• IOC-CEC-ICSU-ICES Regional Workshop for Member States of Eastern and Northern Europe (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue [GODAR] Project), World Data Centre B, Oceanography Obninsk, Russian Federation 17-20 May 1993.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1993)
      The GODAR Workshop held in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 17-20 May 1993, was a result of the IOC Assembly decision to have the first regional workshop for eastern and northern Europe in the Russian Federation, taking into account the availability of the unique datasets in the region, particularly in Russia, Poland and the Ukraine, and the real danger of losing them. This Workshop was seen as the first and most urgent step in the development of GODAR in a wide and global perspective. It is expected that this Workshop will be followed by other similar regional workshops in different parts of the world, facilitating international exchange of data under the IODE umbrella. The purpose of the Workshop was to make data available to the wide international community in order to build global oceanographic databases for different fields of application, including global change and climate studies, world ocean research and global ocean monitoring, and to help in the capacity building of national, regional and global infrastructures. The desired outcome was to assess the state of data holdings in the region, to identify common goals and problems with data preservation, and to recommend implementation steps and approaches to solve these problems. The Workshop was also considered as a start for laying the groundwork for a major upgrading of the entire regional ocean data management system, a major step in the development of a region wide ocean data system modernization programme.
    • IOC-ICSU-NlO-NOAA Regional Workshop for Member States of the Indian Ocean - GODAR-Ill (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue Project), Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa, India 6-9 December 1994.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1994)
      The GODAR Workshop at INODC/NIO,D ona Paula, Goa,I ndia is the third in the series after the two held at Obninsk, Russian Federation (17-20 May 1993) and Tianjin, China (8-11 March 1994). The Workshop, sponsored by IOC, ICSU, NOAA, DOD and CSIR was held following the decision taken at the first regional Workshop in Obninsk for the development of GODAR in the Indian Ocean region and in facilitating exchange of data under the IODE umbrella. Though the Indian Ocean is still least studied, yet a large amount of data have been collected but not all documented. The purpose of the Workshop was to unearth the data and make available to the wide international community in order to build global oceanographic databases for different fields of application, including global change and climate studies, world ocean research and global ocean monitoring, and to help in the capacity building of national, regional and global infrastructures. The desired outcome was to assess the state of data holdings in the region, to identify common goals and problems with data preservation and to recommend implementation steps and approaches to solve these problems. The Workshop was also considered as a start for laying the groundwork for a major upgrading of the entire regional ocean data management system, a major step in the development of a region-wise ocean data' system modernization programme. The present report contains a summary of the scientific papers and national reports presented at the sessions, software demonstration at Indian NODC, as well as recommendations and conclusions formulated by the Workshop.
    • IOC Workshop on Ocean Colour Data Requirements and Utilization, Sidney, Canada 21-22 September 1995.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1995)
      Ocean colour data is essential for monitoring and fostering our understanding of important ocean biological processes. Adequate data pertaining to ocean biological processes is extremely difficult to obtain due to the vast area of the ocean (over 70 % of the earth’s area) and to the logistical difficulties of shipboard sampling. Satellite views of ocean colour are our only chance for gaining an overall view of the state of ocean biology at any given time. Ocean colour data is also the most practical way to develop the time-series data that will allow us to separate natural variability in ocean biological processes from secular changes. Ocean colour data will allow us to monitor at a minimum such important areas as: biogeochemical cycles, direct effects of biology on ocean physics, coastal resources, and fisheries sustainability. The oceans are an important net sink for carbon dioxide released by the burning of fossil fuels. However, because the great spatial and temporal variability of fluxes of carbon dioxide into and out of the ocean are poorly understood, the nature and sustainability of this critical process is insufficiently understood. It is known that the uptake of carbon dioxide is related directly to the abundance of marine algae, which can only be effectively monitored on a global scale through ocean colour. The relative abundance of certain types of marine algae, also affect the ability of the oceans to absorb carbon dioxide by affecting the amount of calcium in the oceans, creating the potential for positive feedback between ocean warming and ocean biology. Changes in alga abundance and species composition affect the extent to which solar radiation is absorbed or reflected by the surface ocean. Such changes will alter local and global oceanic heat budgets, with implications for both local and global climate. Trace gases produced by marine algae and released from the ocean to the atmosphere can affect local climates directly through their effect on cloudiness. Half the world’s population lives within 100 kilometres of the ocean. This huge population has a large impact on the coastal zone. Rivers discharge large amounts of nutrients and sediments, much of it derived from human activities, into coastal waters, affecting water quality, recreational opportunities and coastal fisheries. Blooms of toxic algae affect human health both directly and indirectly, most notably through their effects on shellfish. Ocean colour will allow us to better detect, monitor, asses and mitigate the impacts of these events. Ocean colour measurements will provide data to support the rational management of living marine resources including aquiculture, Fish populations aggregate at areas of discontinuity between oceanic water masses; because phytoplankton growth may change across such boundaries, ocean colour gives the capability to map the surface manifestation of structure. Utilizing such information, scientists will be able to understand more fully how fish stocks respond to this structure. They will provide the tools that will give managers enhanced capability to intelligently manage and control these living marine resources. This will contribute to the efficient use and sustainability of these resources, The deliverables of ocean colour remote sensing reflect the major science issues identified in earlier sections. These issues are: (i) the role of the oceans in climate change; (ii) the assessment of natural and anthropogenic impacts in the coastal zone and shelf seas; (iii) the monitoring and management of fisheries and the ecosystem of which the fish are part. These deliverables can be categorized according to their utilization (unprioritized): (i) Science research products (time series, annual to decadel time scale) ; (ii) Operational products (short-term, daily to seasonal time scales); (iii) Methodological validation products. Within the first category are data for ocean models which will enhance our ability to forecast global change. These global scale observations will lead to the definition of biogeochemical premises and their characteristics which will serve as the basis for operational products. Operational products are required for environmental impact assessment, coastal zone management models, fisheries management and living resources protection. The third category data is required to validate certain research approaches, and methodologies used in assessing ocean colour. This category also includes inter-comparison of different ocean colour sensors to improve understanding of global scale processes and insure data set interoperability.
    • IOC-EU-BSH-NOAA-(WDC-A) International Workshop on Oceanographic Biological and Chemical Data Management, Hamburg, Germany 20-23 May 1996.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1996)
      A knowledge of the global distribution of biological and chemical parameters pertinent to the ocean carbon system is critical to understanding the role of the world ocean as part of the earth's climate system. Global Change involves a diverse and complex set of scientific problems related to the biology and chemistry of our planet, as well as its physics. By compiling and archiving available biological, physical and chemical data, we can further our understanding of oceanographic processes (e.g., the variability in ocean productivity, fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, oceanic biodiversity) and better design programmes for pollution monitoring and remediation, and coastal and fisheries resource management. In addition, to study Global Change issues, scientists need access to the most complete digital oceanographic databases possible. The problems of archiving oceanographic data magnify when the scope of the archive extends through the geochemical to the bio-geochemical. A challenge is to develop the database, data analysis and data visualization structures which will enable widely distributed, multi-disciplinary investigators to work with each other's data and to collaborate with each other. In view of the need for oceanographic biological and chemical data, and of the problems in managing these data, it was decided to convene an International Workshop on Oceanographic Biological and Chemical Data Management to discuss the issues involved and identify ways to solve existing problems. In part, the Workshop was an outgrowth of the Ocean Climate Data Workshop held in Greenbelt
    • IOC Regional Workshop for Member States of the Caribbean and South America - GODAR-V (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue Project), Cartagena de Indias, Colombia 8-l 1 October 1996.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1997)
      The GODAR Workshop for IOC Member States of the Caribbean and South America held at Cartagena, Colombia was the fifth in the series after 4 held at: Obninsk Russian Federation (17-20 May 1993) for Member States of Central and Eastern Europe; Tianjin, China (8-l 1 March 1994) for Member States of WESTPAC; Dona Paula, Goa, India (6-9 December 1994) for Member States of the Indian Ocean and Malta (25-28 April 1995) for Member States of the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the current Workshop was to identify relevant data in the region and to consider the steps necessary to make this data available to the wide international marine science community thus adding to the global oceanographic data archive. These archives are valuable for different fields of application, including global change and climate studies, world ocean research and global ocean monitoring. The Workshop included an assessment of the state of data holdings in the region, an identification of common goals and problems with data preservation and resulted in recommendations on implementation steps and approaches to solve the problems identified. The Workshop can also be considered as a starting point for a major upgrading of the entire regional ocean data management system, an important step in the development of a region-wide ocean data system modemization programme.
    • IOC Regional Workshop for Member States of the Caribbean and South America - GODAR-V (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue Project), Cartagena de Indias, Colombia 8-11 October 1996.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 1997)
      Data archaeology and rescue activities were begun at the three World Data Centres for Oceanography in Washington (USA), Obninsk (Russian Federation) and Tianjin (China), as well as at the ICES Secretariat in Copenhagen, Denmark and at the Japan Oceanographic Data Centre, Tokyo, following the decisions of the Workshop held in September 1990 at the US National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) in Washington DC. An international Workshop (Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, 18-21 February 1992) on Ocean Climate Data, sponsored by the IOC, CEC, ICES, WMO and ICSU, noted the progress achieved in data archaeology during 1991 by a few Member States and international organizations and recommended expanding this ad hoc multi-lateral effort into an international data rescue and recovery project (IOC Workshop Report No. 78, 1992). This is how the experience gained by the above-mentioned activities laid the foundation for the Global Ocean Data Archaeology and Rescue project, known as GODAR, which was given strong endorsement by the IOC Committee on IODE at its Fourteenth Session (Paris, France, 1-9 December 1992) The GODAR Project Proposal received full support of the IOC Assembly at its Seventeenth Session (Paris, France, 25 February -11 March 1993). In response to the recommendation of IOC-XVII, the Secretary IOC appointed Dr. S. Levitus, Director WDC-A, Oceanography as the Project Leader. The above project is ambitious but is essential to bridge the gaps in the long time-series of ocean observations which are of the utmost importance especially for climate change studies. Efforts in the context of the preparation for UNCED, including assessments of the state of environment, the SWCC, the IPCC activities and negotiations for the FCCC have shown very clearly the need for long time-series of quality data. Governments and scientists are now recognizing the value and indispensability of historical ocean data for scientific research and for national decision-making. Vigorous ocean data archaeology efforts will help to significantly enhance the ocean data record from past decades. These efforts will rely on data exchange of the IOC/ICSU IODE and the WDC systems. The Project, which now is in operation for over 5 years, is endeavouring to augment the historical oceanographic digital data archives by seeking out and recovering manuscript and ocean data not yet included in the ocean databases accessible to the world research community. The term "data archaeology and rescue" refers to this two-part process of first identifying and locating data and then performing the steps required to merge them into a digital database. The GODAR Workshop for IOC Member States of the Caribbean and South America held at Cartagena, Colombia was the fifth in the series after 4 held at: Obninsk Russian Federation (17-20 May 1993) for Member States of Central and Eastern Europe; Tianjin, China (8-11 March 1994) for Member States of WESTPAC; Dona Paula, Goa, India (6-9 December 1994) for Member States of the Indian Ocean and Malta (25-28 April 1995) for Member States of the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the current Workshop was to identify relevant data in the region and to consider the steps necessary to make this data available to the wide international marine science community thus adding to the global oceanographic data archive. These archives are valuable for different fields of application, including global change and climate studies, world ocean research and global ocean monitoring. The Workshop included an assessment of the state of data holdings in the region, an identification of common goals and problems with data preservation and resulted in recommendations on implementation steps and approaches to solve the problems identified. The Workshop can also be considered as a starting point for a major upgrading of the entire regional ocean data management system, an important step in the development of a region-wide ocean data system modernization programme. The present report contains a summary of the scientific papers (key presentations), a full presentation of the national reports presented at the sessions of GODAR-V as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop.
    • IOC-Sida-Flanders-SFRI Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO region (ODINEA project)

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCO, 1998)
      The IOC-Sida-Flanders-SFRI Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO Region was held in Capetown, South Africa, November 30 to December 11, 1998. It was the second workshop on ocean data management in this region within the framework of the ‘Ocean Data and Information Network for Eastern Africa’ (ODINEA) project, funded by IOC, Sida and Flanders. The workshop’s objectives were (i) to provide in-depth data management training; and (ii) to discuss progress made in the development of NODCs or DNAs during the past year, within the framework of the ODINEA project which is part of the IOC’s IODE programme. The Workshop was organized in cooperation with and kindly hosted by the Sea Fisheries Research Institute of South Africa, and was held in the excellent conference facilities of their seaside aquarium. We also wish to express our thanks to Dr Dave Pollock, Deputy Director: Environmental Research SFRI, and Dr Geoff Bailey, Assistant Director, SFRI for their assistance in the excellent arrangements. The Agenda for the workshop is contained in Annex I. The 1997 Workshop (Mombasa, Kenya) was designed to provide training on the fundamentals of PC operations with standard computer utilities and Microsoft programs (e.g. Excel, Access, and QuickBasic). The training sessions during the 1998 Workshop were designed to explore the further use of these programs and other programs for the in-depth quality control and analysis of data as well as to explore new technologies for data dissemination. The constant stream of new software for marine data analysis and management provides a rich field for this work, but the IOC training team has attempted to avoid providing too many unrelated programs in favor of a semi-integrated package of programs that interact with related databases. Selected databases and programs that fit in this scheme are provided for each session on a “class CD-ROM” so that every detail of the training agenda is portable and capable of being duplicated. The 1998 Workshop was also used as an occasion to review and possibly modify if necessary, the ODINEA workplan and budget for 1999 in order to ensure that the project responds to the (changing) needs of the newly established data centres in the IOCINCWIO region. More details are provided under 3.6.
    • IOC-LUC-KMFRI Workshop on RECOSCIX-WIO in the year 2000 and beyond (and training course for librarians)

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCO, 1999)
      The project RECOSCIX-WI0 (Regional Co-operation in Scientific Information Exchange in the Western Indian Ocean) was launched in February 1989 by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO at the request of IOCINCWIO to: - provide marine scientists in the region with the necessary scientific information;- enhance the use of indigenous scientific information in the region; - promote and facilitate communication between the scientists, both intra- and inter-regionally; - disseminate information on scientific research activities in the region. To achieve these goals the project set out to develop a number of services and products such as: (i) provision of bibliographic search and document delivery services;(ii) provision of equipment and software to marine science libraries in WI0 region; (iii)development of the regional directory of marine scientists (WIODIR);(iv) development of a regional library holdings database (WIOLIB); (v) publication of the newsletter WZNDO W (Western Indian Ocean Waters); (vi) development of MASDEA (Marine Species Database for Eastern Africa);(vii) co-operation in ASFA as regional input centre; (viii) publication of WIOBASE (integrated Western Indian Ocean data and information sources CD-ROM). After the initial pilot phase (1989-1992), the Government of Belgium through the Flemish Inter-University Council (VLIR) funded the implementation of the operational phases of the project. The VLIR support ended in April 1999. IOC has been gradually increasing its support for the project to fill in the gap left by VLIR. This support has been provided within the framework of the IOC/Sida-SAREC, and IOC/ Flanders initiative for development of an Ocean Data and Information Network for Africa (ODINAFRICA). The tenth anniversary of the project provided an opportunity to look back and evaluate where the project had achieved its objectives and where it had failed. With this in mind a Workshop on “RECOSCIX-WI0 in the year 2000 and beyond” was hosted by the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI), Mombasa, Kenya between 14-17 April 1999. This workshop also provided an opportunity for partners in the project to redefine the priorities of the project. The workshop was preceded by a two-day refresher technical training session for marine information managers ( 12- 13 April). Whereas for previous RECOSCM-WI0 workshops and training courses only information managers were invited, for this event each of the institutions participating in the project was invited to nominate both marine information managers AND scientists to attend. Indeed, as scientists are the main users and beneficiaries of the RECOSCIX-WI0 services and products they should be involved in the planning of the project’s future.
    • IOC-Sida-Flanders-MCM Third Workshop on Ocean Data Management in the IOCINCWIO Region (ODINEA project)

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCO, 1999)
      The third regional workshop on Ocean Data Management for the IOCINCWIO region was held at the Marine and Coastal Management Department (former Sea Fisheries Research Institute) in Cape Town, South Africa from 29 November to 10 December 1999. The objectives of the workshop, which was organized within the framework of the Ocean Data and Information Network in Eastern Africa (ODINEA) project funded by IOC, Sida and Flanders were: (i) review the progress made in development of NODCs and DNAs in the IOCINCWIO region, (ii) provide in-depth data management training, (iii) develop work plans for ODINEA for the year 2000. The first workshop held in Mombasa, Kenya in 1997 was designed to provide training on the fundamentals of PC operations with standard computer utilities and Microsoft programmes (Excel, Access and QuickBasic). In addition to further exploration of these programmes, the participants were introduced to other programmes for in-depth quality control and analysis of data as well as new technologies for data dissemination during the second workshop also held in Cape Town in 1998 (IOC Workshop Report No. 154). By the end of 1998, all the participating institutions had received computer equipment and software to enable them to start the development of their data centres. Most of them were also provided with some seed money for operational expenses in early 1999. This workshop therefore provides an opportunity to assess the development of the centres, identify hitches or constraint that arose during the course of the year, and suggest remedial measures that need to be taken to ensure that the data centres are operational.