - Develop a guidance on cross-border and transboundary MSP; - Increase awareness among governmental authorities and stakeholders about the importance of MSP; - Initiate an institutional coordinate dialogue between governmental authorities at regional, national and local levels, and - Increase cooperation between stakeholders. By providing the context for active and effective participation of policy-makers, scientists, businesses, citizens and other stakeholder, MSPglobal aims to improve governance at multiple levels and achieve an ecosystem-based approach in support of the blue economy. Doing so will require transparant data and information, sharing of best practices and new knowledge to inform, guide and support MSP at global scale.
  • The Case for a new governance for IOCINDIO: a proposal for changing the status of IOCINDIO in a Sub-Commission of IOC for the Indian Ocean.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2021)
    This document was initially prepared in April 2020 by Dr M. A. Atmanand, Chairman of the IOC Regional Committee of the Central Indian Ocean (IOCINDIO), pursuant to IOC Assembly Decision IOC-XXX/3.3.4 (Paris, 26 June–4 July 2019) to consider the transformation of IOCINDIO, an IOC Regional Committee, into an IOC Sub-commission. The document benefitted from inputs from IOCINDIO Vice-chairpersons Faiza Al-Yamani, Kuwait, Mohammad Muslem Uddin, Bangladesh, and Satish S. C. Shenoi, IOC Vice-Chairperson, Electoral Group IV. The document was originally intended as a working document for the consideration of the Executive Council in 2020 before its postponement as a virtual session with a limited agenda in February 2021. Upon further reflection of the authors with the IOC Chair and senior staff of the Secretariat, a broad and inclusive consultation on this subject among IOC Member States was initiated through a virtual meeting (see IOC Circular Letter 2824) and a discussion at the next IOCINDIO session during the first quarter 2021. The progress on this issue will be reported by the Executive Secretary in his report to the Executive Council -53 and through a working document for the consideration of the Assembly in June 2021.
  • Evolving Capabilities of the ARGO profiling Float Network.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2017)
    Argo is a major contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System, and its initial development over the past 15 years represented a revolution in the collection of climate information in the global ocean, as well as a revolution in the culture of free and open data sharing amongst oceanographers. The capabilities of Argo are evolving, and this information document serves to transparently let IOC Member States know how it is changing, how they can participate, and how they can benefit.
  • The United Nations World Water Development Report 2020: Water and Climate Change.

    Pltonykova, Hanna; Koeppel, Sonja; Bernardini, Francesca; Tiefenauer-Linardon, Sarah; de Strasser, Lucia; Connor, Richard; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; UNU-FLORES; WHO; UN-Water (UNESCO for UN-WaterParis, France, 2020)
    Climate change will affect the availability, quality and quantity of water for basic human needs, threatening the effective enjoyment of the human rights to water and sanitation for potentially billions of people. The hydrological changes induced by climate change will add challenges to the sustainable management of water resources, which are already under severe pressure in many regions of the world. Food security, human health, urban and rural settlements, energy production, industrial development, economic growth, and ecosystems are all water-dependent and thus vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Climate change adaptation and mitigation through water management is therefore critical to sustainable development, and essential to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
  • Guide for Establishing an IODE National Oceanographic Data Centre, IODE Associate Data Unit or IODE Associate Information Unit (3rd revised edition).

    Rickards, Lesley; Pissierssens, Peter; Appeltans, Ward; Boyer, Tim; Garcia, Hernan; Reed, Greg; Scott, Lucy; Simpson, Pauline; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2022)
    This document supersedes IOC Manuals and Guides No. 5 Rev. 2 (2008) (http://www.iode.org/mg5) which was entitled “Guide for Establishing a National Oceanographic Data Centre”. Taking into account the substantive evolution in information technology, capabilities of organizations other than existing IODE National Oceanographic Data Centres to manage and make available ocean data, information, products and services, the IODE Committee, at its 25th Session (2019) recommended the updating of IOC Manuals and Guides. This document is the result of that revision.
  • IOC Capacity Development Strategy, 2015-2021.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2015)
    Capacity building is an essential tenet of IOC’s mission: It enables all Member States to participate in and benefit from ocean research and services that are vital to sustainable development and human welfare on the planet. This Strategy’s vision identifies capacity development as the primary catalyst through which IOC will achieve its four high level objectives in the current 2014–2021 IOC Medium-Term Strategy. Over the past 55 years Member States have derived numerous benefits from IOC’s capacity development from the first International Indian Ocean Expedition to the revitalisation of African marine science coordination and establishment of the global tsunami warning network including the monitoring/forecasting networks that save lives (see addendum, section III). Reinforced partnerships between IOC and its Member States, other UN agencies, donors, and the scientific community have been the cornerstone of this success. During this period, the transformation of ocean science capabilities, accelerating threats to ocean health and ecosystem services, and the growing challenge of sustainable development require the IOC and its Member States to accelerate the pace of IOC capacity development. Resource constraints, both staff and funding, limit IOC’s ability to mobilise the necessary partnerships to address Member State science and services that will enhance human welfare and sustainable economic development. In 2014, the UN General Assembly adopted the Oceans and the law of the sea Reso lution   (A/RES/69/245) which reiterated the essential need for cooperation, including through capacity building and transfer of marine technology, “to ensure that States, especially developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as coastal African States, are able both to implement the Convention1 and to benefit from the sustainable development of the oceans and seas, as well as to participate fully in global and regional forums and processes dealing with oceans and law of the sea issues.” 2015 will mark the establishment of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, which is expected to be integrated as Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). IOC has a unique international niche in ocean science, services and capacity development: (a) fostering international cooperation for sustained observations of the oceans; (b) generating oceanographic data and information products and services and interaction between research, operational, user communities and decision-makers in order to derive maximum societal benefit from new knowledge to achieve IOC’s High Level Objectives. The IOC will mainstream its natural and social science approach to capacity development in its Member States and, in particular, in Priority Africa, SIDS and Gender Equality. This strategic framework provides six outputs and numerous activities that are elaborated in detail below. These outputs call for investing in people and the institutions of which they are a part, enhancing access to scientific tools and methodologies, reinforcing IOC’s capabilities to provide services to Member States, enhancing the communication between scientific and policy makers communities, expanding ocean literacy in civil society and mobilising resources to accomplish these goals. While this framework provides general guidance on elements of an implementation plan yet to be developed, elevating IOC’s impact to the scale required is contingent on: • Reinforcing and valuing IOC staff at global and regional levels and, where necessary, participating national ocean scientific and governance institutions; • Integrating IOC global and regional mechanisms to rapidly expand Member State participation in IOC programmes: - Empowering IOC regional sub-commissions and other subsidiary bodies o engage with Member States, expanding collaboration and capacity development (including transfer of marine technology) on their coastal and marine affairs priorities - Strengthening global science programmes to increase scientific engagement with Member State coastal and marine priorities; • Recommitting to partnerships through the IOC with its Member States, UN organizations and other agencies, scientific community and civil society; • Mobilizing resources, e.g., personnel, funds, knowledge, and observing networks, to deliver the capacity development on which science, services and human communities depend; and • Continued attention to “enabling institutional conditions” as identified in discussions on “The Future of IOC”. The conclusions identify elements of a draft work plan including conducting needs assessments to establish CD work plans, mobilizing associated resources and enhanced communication and collaboration.
  • Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and desalination: a guide to impacts, monitoring and management.

    Anderson, Donald M.; Boerlage, Siobhan F.E.; Dixon, Mike B. (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2017)
    Arid countries throughout the world are heavily reliant on seawater desalination for their supply of drinking and municipal water. The desalination industry is large and rapidly growing, approaching more than 20,000 plants operating or contracted in greater than 150 countries worldwide and capacity projected to grow at a rate of 12% per year for the next several decades (http://www.desaldata.com; 2016). Desalination plants are broadly distributed worldwide, with a large and growing capacity in what will be referred to as the “Gulf” region throughout this manual. Here the Gulf refers to the shallow body of water bounded in the southwest by the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to the northeast. The Gulf is linked with the Arabian Sea by the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman to the east and extends to the Shatt al-Arab river delta at its western end. One of the operational challenges facing the industry is also expanding globally – the phenomena termed harmful algal blooms or HABs. Blooms are cell proliferations caused by the growth and accumulation of individual algal species; they occur in virtually all bodies of water. The algae, which can be either microscopic or macroscopic (e.g., seaweeds) are the base of the marine food web, and produce roughly half of the oxygen we breathe. Most of the thousands of species of algae are beneficial to humans and the environment, but there are a small number (several hundred) that cause HABs. This number is vague because the harm caused by HABs is diverse and affects many different sectors of society (see Chapter 1). HABs are generally considered in two groups. One contains the species that produce potent toxins (Chapter 2) that can cause a wide range of impacts to marine resources, including mass mortalities of fish, shellfish, seabirds, marine mammals, and various other organisms, as well as illness and death in humans and other consumers of fish or shellfish that have accumulated the algal toxins during feeding. The second category is represented by species that produce dense blooms - often termed high biomass blooms because of the large number of cells. Cells can reach concentrations sufficient to make the water appear red (hence the common term “red tide”), though brown, green and golden blooms are also observed, while many blooms are not visible. In this manual, we define toxic algae as those that produce potent toxins (poisonous substances produced within living cells or organisms), e.g., saxitoxin. These can cause illness or mortality in humans as well as marine life through either direct exposure to the toxin or ingestion of bioaccumulated toxin in higher trophic levels e.g. shellfish. Non-toxic HABs can cause damage to ecosystems and commercial facilities such as desalination plants, sometimes because of the biomass of the accumulated algae, and in other cases due to the release of compounds that are not toxins (e.g., reactive oxygen species, mucilage) but that can still be lethal to marine animals or cause disruptions of other types. Both toxic and non-toxic HABs represent potential threats to seawater desalination facilities. Although toxins are typically removed very well by reverse osmosis and thermal desalination processes (see Chapter 10), algal toxins represent a potential health risk if they are present in sufficiently high concentrations in the seawater and if they break through the desalination process. It is therefore important for operators to be aware when toxic blooms are near their plants so they can ensure that the removal has indeed occurred (Chapter 3). High biomass blooms pose a different type of threat, as the resulting particulate and dissolved organic material can accelerate clogging of media filters or contribute to (bio)fouling of pretreatment and RO membranes which may lead to a loss of production. Impacts of HABs on desalination facilities are thus a significant and growing problem, made worse by the lack of knowledge of this phenomena among plant operators, managers, engineers, and others involved in the industry, including regulatory agencies. Recognizing this problem, the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) organized a conference in 2012 in Muscat, Oman, to bring HAB researchers and desalination professionals together to exchange knowledge and discuss the scale of the problem and strategies for addressing it. One of the recommendations of that meeting was that a “guidance manual” be prepared to provide information to desalination plant operators and others in the industry about HABs, their impacts, and the strategies that could be used to mitigate those impacts. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the IOC Intergovernmental Panel for Harmful Algal Blooms (IPHAB), an editorial team was assembled and potential authors contacted. For the first time, HAB scientists worked closely with desalination professionals to write chapters that were scientifically rigorous yet practical in nature – all focused on HABs and desalination. During the planning of this manual, it became clear from an informal survey of the desalination industry that generally, HAB problems are far more significant for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants than for those that use thermal desalination. Both types of processes are very effective in removing HAB toxins (Chapter 10), but the SWRO plants are far more susceptible to clogging of pretreatment granular media filters and fouling of membranes by algal organic matter and particulate biomass. Accordingly, the focus of this book is on SWRO, with only occasional reference to thermal processes. Likewise, emphasis has been placed on seawater HABs, with reference to estuarine and brackish-water HABs only when practices from those types of waters can be informative or illustrative. A brief synopsis of the book follows. Chapter 1 provides a broad overview of HAB phenomena, including their impacts, the spatial and temporal nature of their blooms, common causative species, trends in occurrence, and general aspects of bloom dynamics in coastal waters. Chapter 2 describes the metabolites of HAB cells, including toxins, taste and odor compounds. Methods for analyses are presented there, supplemented by detailed methodological descriptions of rapid toxin screening methods in Appendix 2. As discussed in Chapters 8 and 10, thermal and SWRO operations are highly effective in the removal of HAB toxins, but plant personnel should have the capability to screen for these toxins in raw and treated water to ensure that this removal has been effective. This would be critical, for example, if the public or the press were aware of a toxic HAB in the vicinity of a desalination plant intake and asked for proof that their drinking water is safe. Currently, most desalination plants do not collect data on seawater outside their plants, so they are generally unaware of the presence (now or anticipated) of a potentially disruptive HAB. Chapter 3 provides practical information on the approaches to implementing an observing system for HABs, describing sampling methods and measurement options that can be tailored to available resources and the nature of the HAB threat in a given area. Appendix 4 provides more details on methods used to count and identify HAB cells during this process. All are based on direct water sampling, but it is also possible to observe HABs from space – particularly the high biomass events. Chapter 4 describes how satellite remote sensing can be used to detect booms. The common sources of imagery (free over the Internet) are presented, as well as descriptions of the software (also free) that can be used to analyze the satellite data. It is relatively easy and highly informative for plant personnel to use this approach to better understand what is in the seawater outside their plants. The cover of this guide provides a graphic example of the incredible scale and resolution of this observational approach. Chapter 5 discusses typical water quality parameters that are measured online or in feedwater samples at desalination plants that could be used to detect blooms at the intake or evaluate process efficiency in removing algal particulates and organics. Emerging parameters that also show promise are examined to provide a resource for plant personnel. Chapter 6 looks at desalination seawater intakes that are the first point of control in minimizing the ingress of algae into the plant. A brief overview of siting considerations that may ultimately drive the location of an intake is also provided. One question asked frequently of HAB scientists is whether the blooms can be controlled or suppressed in a manner analogous to the treatment of insects or other agricultural pests on land. This has proven to be an exceedingly difficult challenge for the HAB scientific and management community, given the dynamic nature of HABs in coastal waters, their large spatial extent, and concerns about the environmental impacts of bloom control methods. Chapter 7 presents a summary of the approaches to bloom prevention and control that have been developed, and discusses whether these are feasible or realistic in the context of an individual desalination plant. Chapter 8 describes management strategies for HABs and risk assessment, including Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Alert Level Framework procedures. Once a HAB is detected, a wide range of approaches can be used to address the problems posed by the dissolved toxins associated with those blooms. Chapter 9 presents many of these pretreatment strategies and discusses their use in removing algal organic matter and particulates to prevent filter clogging and membrane fouling. This is necessary to maintain effective plant operation and avoid serious operational challenges for the reverse osmosis step. The chapter covers common pretreatments such as chlorination/dechlorination, coagulation, dissolved air flotation, granular media filtration, ultrafiltration, and cartridge filtration, in addition to discussing issues experienced due to the inefficiencies of each pretreatment on reverse osmosis. Chapter 10 then addresses the important issue of HAB toxin removal during pretreatment and desalination, and describes laboratory and pilot-scale studies that address that issue. Finally, Chapter 11 provides a series of case studies describing individual HAB events at desalination plants throughout the world, detailing the types of impacts and the strategies that were used to combat them. These studies should be of great interest to other operators as they encounter similar challenges. The manual concludes with a series of appendices that provide images and short descriptions of common HAB species (Appendix 1), rapid screening methods for HAB toxins (Appendix 2), methods to measure transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their precursors (Appendix 3), methods to enumerate algal cells (Appendix 4), and reverse osmosis autopsy and cleaning methods (Appendix 5).
  • Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean.

    Lassus, Patrick; Chaumérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Nézan, Elisabeth; Reguera, Beatriz; Moestrup, Øjvind; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae (International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganisationCopenhagen, Denmark, 2015)
    This monograph reviews marine micro-algal species from all origins around the globe for their toxic or harmful character. We have considered the ex-pressions toxic and harmful in their widest sense, and have classified them into five groups: (i) high biomass bloom-forming species (harm from oxy-gen depletion and/or physical effects), (ii) producers of toxins affecting man through food consumption, (iii) species harmful to man through direct contact, including aerosolised routes, (iv) microalgae toxic to other marine organisms (e.g. fish or invertebrates) and (v) those that do not cause any of the above problems but have been found to produce toxins in culture as assessed by bioassays or chemical analysis. With this classification, 174 taxa are listed. This study has been undertaken in the context of the work carried out by different task teams of the Intergovernmental Panel on Harmful Algal Blooms (IPHAB) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNES-CO). Many efforts have been made to retrieve information from the peer- reviewed literature; much information has also been found from extensive and systematic reading of grey literature, including conference proceed-ings (mainly International Conferences on Harmful Algae and International Conferences on Molluscan Shellfish Safety) and reports of the ICES Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics. It is our intent that this review will serve the scientific community at large and provide a sound literature base for updating the IOC species list as appropriate. The references listed in this book will be made available to this community for regular updates. The authors are aware of the aims both of IPHAB to make a Global HAB Status Report and of GlobalHAB, a recent initiative to foster and enlarge research at the global scale to document and understand the changing occurrence and distribution of harmful algal blooms. In the first chapter, we reviewed literature to examine factors that may contribute to the changing distribution of harmful algal blooms around the planet. In addition to straightforward environmental factors such as nutri-ent loads and ratios, we also consider a number of more complex issues such as increased awareness and monitoring, ballast water discharges, climate change (including global warming) and overfishing. Subsequently, the liter-ature was examined for occurrence of individual species, and any apparent distributional changes. In this second part, a short taxonomic description is given for each species as well as its global distribution, major regional harmful or poisoning events and information on toxins produced, as appro-priate. We have found the numerous changes in taxonomic classification and associated name changes particularly challenging for assessing trends, and so have listed the basionym and syno nyms where appropriate. As this study aims to make a comprehensive review, we apologise for any omissions or misrepresentations and welcome comments from area managers, taxono-mists and the scientific community at large. The third section collates in-formation from the first two, as well as from other studies, that have exam-ined trends over longer periods, i.e. typically over several decades. Overall, studies converge to conclude that blooms are on the increase in many areas world-wide. Finally, while it has not been possible to treat every individual toxin analogue separately within the framework of this monograph, we have cross-referenced the toxin groups and taxonomic groups in two tables to give an overview of the toxin groups produced by all the species considered. An interesting finding of this review was that large uncertainty exists for most ichthyotoxic species concerning the compounds responsible for their toxicity to fish. The systematic literature search on taxa, toxins and regional events includes publications up to December 2014. The review is published as a bilingual edition (English and French) to serve as large a community as possible.
  • Harmful Algal Blooms. A scientific Summary for Policy Makers.

    Kudela, R.M.; Berdalet, E.; Bernard, S.; Burford, M.; Fernand, L.; Lu, S.; Roy, S.; Tester, P.; Usup, G.; Magnien, R.; et al. (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2015)
    • Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) result from noxious and/or toxic algae that cause direct and indirect negative impacts to aquatic ecosystems, coastal resources, and human health. • HABs are present in nearly all aquatic environments (freshwater, brackish and marine), as naturally occurring phenomena. • Many HABs are increasing in severity and frequency, and biogeographical range. Causes are complex, but in some cases can be attributed to climate change and human impacts, including eutrophication, habitat modification, and human- mediated introduction of exogenous species. • There is no plan, and nor realistic possibility, to eliminate HABs and/or their depend-ent consequences. Decades of research and monitoring have, however, improved our understanding of HAB events, leading to better monitoring and prediction strate-gies. • HABs are a worldwide phenomenon requiring an international understanding leading ultimately to local and regional solutions. Continued progress in research, management, mitigation, and prediction of HABs benefits from international coordination. In this spirit, the international community has developed programmes sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) to coordinate international HAB research, framework activities, and capacity building. • HABs are recognized as one facet of complex ecosystem interactions with human society. HAB research, monitoring, and management must be closely integrated with policy decisions that affect our global oceans. • New initiatives, such as GlobalHAB sponsored by IOC and SCOR, will continue to provide the mechanisms to further understand, predict, and mitigate HABs. Research, management, and mitigation efforts directed towards HABs must be coordinated with other local, national, and international efforts focused on food and water security, human and ecosystem health, ocean observing systems, and climate change.
  • ODINAfrica Project Steering Committee Meeting, IOC Project Office for IODE, Ostend, Belgium 26-28 April 2006 : Summary Report.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2006)
    Summary Report of the meeting held in Ostend, Belgium between 26 and 28 April 2006. The session considered recommendations of the Second ODINAFRICA Seminar held 24-26 April 2006, the third session of the Project Management Committee and the reports of the Regional Coordinators in order to develop a work plan and budget for the remaining project period, and provide guidance for development of proposals for a possible next phase of ODINAFRICA.The session considered recommendations of the Second ODINAFRICA Seminar held 24-26 April 2006, the third session of the Project Management Committee and the reports of the Regional Coordinators in order to develop a work plan and budget for the remaining project period, and provide guidance for development of proposals for a possible next phase of ODINAFRICA.
  • IOC Contribution to UNESCO Priority Africa. Overarching objective 2: Mobilizing science knowledge and policy for sustainable development for the biennium 2008-2009.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2010)
    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO implements activities in Africa through global programmes in coordination with regional subsidiary bodies (IOCEA—Central Eastern Atlantic Ocean Region; and IOCWIO—Western Indian Ocean Region). A high level of implementation of IOC activities in all sections took place in Africa during the 2008–2009 (34 C/5) biennium, and is projected to continue in the current biennium (35 C/5: 2010–2011). The activities, results, and budgets for the last biennium and those proposed for the current biennium are summarized in the report.
  • A new Blue Curriculum: a toolkit for policy-makers.

    Santoro, Francesca; Tereza de Magalhães, Ana Vitória; Middleton, Fiona; Buchanan-Dunlop, Jamie; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, Frnce, 2022)
    This Toolkit aims to support policy-makers, curriculum developers and educational authorities in implementing Ocean Literacy into their national curriculum framework. Ocean Literacy is a tool, a framework and, more broadly, a mindset that forefronts the ocean in all aspects of life on Earth. As an approach for society as a whole, Ocean Literacy catalyzes actions to protect, conserve and sustainably use the ocean. The ocean is intrinsically connected to every part of the globe, to human livelihoods and to sociocultural practices. Understanding the ocean’s influence on us and our influence on the ocean is vital to develop and practice sustainable ways of living together. With the launch of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030), this Toolkit builds on the momentum of the global Ocean Literacy movement to support Ocean Decade Outcome 7 – ’An inspiring and engaging ocean’. By synthesizing the latest research and case studies provided by Member States who currently are already promoting ocean literacy, this Toolkit aims to offer orientation on how to ‘blue’ curriculum and guidelines, in line with trends in education. Enhancing the knowledge and capacity of schools, teachers and learners about the ocean furthers society’s understanding of the importance of ocean life and ocean–human interactions. In turn, this knowledge advances the need to preserve and care for ocean resources, and to support better decision-making by society as a whole.
  • Ocean Decade Progress Report 2021-2022.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2022)
    Proclaimed in 2017 by the United Nations General Assembly, the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development – the Ocean Decade – is a framework to identify, generate and use critical ocean knowledge that is needed to manage the ocean sustainably, and achieve global aspirations for climate, biodiversity, and human well-being. Through its vision of ‘The science we need for the ocean we want’, the Ocean Decade provides an inclusive, equitable and global framework for diverse actors to co-design and co-deliver transformative ocean science to meet ten Ocean Decade Challenges. Through a collaborative, solutions-oriented approach, the Ocean Decade will contribute essential knowledge to global, regional, and national policy frameworks, including the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals.1 The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) leads the coordination of the Ocean Decade, in collaboration with numerous partners from the United Nations system, governments, philanthropy, industry, civil society and the scientific community. 2021 was the first year of implementation of the Ocean Decade – a watershed moment in ocean science globally – and the achievements since the launch have been significant. Although challenges remain, particularly in relation to investment in ocean science, a robust foundation is now in place for the next nine years of transformative ocean science.
  • Update on the UN Process on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) : (From the Preparatory Committee to an Intergovernmental Conference).

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
    This document provides information on the process since the 29th session of the IOC Assembly in June 2017 (documents IOC-BBNJ-Inf.1 and IOC/INF-1347). It contains a reference to the UNGA Resolution 72/249 of December 2017, following the recommendations of the BBNJ PrepCom, to convene an Intergovernmental Conference on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ IGC). The document recalls the IOC perspectives on a potential role of the IOC and proposes how IOC could engage in the IGC process.
  • Report of the UNESCO Category 2 Regional Education and Research Centre on Oceanography for West Asia (RCOWA), 2016-2017.

    UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018
    The establishment of the Regional Education and Research Centre on Oceanography for West Asia (RCOWA) was approved by UNESCO General Conference at its 37th session as a Category 2 Centre under the auspices of UNESCO in the Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science (INIOAS) in November 2013 and the agreement was signed in 2015. This document conveys the summary report of the Second Session of the Governing Board of UNESCO Category 2 Regional Education and Research Centre on Oceanography for West Asia (RCOWA) and contains the results of the implementation activities since its First Session.
  • Background on the WMO Governance Review and implications for JCOMM, GCOS, GOOS, and WCRP.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
    A reform of WMO constituent bodies has potential implications for co- sponsored bodies and programmes, including most notably the Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM), but also the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). These last three have other co-sponsors in addition to IOC and WMO. Here, the proposal for a new mechanism of cooperation between WMO and IOC, the Joint Committee for Oceanography and Meteorology (JCOM), is described in greater detail. A potential future for present essential functions under JCOMM is described, along with potential benefits and risks
  • Guidelines for the use of the logo for the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development.

    Herve, Réjane; Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
    Following the design of the emblem of United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030), guidelines for its use have been prepared in accordance with UNESCO and United Nations practices.
  • The Implementation Plan for IOC Capacity-Building.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2005)
    The goal of the proposed implementation plan is self-directed Capacity-Building through projects addressing local priorities with modern oceanographic tools. This information document is intended to representatives of IOC Member States attending the 23rd session of IOC Assembly (Paris, 21–30 June 2005). A summary has been prepared in English, French, Russian and Spanish and is available for the session as working document IOC-XXIII/2 Annex 7.

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