• 2nd Joint GOSUD/SAMOS Workshop, U.S.Coast Guard Base, Seattle, Washington, 10-12 June 2008.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2008)
      On 10-12 June 2008, the NOAA Climate Observation Division sponsored the 2nd Joint Global Ocean Surface Underway Data (GOSUD)/Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Workshop in Seattle, WA, USA. The workshop focused on the ongoing collaboration between GOSUD and SAMOS and addressing the needs of the research and operational community for highquality underway oceanographic and meteorological observations from ships. The SAMOS initiative is working to improve access to calibrated, quality-controlled, surface marine meteorological data collected in-situ by automated instrumentation on research vessels (primarily) and select merchant ships. GOSUD is an IODE project which focuses on the collection, quality evaluation, and distribution of near surface ocean parameters (for the moment mainly salinity and sea temperature) from vessels. The workshop organizing committee (Shawn Smith, Mark Bourassa, Loic Petit de la Villéon, David Forcucci, and Phillip McGillivary) brought together a panel consisting of operational and research scientists, educators, marine technicians, and private sector and government representatives to address several key topics (see below). Participants from the U.S. government represented NOAA (AOML, COD, ESRL, NDBC, NODC, NWS, PMC, and PMEL) and the United States Coast Guard. CIRES, LUMCON, Florida State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Oregon State University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Stony Brook University, and the Universities of Delaware, Maryland, Miami, and Rhode Island represented the United States university community. A significant international presence included representatives from the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia); Environment Canada (Canada); LEGOS, IFREMER, and Meteo France (France); the University of Hamburg (Germany); the Directorate of Civil Aviation (Kuwait); the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (Nigeria), University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and the NOCS (UK). Educators were present from ACT, IIRP, and MATE. Finally, Earth and Space Research, the RMR Company, and two consultants represented the private sector. The workshop was comprised of invited and contributed talks, poster presentations, plenary discussions, and the SAMOS and GOSUD technical working group meetings. Broad topic areas included new opportunities for international collaboration, emerging technologies, scientific application of underway measurements, and data and metadata issues. New sessions included a technician’s round-table discussion and developing educational initiatives. Scientific discussion centered around the need for high-quality meteorological and thermosalinograph observations to support satellite calibration and validation, ocean data assimilation, polar studies, air-sea flux estimation, and improving analyses of precipitation, carbon, and radiation. Determining the regions of the ocean and observational parameters necessary to achieve operational and research objectives requires input by the scientific user community. The CLIVAR community should be one way to approach the scientific community. This input will allow SAMOS and GOSUD to target their limited resources on vessels operating in the high priority regions. The vessel operators and marine technicians were very supportive of the activities of SAMOS and GOSUD. They requested a clear set of guidelines for parameters to measure, routine monitoring activities, and calibration schedules. The operators also desire additional routine feedback on data flow and data quality. A clear need for training and educational material was noted by the technical community. The dissemination of best practices guides for existing techs and pre-cruise training for new techs were suggested. The result of the workshop was a series of action items (Appendix A) and seven recommendations.
    • 6th International XBT Science Workshop, Ostend, Belgium, 18-20 April 2018.

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2018)
      The 6th International XBT (Expendable bathythermograph) Science team workshop took place at the IODE Project Office of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, in Ostend, Belgium from 18 to 20 April 2018 following on from the 5th IODE Steering Group for the International Quality Controlled Ocean Database (SG-IquOD) meeting at the same venue. The workshop was divided in oral presentations and plenary discussions, held with the objective of exchanging ideas on how to proceed with the implementation, maintenance, and enhancement of the XBT network. A total of 19 scientists participated (4 remotely) from Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Africa, UK, and the USA. XBTs represent the largest fraction of the temperature profile observations since 1970s until the full implementation of Argo profiling floats in approximately 2005. These historical XBT profiles comprise most of the temperature data base that is used to compute time series of ocean heat content. One focus of the XBT Science team (along with IQuOD) is to improve and understand the accuracy of these historical data so that we can understand the uncertainties in this climatically important time series. The global XBT network is logistically complex and so requires strong collaboration between many organizations and countries (Figure 1). Many of these transects have now been in place for multiple-decades. Today, XBT transects mainly operate in High Density (also referred as High Resolution) and Frequently Repeated modes. High Density transects are occupied at least 4 times per year XBT deployed at approximately 25 km intervals along the ship track. Frequently repeated tracks are occupied at around 18 times per year with XBT deployments at 100 km intervals. The repeat sampling nature of XBT transects along fixed transects makes the XBT profiles our best present observing system for the important boundary current systems (including the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) that convey heat, freshwater and nutrients around the global ocean. XBT observations are currently used mainly to: (i) Monitor the variability of location and transport of key surface and subsurface ocean currents and boundary currents, (ii) Monitor the variability of the meridional heat transport and the Meridional Overturning Circulation across ocean basins, (iii) Provide a significant amount of upper ocean thermal observations, particularly in areas undersampled by other observational platforms, used for global ocean heat content estimates, and (iv) Initialization and validation of numerical ocean forecast models. A strong synergy exists between XBT observations and observations from other platforms, such as altimetry, surface drifters, Argo, etc. the enables more robust scientific analysis.
    • Ad Hoc Planning Meeting for the JCOMM Pilot Project for the WMO Integrated Global Observing Systems (WIGOS)

      JCOMM/IODE (UNESCO, 2008)
      The ad hoc planning meeting for the JCOMM Pilot Project for the WMO Integrated Global Observing Systems (WIGOS) was held in Ostend, Belgium on 29 March 2008 at the kind invitation of the IOC Project Office for the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). The aim of the Pilot Project is to promote and develop integration of marine and other appropriate observations into the global observing system through three core deliverables: (i) integration of instrument best practices, (ii) development of interoperability arrangements between the ocean data systems and the WMO Information System (WIS), and (iii) the integration of quality management systems. The meeting agreed that the cooperation with the ocean community was essential to the success of the Pilot Project, especially regarding interoperability issues with the IODE Ocean Data Portal (ODP) being developed by the ocean community. The synergies between the ODP and WIS are potentially important regarding historical and recent data. In the process, the ownership of IOC for some of the components of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), and the WMO and IOC respective data policies will be respected, as well as specific data policies for specific data sets. Development of standards and their wide acceptance within the meteorological and oceanographic communities is also an important activity that will addressed by the Pilot Project. It will link naturally with the development of a Standards process recently started by JCOMM and IODE (see http://www.oceandatastandards.org). The meeting addressed the instrument best practices issues, recognized the need for traceability to agreed standards, and recommended to establish cooperation with the WMO Commission on Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) and to build on its experience with regard to instrument intercomparisons, instrument centres, etc. The various related publications available via WMO and IOC will be reviewed and updated as required. JCOMM has also recently proposed to compile a catalogue of best practices to be eventually published as a JCOMM Technical Document. Related activity will be included in the Pilot Project plan. The meeting proposed to explore establishment of one or more marine and oceanographic instrument centre(s) and reviewed the methodology proposed by CIMO for conducting instrument intercomparisons to ensure homogeneity, and compatibility of the observations. The meeting agreed to explore how JCOMM and ocean instrument comparisons can profit from the CIMO experience. The meeting reviewed its project plan and proposed some changes. It particularly identified partners willing to pursue participation in the Pilot Project by providing data sets to the ODP and WIS (e.g. World Ocean Atlas, World Ocean Database, Surface currents from HF radars, sea level data and marine climatology summaries). Other potential partners to provide additional data-sets (e.g. Argo, GHRSST, ocean model fields and SeaDataNet), metadata (e.g. META-T), technology (e.g. End-To-End), or training facilities or materials for Capacity Building purposes (e.g. ODINs) were listed and the Pilot Project will approach them to seek their participation. Because of the strong potential synergies between the ODP and the JCOMM Pilot Project for WIGOS, the meeting proposed to establish a joint Steering Group with balanced representation from the IOC and WMO communities. Terms of Reference and Membership for the Steering Group will be finalized soon. The first meeting of the Steering Group is planned to be held in September 2008. The meeting will work at defining a more detailed implementation plan based on the project plan.
    • Consultation on Scientific and Technical Aspects of Sustained Ocean Observations and Services, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 5th March, 2013.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, France, 2013)
      The objective of the forum was to: 1. To discuss the advantages and obstacles present in implementing sustained ocean observations and services in Group III. 2. To consider future perspectives of the sustained ocean observations and services in Group III. 3. To suggest strategic recommendation on the sustained ocean observations and services, including their operational use in Group III, to IOC and Member States..
    • Executive Council Working Group on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System and the WMO Information System, fourth session, Geneva, Switzerland, 10-11 February 2011

      WMO (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Geneva, 2011)
      Observing System and the WMO Information System (EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS-4) was held at the WMO Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, from 10 to 11 February 2011. The session was chaired by Prof A. D. Moura (Brazil), Third Vice-President of WMO. EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS reviewed and endorsed the following WIGOS documents to be submitted to the sixteenth Congress (Cg-XVI): (a) Report on the Integration between the WMO Observing Systems (Appendix II); (b) WIGOS Test of Concept Development and Implementation Plan (WDIP) (Appendix III); (c) WIGOS Concept of Operations (CONOPS) (Appendix IV); (d) WIGOS Development and Implementation Strategy (WDIS) (Appendix V). Furthermore, EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS-4 formulated its recommendations on the WIGOS implementation in the form of Draft Resolution 11.3/1 (Cg-XVI) – Implementation of the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) (Appendix VII). When discussing the individual Agenda Items, particular attention was given to pre-Congress actions, on the enhancement of communication on WIGOS matters.
    • Executive council working group on WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) and WMO Information System (WIS), subgroup on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System, first session, Geneva, Switzerland, 10-13 November 2008

      WMO (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Geneva, 2008)
      The first session of the Subgroup on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (EC-WG/SG-WIGOS-1) of the Executive Council Working Group on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) and the WMO Information System (WIS) was held at the WMO Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, from 10 to 13 November 2008, and was chaired by Dr John Nash (UK), the President of the Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) and Chair of the Subgroup. Main attention of the SG-WIGOS was focused on the status of WIGOS Pilot and Demonstration Projects and their potential input for the update of WIGOS Concept of Operations (CONOPS) and WIGOS Development and Implementation Plan (WDIP); on the elaboration of the WIGOS Integration Levels; on a review of needs and potential problems of WMO co-sponsored observing systems; and update of CONOPS and WDIP. SG-WIGOS discussed a scope, time frame and role of WIGOS Pilot Projects. When doing that, guidance from Cg-XV were taken into account that Pilot Projects should be designed to test concepts, identify problem areas and to help in elaborating WDIP by inputs from respective technical commission.
    • Executive council working group on WMO Integrated Global Observing System and WMO Information System, second session, Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 May 2009

      WMO (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Geneva, 2009)
      The second session of the Executive Council Working Group on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System and the WMO Information System (EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS) was held at the WMO Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, from 6 to 8 May 2009, and was chaired by Prof A. Divino Moura (Brazil), Third Vice-President of the WMO and Chair of EC WG. EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS was briefed on major deliberations of the first session of its Subgroup on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (SG-WIGOS-1) Geneva, Switzerland, 10 - 13 November 2008; the CBS Technical Conference on WIGOS (TECO-WIGOS) (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 23-24 March 2009); and the fourteenth session of the Commission for Basic Systems (CBS-XIV) (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 25 March - 2 April 2009). EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS was briefed on the status of: (a) Implementation of the WIS Project and its Implementation Plan; (b)nWIGOS Pilot and Demonstration Projects; (c) Review of the WIGOS Concept of Operation (CONOPS); (d) Implementation of WIGOS Development and Implementation Plan (WDIP) and its corresponding update; (e) Monitoring of the implementation of WIGOS and WIS through Rolling Requirements Review; (f) Revision of WMO Technical Regulations related to WIGOS and WIS implementation. Based on the outcomes of the consideration of the individual Agenda Items, EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS articulated its guidance, advice and recommendations regarding the further development of the implementation of WIS, WIGOS concept, coordination of WIGOS and WIS plans; it agreed on the versions of CONOPS (Appendix II) and WDIP (Appendix III) to be submitted to EC-LXI for consideration and endorsement.
    • Executive council working group on WMO Integrated Global Observing System and WMO Information System, third session, Geneva, Switzerland, 24-26 March 2010

      WMO; WMO (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Geneva, 2010)
      The third session of the Executive Council Working Group on the WMO Integrated Global Observing System and the WMO Information System (EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS) was held at the WMO Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, from 24 to 26 March 2010. The session was chaired by Prof A. Divino Moura (Brazil), Third Vice-President of the WMO and Chair of EC WG. EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS reviewed major deliberations of the second session of its Subgroup on WIGOS (SG-WIGOS-2, Geneva, Switzerland, 19-23 October 2009), and the sixth session of the Inter-Commission Group on WIS (ICG-WIS, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 22-26 February 2010) and developed appropriate proposals and recommendations. EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS further considered: (a) Report on the WIGOS Projects (Status, Evaluation, Lessons Learned); (b) WIGOS Concept of Operations (CONOPS); (c) WIGOS Test of Concept Development and Implementation Plan (WDIP); (d) WIGOS Development and Implementation Strategy (WDIS); (e) Report on the integration between the WMO observing systems. Based on the outcomes of the discussion under individual Agenda Items, EC-WG/WIGOS-WIS formulated recommendations on the further development and implementation of the WIGOS concept, the implementation of WIS, and the enhanced coordination of WIS and WIGOS activities. EC WG decided to submit the updated versions of CONOPS (Appendix II), WDIP (Appendix IV) and WDIS (Appendix V) to EC-LXII for consideration and endorsement.
    • First IODE Workshop on Quality Control of Chemical Oceanographic Data Collections IOC Project Office for IODE, Oostende, Belgium 8-11 February 2010

      IOC for UNESCO (IOC Project Office for IODEOostende, 2010-03-25)
      The IODE workshop on quality control (QC) of chemical oceanographic data collections was held at the IOC Project Office for IODE in Oostende, Belgium between 8 and 11 February 2010. The meeting, proposed and organized by the IODE Group of Experts on Biological and Chemical Data Management and Exchange Practices (GE-BICH), welcomed 19 experts in chemical data management as well as data producers and users from 13 countries. The objective of the workshop was to evaluate existing procedures and define a minimum set of QC tests and criteria for dissolved inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate, nitrate+nitrite, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) and dissolved oxygen in seawater. The meeting produced several outcomes. First, the meeting identified two proposals to be submitted to the IODE/JCOMM Ocean Data Standards process (1) a quality control flags scheme based on quantifiable and subjective tests; and (2) at a later stage and following consultation with the wider community, a scaled nomenclature for data processing levels for data held at data centers. The meeting also issued a number of recommendations which will be taken forward in post-workshop activities in consultation and in interaction with the wider international community. These included: (1) metadata terminology for reporting measured variables and their units as well as (2) a work plan to recommend a minimum set of numerically defined QC tests that could be adjusted to reflect broad regional to basin scales conditions. These guidelines and recommendations will be assembled on the GE-BICH wiki for peer-review before being published as a technical white paper or guideline document.
    • First ODINAFRICA Coastal and Marine Atlases Planning meeting IOC Project Office for IODE, Oostende, Belgium 12 – 14 October 2009

      IOC for UNESCO (IOC Project Office for IODEOostende, 2010-05-10)
      The first session of the African Marine Atlas Task team was held from 12 – 14 October 2009 at the UNESCO/IOC Project Office for IODE in Oostende, Belgium. The purpose of the meeting was to review the development of the African Marine Atlas and discuss how it can be improved to make it more useful for marine and coastal management. The task team was to, in particular: • Identify users of the atlas (at national and regional/pan African level) • Identify atlas products that respond to user needs • Identify atlas layers needed (and whether data are available) • Prepare a work plan that will address the technical aspects as well as data collection
    • First ODINCARSA Planning Workshop for Caribbean Islands: organized with the sponsorship of: Coastal Zone Management Unit of Barbados Christ Church, Barbados 15-18 December, 2003.

      IOC for UNESCO; IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2004)
      The First ODINCARSA Planning Workshop for the Caribbean Islands was held in Christ Church, Barbados between 15 and 18 December 2003, co-sponsored by the Coastal Zone Management Unit of Barbados. The workshop was attended by participants from eight countries in the Caribbean. The meeting reviewed the ocean data and information management capacity available in this region, identified needs and capacity building requirements, and prepared a comprehensive work plan and timetable to develop a regional cooperative network for the management of oceanographic data and marine information on the basis of the experience of the ODINCARSA project in South America.
    • First Planning Workshop for the Ocean Data and Information Network for the IOCARIBE and South America regions (ODINCARSA), Hosted by Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada del Ecuador Guayaquil, Ecuador, 24-26 October 2001.

      IOC for UNESCO (UNESCOParis, 2001)
      The First Planning Workshop for the “Ocean Data and Information Network for the IOCARIBE and South America regions (ODINCARSA)” was held in Guayaquil, Ecuador between 24 and 26 October 2001, hosted by the Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada del Ecuador (INOCAR). The meeting was attended by participants from fourteen countries in the Caribbean (IOCARIBE) and South America regions. The meeting reviewed the ocean data and information management capacity available in the regions, identified capacity building requirements and developed a comprehensive workplan and timetable to develop a regional cooperative network for the management and exchange of oceanographic data and information in the regions.
    • Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue (GODAR) Project

      Levitus, S. (UNESCO, 2005)
      Since its inception in 1993 as an IOC project, the GODAR Project continues its progress in locating, collecting, and disseminating in electronic form, historical ocean profile and plankton data that are at risk of loss due to media decay. To date, data from approximately 1.05 million Station Data casts, 1.15 million MBT casts, 610,000 XBT casts, 145,000 high resolution CTD casts, and 142,000 Plankton Tows have been recovered and distributed without restriction to the international scientific community.