Recent Submissions

  • IODE/OBIS-Event-Data Workshop on Animal Tagging and Tracking (ATT), Ostend, Belgium, 23-26 April 2018.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
    The International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) project office of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) held the IODE/OBIS-Event-Data workshop on animal tagging and tracking (ATT) from 23 to 26 April 2018 in Ostend, Belgium, to test the OBIS-ENV-DATA standard through the development of data products for scientific applications. This workshop was attended by 22 participants from 8 countries representing the major animal telemetry networks in Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Canada, Europe and the USA. The participants agreed to use the OBIS-ENV-DATA Darwin Core standard to exchange and publish detection data through OBIS (both acoustic and satellite) and work with OBIS and the scientific community to develop data products for the Essential Ocean Variables (EOV) of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), in particular the “Marine turtles, birds, mammals abundance and distribution EOV” and the “Fish abundance and distribution EOV”. The guidelines for the implementation of the OBIS-ENV-DATA standard for tracking data (acoustic and satellite detections) were agreed upon and will be further refined and documented in collaboration with the data standardization working group of the International Bio-logging Society as well as the Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) community which oversees development of Darwin Core. In collaboration with several scientists involved in animal tracking, the OBIS Secretariat is developing a data aggregation tool (which will be available as an R package) to calculate home ranges, migration pathways and movement patterns based on the tracking data in OBIS. It is expected that new public tracking data will be made available to OBIS before mid-2018 and the first products be available early 2019. It was felt important that OBIS provides access to the relevant (aggregated) data used to calculate the scientific products and provide links back to the original (raw) data sources to ensure proper data provenance and allow reproducibility. This was the first workshop of the IODE pilot project entitled OBIS-Event-Data, which aims at seeking early adopters of the OBIS-ENV-DATA standard and develop data products and scientific applications in particular to support the work of the Biological and Ecosystem EOVs of GOOS and the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network of the Group on Earth Observations (GEOBON MBON).
  • 6th International XBT Science Workshop, Ostend, Belgium, 18-20 April 2018.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
    The 6th International XBT (Expendable bathythermograph) Science team workshop took place at the IODE Project Office of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, in Ostend, Belgium from 18 to 20 April 2018 following on from the 5th IODE Steering Group for the International Quality Controlled Ocean Database (SG-IquOD) meeting at the same venue. The workshop was divided in oral presentations and plenary discussions, held with the objective of exchanging ideas on how to proceed with the implementation, maintenance, and enhancement of the XBT network. A total of 19 scientists participated (4 remotely) from Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Africa, UK, and the USA. XBTs represent the largest fraction of the temperature profile observations since 1970s until the full implementation of Argo profiling floats in approximately 2005. These historical XBT profiles comprise most of the temperature data base that is used to compute time series of ocean heat content. One focus of the XBT Science team (along with IQuOD) is to improve and understand the accuracy of these historical data so that we can understand the uncertainties in this climatically important time series. The global XBT network is logistically complex and so requires strong collaboration between many organizations and countries (Figure 1). Many of these transects have now been in place for multiple-decades. Today, XBT transects mainly operate in High Density (also referred as High Resolution) and Frequently Repeated modes. High Density transects are occupied at least 4 times per year XBT deployed at approximately 25 km intervals along the ship track. Frequently repeated tracks are occupied at around 18 times per year with XBT deployments at 100 km intervals. The repeat sampling nature of XBT transects along fixed transects makes the XBT profiles our best present observing system for the important boundary current systems (including the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) that convey heat, freshwater and nutrients around the global ocean. XBT observations are currently used mainly to: (i) Monitor the variability of location and transport of key surface and subsurface ocean currents and boundary currents, (ii) Monitor the variability of the meridional heat transport and the Meridional Overturning Circulation across ocean basins, (iii) Provide a significant amount of upper ocean thermal observations, particularly in areas undersampled by other observational platforms, used for global ocean heat content estimates, and (iv) Initialization and validation of numerical ocean forecast models. A strong synergy exists between XBT observations and observations from other platforms, such as altimetry, surface drifters, Argo, etc. the enables more robust scientific analysis.
  • Sources of Tsunamis in the Caribbean with Possibility to Impact the Southern Coast of the Dominican Republic, Expert meeting, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 6-7 May 2016.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2016)
    The southern coast of Dominican Republic is a very populated region, withseveral important cities including Santo Domingo, its capital. Important activities are rooted in the southern coast including tourism, industry, commercial ports, and, energy facilities, amongothers. According to historical reports, it has been impacted by big earthquakes accompanied by tsunamis as in Azua in 1751 and recently Pedernales in 2010, but their sources are not clearly identified.With partial support of the European Union funded project "Life-Saving Actions: Disaster preparedness and seismic and tsunami risk reduction in the south coast of San Cristóbal province, Dominican Republic» implemented by UNDP, UNESCO and the Assembly of Cooperation for Peace in Dominican Republic (ACPP),UNESCO together with the Seismological Institute of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo,organized the meeting of experts "Sources of tsunamis in the Caribbean with possibility to impact the southern coast of the Dominican Republic", on 6 and 7 May 2016, with invited experts and specialists ofDominican Republic, France, Haiti, Spainand theUnited States.The invited experts analysedin a closed meeting three groups of tsunami sources(tectonic sources, landslides and volcanic eruptions)of which they identified two groups of crediblesources of tsunamis in the Caribbean that could impact the southern coast of the Dominican Republic(tectonic sources and submarine landslides):I. Tectonic Sources: A.Near-field tectonic sources(less than 500 km from impact zone):-Western Muertos Trough (WMT) –Mw 8.0:-Small Muertos Trough 1 (SMT1) –Mw 7.6-Small Muertos Trough 2 (SMT2) –Mw 7.6-Muertos Trough Mega-splay (MS)–Mw 7.7B.Far-field tectonic sources:1. Southern Caribbean:-Northern Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB)–Mw 8.5-West branch of the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (WSCDB)–Mw 8.6-Full South Caribbean Deformed Belt (FSCDB)2. Northeastern Caribbean: Although thefollowing sources are at less than500 km of the impact zone, experts classified them as far-field given its expectedlower impact:-Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) –Mw 8.6-Mona Extension Fault (MEF) –Mw 7.6II. Submarine landslides: Within the different sourcesdiscussed only one was consideredasa potential threat, a potential landslide located ~100 km off the coast of Santo Domingo, denominated Complutense Slump (CS)by Granja et al. (2014).Volume of slump: 224km3.
  • Consultation on Scientific and Technical Aspects of Sustained Ocean Observations and Services, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 5th March, 2013.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, France, 2013)
    The objective of the forum was to: 1. To discuss the advantages and obstacles present in implementing sustained ocean observations and services in Group III. 2. To consider future perspectives of the sustained ocean observations and services in Group III. 3. To suggest strategic recommendation on the sustained ocean observations and services, including their operational use in Group III, to IOC and Member States..
  • SCOR/IODE/MBLWHOI Library Workshop on Data Publication 5th Session, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, USA, 9-10 October 2012.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOOstend, 2012)
    The fifth SCOR/IODE/MBLWHOI Library Workshop on Data Publication was convened by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBLWHOI Library) on 9-10 October 2012 to evaluate progress of the two pilot projects of the activity and to discuss related topics, such as implementation of data repositories in different data centres and cooperation with related national and international efforts, and hear about how data publication is being handled in other disciplines and interactions with publishers of scientific journals.
  • SCOR/IODE/MBLWHOI Library Workshop on Data Publication 4th Session, British Oceanographic Data Centre, Liverpool, United Kingdom 3-4 November 2011.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2011)
    The fourth SCOR/IODE/MBLWHOI Library Workshop on Data Publication meeting was convened by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBLWHOI Library) on 3-4 November 2011 to evaluate progress of the two pilot projects of the activity and to discuss related topics, such as implementation of data repositories in different data centres, cooperation with related national and international efforts, hear about how data publication is being handled in other disciplines, interactions with publishers of scientific journals, economic implications of data publication.
  • Reunión subregional de planificación de ODINCARSA (Red de Datos e Información Oceanográficos para las Regiones del Caribe y América del Sur), Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC) Ensenada, Mexico, 7-10 December 2009,

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2010)
    La reunión se inició el 7 de diciembre de 2009 en el Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas (IIO) de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. El Dr. Carlos Torres, en representación de los anfitriones, dio la bienvenida a los participantes. Hizo uso de la palabra el Sr. Peter Pissierssens, Coordinador del Programa IODE y Jefe de la Oficina de Proyectos de la COI para IODE en Ostende. Su alocución figura en el Anexo IV. Seguidamente se dirigió a los presentes el biólogo Francisco Brizuela Venegas, Director General de Educación en Ciencia y Tecnología de la Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP) y representante de México en la COI. La reunión examinó y aprobó el orden del día, que se reproduce en el Anexo I. Dicho orden del día comprendía: intervenciones introductorias sobre la COI y el IODE, el Atlas Marino del Caribe (CMA) y el Sistema de Información Biogeográfica de los Océanos (OBIS) (véase el punto 2 del orden del día); presentación de las actividades de ODINCARSA entre 2001 y 2009, en el terreno de la gestión de datos oceanográficos y gestión de la información marina (punto 3 del orden del día); presentación de los informes nacionales (punto 4 del orden del día), y debates con vistas a la elaboración de un plan de trabajo para el periodo 2010-2013 (punto 5 del orden del día).
  • IOC-Flanders Second ODINAFRICA-II Planning and Review Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 14-17 November 2001.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2002)
    The second ODINAFRICA II planning workshop was held at the Mbagathi Campus of the Kenya College for Communications Technology, Nairobi, Kenya from 14-17 November 2001 and attended by ODINAFRICA National Co-ordinators from: Benin, Cameroon, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Tunisia. There were also invited experts from Belgium and United States of America who have been providing capacity building support for the data and information management components of the project (List of Participants in Annex I). The participants reviewed the implementation status of the project and adopted the work plan and budget for the year 2002. The Director of Kenya’s National Environment Secretariat, Dr. B. K’Omudho officially opened the meeting on behalf of the Minister for Environment, the Hon. Noah Katana Ngala.
  • International Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) Review Conference, Silver Spring, MD, USA 12-15 July 1999.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2003)
    The International Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) Review Conference took place in Silver Spring, MD, USA from 12-15 July 1999. The Conference marked the end of the first phase of the GODAR project and was attended by more than 70 data managers and scientists. The Conference summed up the results of the first phase and provided guidance for future GODAR activities. Substantial amounts of additional historical data that still reside only in manuscript form have been identified by Member States as a result of the 6 regional GODAR meetings that have been held to date. The meeting concluded that the GODAR project should be continued and extended to possibly include additional variables such as sea level and ocean bathymetry.
  • 2nd Joint GOSUD/SAMOS Workshop, U.S.Coast Guard Base, Seattle, Washington, 10-12 June 2008.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2008)
    On 10-12 June 2008, the NOAA Climate Observation Division sponsored the 2nd Joint Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD)/Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Workshop in Seattle, WA, USA. The workshop focused on the ongoing collaboration between GOSUD and SAMOS and addressing the needs of the research and operational community for highquality underway oceanographic and meteorological observations from ships. The SAMOS initiative is working to improve access to calibrated, quality-controlled, surface marine meteorological data collected in-situ by automated instrumentation on research vessels (primarily) and select merchant ships. GOSUD is an IODE project which focuses on the collection, quality evaluation, and distribution of near surface ocean parameters (for the moment mainly salinity and sea temperature) from vessels. The workshop organizing committee (Shawn Smith, Mark Bourassa, Loic Petit de la Villéon, David Forcucci, and Phillip McGillivary) brought together a panel consisting of operational and research scientists, educators, marine technicians, and private sector and government representatives to address several key topics (see below). Participants from the U.S. government represented NOAA (AOML, COD, ESRL, NDBC, NODC, NWS, PMC, and PMEL) and the United States Coast Guard. CIRES, LUMCON, Florida State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Oregon State University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Stony Brook University, and the Universities of Delaware, Maryland, Miami, and Rhode Island represented the United States university community. A significant international presence included representatives from the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia); Environment Canada (Canada); LEGOS, IFREMER, and Meteo France (France); the University of Hamburg (Germany); the Directorate of Civil Aviation (Kuwait); the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (Nigeria), University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and the NOCS (UK). Educators were present from ACT, IIRP, and MATE. Finally, Earth and Space Research, the RMR Company, and two consultants represented the private sector. The workshop was comprised of invited and contributed talks, poster presentations, plenary discussions, and the SAMOS and GOSUD technical working group meetings. Broad topic areas included new opportunities for international collaboration, emerging technologies, scientific application of underway measurements, and data and metadata issues. New sessions included a technician’s round-table discussion and developing educational initiatives. Scientific discussion centered around the need for high-quality meteorological and thermosalinograph observations to support satellite calibration and validation, ocean data assimilation, polar studies, air-sea flux estimation, and improving analyses of precipitation, carbon, and radiation. Determining the regions of the ocean and observational parameters necessary to achieve operational and research objectives requires input by the scientific user community. The CLIVAR community should be one way to approach the scientific community. This input will allow SAMOS and GOSUD to target their limited resources on vessels operating in the high priority regions. The vessel operators and marine technicians were very supportive of the activities of SAMOS and GOSUD. They requested a clear set of guidelines for parameters to measure, routine monitoring activities, and calibration schedules. The operators also desire additional routine feedback on data flow and data quality. A clear need for training and educational material was noted by the technical community. The dissemination of best practices guides for existing techs and pre-cruise training for new techs were suggested. The result of the workshop was a series of action items (Appendix A) and seven recommendations.
  • First Planning Workshop for the Ocean Data and Information Network for the IOCARIBE and South America regions (ODINCARSA), Hosted by Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada del Ecuador Guayaquil, Ecuador, 24-26 October 2001.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2001)
    The First Planning Workshop for the “Ocean Data and Information Network for the IOCARIBE and South America regions (ODINCARSA)” was held in Guayaquil, Ecuador between 24 and 26 October 2001, hosted by the Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada del Ecuador (INOCAR). The meeting was attended by participants from fourteen countries in the Caribbean (IOCARIBE) and South America regions. The meeting reviewed the ocean data and information management capacity available in the regions, identified capacity building requirements and developed a comprehensive workplan and timetable to develop a regional cooperative network for the management and exchange of oceanographic data and information in the regions.
  • IOC-Flanders-IPIMAR Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO Region (ODINEA Project), Organised in cooperation with the: Fisheries and Sea Research Institute (IPIMAR) Lisbon, Portugal 25-27 October 2000.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2001)
    This is the third and final in a series of three training workshops within the framework of the Ocean Data and Information Network for Eastern Africa (ODINEA), an oceanographic data management capacity building project implemented in the IOCINCWIO region, jointly sponsored by the Government of Flanders and IOC. In this final workshop, the participating countries (Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania) reviewed the successes and failures of the 3-year project and formulated concrete recommendations that can be taken into consideration within the ODINAFRICA-II project.
  • International Conference on the International Oceanographic Data & Information Exchange in the Western Pacific (IODE-WESTPAC) 1999 - ICIWP ‘99, Pelangi Beach Resort, Langkawi, Malaysia, 1-4 November 1999.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2000)
    The International Conference on International Oceanographic Data & Information Exchange in the Western Pacific 1999 (ICIWP'99) was held in Langkawi, Malaysia from 1st to 4th November 1999. The Conference was aimed at bringing together scientists & data managers to discuss the many new challenges facing the International Oceanographic Data & Information Exchange (IODE) programme of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in the region and to identify measures for increasing the effectiveness of the system. The IOC of UNESCO organised the Conference in collaboration with the Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC) and the Oceanographic Research Coordination Committee of Malaysia. It was financially supported by the Nippon Foundation through the Marine Information Research Center (MIRC) of Japan, the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) through the Japan International Science and Technology Exchange Center (JISTEC) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The Conference organizing structure is presented in Annex I. The first two days of the Conference were dedicated to the presentations on oceanography and marine science activities in the region with a specific focus on data requirements, needs and products. The last two days were dedicated to a forum for an exchange of views and ideas on how the IODE centres can better respond to the needs of research programmes and other users of marine data. The Conference programme is attached in Annex II.
  • IOC/ROPME Planning Meeting for the Ocean Data and Information Network for the Central Indian Ocean Region, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2-5 October 2004.ion (ODINCINDIO)

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2004)
    The IOC/ROPME Planning Meeting for the Ocean Data and Information Network for the Central Indian Ocean region (ODINCINDIO) was held in Tehran, I.R.Iran, from 2-5 October 2004 at the Iranian National Center for Oceanography (INCO). The meeting was co-sponsored by IOC, ROPME, and IOGOOS. The meeting was attended by participants from nine IOCINDIO countries and two countries of IOCWIO region. The meeting analysed the ocean data and information management capacity in the region, identified needs and capacity building requirements. The meeting reviewed the draft “Proposal for the establishment of the Ocean Data and Information Network for the Central Indian Ocean region (ODINCINDIO)” that shall now be entitled “Project Document for the Establishment of the Ocean Data and Information Network for the Central Indian Ocean region (ODINCINDIO)”. The meeting recommended that, based upon information received from the participating countries, an updated version of the project document, with detailed budget requirements, be prepared for consideration and approval by IOCINDIO-IV (early 2005), IODE-XVIII (26-30 April 2005), IOC-XXIII (June 2005) and relevant ROPME meetings with the view of starting fund requiring activities as soon as possible in 2005 as detailed in the work plan.
  • IOC Regional Workshop for Member States of the Caribbean and South America - GODAR-V (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue Project), Cartagena de Indias, Colombia 8-11 October 1996.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1997)
    Data archaeology and rescue activities were begun at the three World Data Centres for Oceanography in Washington (USA), Obninsk (Russian Federation) and Tianjin (China), as well as at the ICES Secretariat in Copenhagen, Denmark and at the Japan Oceanographic Data Centre, Tokyo, following the decisions of the Workshop held in September 1990 at the US National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) in Washington DC. An international Workshop (Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, 18-21 February 1992) on Ocean Climate Data, sponsored by the IOC, CEC, ICES, WMO and ICSU, noted the progress achieved in data archaeology during 1991 by a few Member States and international organizations and recommended expanding this ad hoc multi-lateral effort into an international data rescue and recovery project (IOC Workshop Report No. 78, 1992). This is how the experience gained by the above-mentioned activities laid the foundation for the Global Ocean Data Archaeology and Rescue project, known as GODAR, which was given strong endorsement by the IOC Committee on IODE at its Fourteenth Session (Paris, France, 1-9 December 1992) The GODAR Project Proposal received full support of the IOC Assembly at its Seventeenth Session (Paris, France, 25 February -11 March 1993). In response to the recommendation of IOC-XVII, the Secretary IOC appointed Dr. S. Levitus, Director WDC-A, Oceanography as the Project Leader. The above project is ambitious but is essential to bridge the gaps in the long time-series of ocean observations which are of the utmost importance especially for climate change studies. Efforts in the context of the preparation for UNCED, including assessments of the state of environment, the SWCC, the IPCC activities and negotiations for the FCCC have shown very clearly the need for long time-series of quality data. Governments and scientists are now recognizing the value and indispensability of historical ocean data for scientific research and for national decision-making. Vigorous ocean data archaeology efforts will help to significantly enhance the ocean data record from past decades. These efforts will rely on data exchange of the IOC/ICSU IODE and the WDC systems. The Project, which now is in operation for over 5 years, is endeavouring to augment the historical oceanographic digital data archives by seeking out and recovering manuscript and ocean data not yet included in the ocean databases accessible to the world research community. The term "data archaeology and rescue" refers to this two-part process of first identifying and locating data and then performing the steps required to merge them into a digital database. The GODAR Workshop for IOC Member States of the Caribbean and South America held at Cartagena, Colombia was the fifth in the series after 4 held at: Obninsk Russian Federation (17-20 May 1993) for Member States of Central and Eastern Europe; Tianjin, China (8-11 March 1994) for Member States of WESTPAC; Dona Paula, Goa, India (6-9 December 1994) for Member States of the Indian Ocean and Malta (25-28 April 1995) for Member States of the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the current Workshop was to identify relevant data in the region and to consider the steps necessary to make this data available to the wide international marine science community thus adding to the global oceanographic data archive. These archives are valuable for different fields of application, including global change and climate studies, world ocean research and global ocean monitoring. The Workshop included an assessment of the state of data holdings in the region, an identification of common goals and problems with data preservation and resulted in recommendations on implementation steps and approaches to solve the problems identified. The Workshop can also be considered as a starting point for a major upgrading of the entire regional ocean data management system, an important step in the development of a region-wide ocean data system modernization programme. The present report contains a summary of the scientific papers (key presentations), a full presentation of the national reports presented at the sessions of GODAR-V as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop.
  • IOC-EU-BSH-NOAA-(WDC-A) International Workshop on Oceanographic Biological and Chemical Data Management, Hamburg, Germany 20-23 May 1996.

    IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1996)
    A knowledge of the global distribution of biological and chemical parameters pertinent to the ocean carbon system is critical to understanding the role of the world ocean as part of the earth's climate system. Global Change involves a diverse and complex set of scientific problems related to the biology and chemistry of our planet, as well as its physics. By compiling and archiving available biological, physical and chemical data, we can further our understanding of oceanographic processes (e.g., the variability in ocean productivity, fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, oceanic biodiversity) and better design programmes for pollution monitoring and remediation, and coastal and fisheries resource management. In addition, to study Global Change issues, scientists need access to the most complete digital oceanographic databases possible. The problems of archiving oceanographic data magnify when the scope of the archive extends through the geochemical to the bio-geochemical. A challenge is to develop the database, data analysis and data visualization structures which will enable widely distributed, multi-disciplinary investigators to work with each other's data and to collaborate with each other. In view of the need for oceanographic biological and chemical data, and of the problems in managing these data, it was decided to convene an International Workshop on Oceanographic Biological and Chemical Data Management to discuss the issues involved and identify ways to solve existing problems. In part, the Workshop was an outgrowth of the Ocean Climate Data Workshop held in Greenbelt

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