Recent Submissions

  • Pawikan on FB: Facebook as a Source of Information on the Current State of Sea Turtles in the Philippines with an Emphasis on Mortality

    Superio, Daryl L.; Luceño, Myrna T.; Bendalian, Maria Venessa T.; Yap-Zerudo, Anna May A.; Ciriaco, Joel A.; Estante-Superio, Erish G. (2020)
    Five of the seven species of pawikan (sea turtles) are found in the Philippine seas. These are Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Green sea (Chelonia mydas), Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), and Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). All of these are threatened species due to predation (animals and humans), climate change, harvesting of eggs, juveniles and adults, bycatch, and habitat degradation. Thus, to protect the species, several laws, policies, and programs have been passed and implemented by the Philippines government since 1979 (Marine Wild Fauna Watch of the Philippines (MWFWP), 2014). However, despite the efforts to protect the pawikan, reports about dead sea turtles due to various causes are becoming frequent than ever. Furthermore, public posts on Facebook about dead pawikan by private individuals are increasing. On the other hand, data on the mortality causes of sea turtles remain scarce as of the moment. Hence, to provide additional data, this study was conducted.
  • Status of threatened species and stock enhancement activities in the Philippine fisheries

    Lopez, Nelson A.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio,, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    The paper provides the lists of fisheries related species perceived to be extinct, rare, threatened and endangered as covered under the CITES, IUCN and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR)-Fisheries Administrative Order (FAO) No. 208. The listings of freshwater fisheries resources constitute mostly finfishes that are all, except for one, found in the CITES list, the rest under the IUCN red lists and none in the BFAR list. Majority of the listed species are also specific to some areas like Lanao Lake, few in the RINCONADA lakes of Bicol and scarce in some other minor lakes where they are found to be endemic. Most of the indigenous cyprinid species are of commercial value to the locality and are the main source of fish protein in the daily life of the fisherfolk. The listings of marine finfishes constitute mostly sharks and seahorses which are all, except for one, found in the CITES list, the rest under the IUCN Red List and none in the BFAR-FAO list. Although BFAR listed 20 species of whales and dolphins under its FAO 208, marine mammals are not included in this report. Most of the indigenous shark species are becoming rare and extinct due to the rampant shark Status of Threatened Species and Stock Enhancement Activities in the Philippine Fisheries with the rising demand of shark fins smuggled or exported abroad. These marine finfishes are distributed in coastal waters. The listings of marine gastropods, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms are all found in the BFAR-FAO listings as Rare, Threatened and Endangered, while few and selective under the CITES and IUCN lists. Accordingly, these are the most common marine resource commodities that are over-exploited, gleaned and gathered illegally, and frequently exported or smuggled out of the country by unscrupulous traders.
  • Thailand's concerns in endangered species and stock enhancement

    Chaengkij, Marnop; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    The paper provides a comprehensive list of endangered freshwater, brackishwater, and marine aquatic species in Thailand. The Thai Department of Fisheries is breeding some of the endangered species under the “Rehabilitation of Thai Local Fishes and Aquatic Animals Project.” Some of these species are bred for restocking in the wild.
  • Endangered fish species and seed release strategies in Vietnam

    Chien, Thai Ngoc; Khanh, Nguyen Huu; Truong, Nguyen Xuan; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    World economic growth has led to considerable changes in the ecosystem in many places and has raised concerns on global resource management particularly aquatic animal resources and their living environment. In Vietnam, aquatic animal resources play an important role in the national economy and are one of the targets for economic development. However, under high population pressure, high demand for seafood has resulted in unfavorable living environment. Aquatic animal resource has been over-exploited and in some places reported to be declining; hence some species have become extinct or endangered. This paper provides a list some endangered freshwater, brackishwater, and marine species. Moreover, the seed production activities and the release strategies for resource conservation of the government of Vietnam are also presented.
  • Stock enhancement activities in the Union of Myanmar

    Win, Kyaw Myo; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Presented in the paper are the stock enhancement programs of the Union of Myanmar which is being implemented by the Department of Fisheries. The State’s vision is to assist the national economy by promoting livelihood programs for rural people through the development of the fisheries sector. To achieve such goal, one of the major activities is to undertake a stock enhancement program which has been implemented since 1983. The DOF subsidizes the annual seeding of freshwater fish and prawns into natural waters. Species used in seeding include common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapia (Oreochromis), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), and featherbacks fish (Notopteridae), freshwater prawn Macrobrachium and tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Activities include annual stocking of seeds in the Ayeyarwaddy River and its tributaries, lakes, reservoirs, dams and other bodies of water.
  • Fishery stock enhancement in Malaysia

    Ibrahim, Kamarruddin; Ilias, Zaidnuddin; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Species extinction is a global issue that requires all nations to practice sustainable management. This paper aims to examine the status of endangered fisheries species in Malaysia, and highlight some resource management initiatives including the restocking and stock enhancement program in the country. Its scope covers only aquaculture-based species, which is in line with the Program on Stock Enhancement for Species of International Concern being implemented by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center/Aquaculture Department in the Philippines.
  • Fisheries, aquaculture and stock enhancement in Lao PDR

    Choudara, Hanh; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Fisheries development in Lao PDR is confined to inland fisheries development and sustainable freshwater aquaculture including culture-enhanced capture fisheries and fishery-enhanced aquaculture. Given the potential of water, wetland and aquatic resources and the magnitude of decline in fish catches from the Mekong River and its tributaries, the Government of Lao PDR has given priority to fisheries development with strong concern for sustainable aquaculture. The overall policy framework is therefore geared toward the sustainable use, appropriate management and protection of natural resources: forest, land and water resource including aquatic biodiversity. The national goal for fisheries development during the last decade was focused on how to increase fish production from aquaculture while maintaining capture fisheries, recognizing that about 50% of the dietary protein of Lao people comes from living aquatic resources which are important for food security of the nation.
  • Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005

    Primavera, Jurgenne H.; Quinitio, Emilia T.; Eguia, Maria Rowena (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    This 150-page book documents the proceedings of an experts' consultation held at AQD in July 2005. It contains nine review papers and seven country papers.
  • Organization and development of stock enhancement in Japan

    Sugaya, Takuma; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    In the 1960s, the Japanese economy was starting to industrialize. The rapid increase in business investment in new factories and equipment stimulated a yearly economic growth rate of approximately 12% (METI 1970). However, these developments have disrupted coastal landscapes through land reclamation and industrial effluents (Fishery Agency 1980a). Furthermore, overfishing has accelerated with increased consumer spending and demand for fish protein. Consequently, coastal fish resources such as red sea bream (Pagrus major), kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) have been depleted and income of coastal fisherfolk has decreased (Fishery Agency, 1980). Under such conditions, the Japanese government initiated the Stock Enhancement Program in 1963 (Fishery Agency, 1980; Imamura, 1999). The program initially targeted red sea bream and kuruma prawn in the Seto Inland Sea in southern Japan which covers almost 3,000 islands (Imamura, 1999). Because the fundamental concept of stock enhancement programs was to compensate juvenile loss caused by high larval mortality in the ocean, development of mass juvenile production techniques was emphasized (Fishery Agency 1980a; Matsuoka, 1989). Therefore, the release of juveniles became a typical form of stock enhancement in Japan. The current number of target species for stock enhancement has increased to almost 80 species. Stock enhancement is undertaken by both the national government and local governments together with conservation of fishing ground and regulation of fish catches for resource management (Resource Association 1983a; Imamura 1999; Fishery Agency 2000; JASFA 2003a). This article reports the present status of stock enhancement in Japan from the organizational and technical viewpoints.
  • Status of the Mekong giant catfish, Pangasianodon gigas Chevey, 1930 stock enhancement program in Thailand

    Sukumasavin, Naruepon; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    The Mekong giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas Chevey, 1930) is one of the largest freshwater fish in the world, measuring up to 3 m in length and weighing in excess of 300 kg. It is endemic to the Mekong River Basin area. It is found in Tonle Sap Lake, Tonle Sap River, and the Mekong River. It is not known to occur in the upper 2,000 km of the Mekong River. The current extent of occurrence is estimated at around 4,150 km. Historical reports indicate that the species was abundant in the early 1900s with 40-50 fish caught yearly in Nong Khai Province, north-east Thailand. However, since that time the number of fish caught has declined. This paper discusses several important information about Mekong Giant Catfish, such as rarity and size, natural food, natural spawning season and spawning grounds, and age and size at first maturity. Moreover, the breeding program and the stock enhancement activities of the Thai Department of Fisheries were also presented in the paper.
  • An uncertain future for seahorse aquaculture in conservation and economic contexts

    Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Koldewey, Heather J.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Seahorses (family Syngnathidae, genus Hippocampus) have set precedents globally. They were among the first marine fishes of commercial importance to be listed on both the IUCN Red List and CITES Appendix II. Overfishing and non-selective fishing are two agents in their depletion, so management is clearly needed. We here outline what is known about these fishes and their trade, before considering the potential role the culture and release could play in rebuilding wild populations.
  • Community-based stock enhancement of topshell in Honda Bay, Palawan, Philippines

    Gonzales, Benjamin J.; Galon, Wendell M.; Becira, Joel G.; Primavera,, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    In Palawan, Philippines, observed reduction of trochus shell resource in various areas was due to unregulated harvest mainly by compressor (hookah) divers and free diving fishers from other provinces. The latter migrate to Honda Bay for greater livelihood prospects (Gonzales, 2004), increasing the population of coastal communities along the Bay. According to fishers in Honda Bay, their shellfish resources were bountiful until traders and divers from other parts of the country came to Palawan in the 1970s, depleting topshell Trochus niloticus and other species. One of the objectives of Coastal Resource Management (CRM) is the regeneration of depleted resources and their sustainable use. On the other hand, the socio-economic objectives are: a) to alleviate poverty in coastal communities through added income and, b) to encourage responsible use of coastal resources through active participation of coastal communities in decision-making, planning, and implementation. The community-based topshell stock enhancement in Barangay Binduyan was assisted by the Fisheries Resource Management Project (FRMP) of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of the Department of Agriculture (DA-BFAR). The objectives of this paper are to: 1) describe the processes in a community-managed stock enhancement project; 2) document monitoring and evaluation of the project; and 3) give recommendations to improve future community-managed stock enhancement project.
  • Status and prospects of aquaculture of threatened echinoderms in the Philippines for stock enhancement and restocking

    Nievales, Marie Frances J.; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antoinette; Bangi, Helen Grace; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Echinoderms are either specifically targeted by gleaners and divers, or form part of the multispecies invertebrate fishery in many coastal areas in the Philippines. The existence of a local sea urchin market in northern Philippines (e.g., Pangasinan, La Union) benefits many coastal families that depend on this fishery for subsistence. In Bolinao, Pangasinan, over 40 families are reportedly dependent on this fishery. Major sea urchin species collected include Tripneustes gratilla, Diadema spp. and Salmacis spp. In the case of holothurian fishery, with over a century of fishery history for holothurians, at least 25 species mostly belonging to the families Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae are commercially important (Schoppe 2000). While there may be local consumption of both fresh and dried products, the latter are largely exported. Echinoderm fishery is dependent on wild stock. The high demand far exceeding supply, good global market prices and their biology (e.g., slow mobility, shallow water benthic habitat) render them vulnerable to overexploitation. The contribution of echinoderm products to the Philippine economy is substantial. The relative contribution of echinoderm products to the income and socio-economic well-being of fisherfolk who collect these invertebrates is undocumented. However, it has been noted that middlemen, especially local buyers who sell trepang in Manila and Manila-based traders-exporters monopolize the profits (F. Nievales, unpublished data). Products from both echinoderm groups remain in short supply in the country and so trading, limited only by declining natural stock, continues to be lucrative.
  • Coral culture and transplantation and restocking of giant clams in the Philippines

    Gomez, Edgardo D.; Cabaitan, Patrick C.; Vicentuan, Kareen C.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Recently, the Pew Project (2001 to 2005) of the senior author entitled ‘Coral reef habitat and productivity enhancement through coral transplantation and giant clam restocking’ was implemented with the aim to improve the biodiversity and productivity of stressed coral reef habitats in 10 selected demonstration sites in the Philippines. These were meant to serve as models for other communities. Transplantation of corals and reseeding of giant clams were the approaches. Nubbins or small fragments from nearby large coral colonies and abundant solitary forms were transplanted to the target sites. Care was exercised to avoid or reduce any negative impacts on the natural source communities. Only cultured giant clams were used, specifically the threatened Tridacna gigas at sizes that would ensure their chances of survival in the wild (approximately 20-30 cm shell length). Following deployment, monitoring activities were undertaken, focusing on macro-invertebrates and fish, as well as the assessment of the survival and growth of experimental animals. Liaison work was done with local communities to raise their environmental awareness and to ensure their cooperation. This manuscript draws principally from results of the Pew Project. At present, two other restoration projects supported by the European Union and the Global Environment Facility Coral Reef Targeted Research Project are being implemented at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP-MSI) in Pangasinan. These projects are testing the efficiency of floating and standing coral nurseries in growing coral nubbins in addition to transplanting fragments or branches of corals to restore degraded coral reefs.
  • Biology and status of aquaculture for giant clams (Tridacnidae) in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan

    Iwai, Kenji; Kiso, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Hirofumi; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    The Ryukyu Islands consist of many islands located between Kyushu in mainland Japan and Taiwan. The islands in the south-western area of the Ryukyu Islands belong to the Okinawa Prefecture. The Ryukyu Islands are strongly affected by the Kuroshio Current and are renowned for their coral reefs with high diversity of tropical and subtropical species. Giant clams traditionally have been utilized as fisheries resources for a long time in this area. According to fisheries statistics, catches of Tridacna crocea in Okinawa have decreased drastically during the last 30 years and currently are less than one tenth of previous catches. Fishing can easily deplete stocks of giant clams because the clams inhabit shallow waters and take at least three years to attain sexual maturity. Techniques for the mass seed production and aquaculture of three species (T. crocea, T. squamosa, and T. derasa) were established in Okinawa. Four hundred thousand seeds of giant clams of 8 mm shell length (SL) are supplied to fishermen for use in aquaculture or stock enhancement every year. This paper will review the (1) biology of giant clams, (2) present status of aquaculture of giant clams in Okinawa, and (3) other studies on giant clams in southern Japan.
  • The SEAFDEC/AQD experience in stock enhancement

    Okuzawa, Koichi; Lebata, Junemie; Buen-Ursua, Shelah M. A.; Quinitio, Emilia T.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    The Aquaculture Department (AQD) of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) started stock enhancement activities in 2000 as part of the Coastal Fishery Management Project in Malalison Is., Culasi, Antique, Philippines (SEAFDEC/AQD 1998). This was the same year as the Bangkok Declaration and Strategy for Aquaculture Development (NACA/FAO, 2000), which affirmed the potential of stock enhancement to increase fish supply. Since then, research on seed production, and release and monitoring strategies has been initiated on the abalone (Haliotis asinina), seahorses (Hippocampus barbouri, and H. kuda), mud crabs (Scylla serrata, S. olivacea and S. tranquebarica), top shell (Trochus niloticus), and window-pane oyster (Placuna placenta). Closing the life cycle and mass production of juveniles have been attained for most of these species, but actual releases have been conducted only for abalone and mud crabs. In this review article, we describe the present situation of stock enhancement of abalone, mud crab and seahorse at AQD.
  • Application of DNA-based markers in stock enhancement programs

    Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    Aquaculture and fisheries management require tools for identifying individuals or groups of aquatic organisms for the purpose of monitoring performance (growth, survival and behavior) and stock structure. In aquaculture research, commercially important traits of tagged individuals are assessed to generate supportive data for selective breeding, genetic improvement and commercial-scale fish farming. Fisheries management employs identification systems for the evaluation of stock abundance, population dynamics and documentation of wild and hatchery-bred stocks. Stock structure analysis is useful in the planning and implementation of sound stock management and more importantly, in stock enhancement programs. Blankenship and Leber (1995) underscored the inclusion of tagging/marking strategies for released hatchery stocks in the guidelines for responsible marine stock enhancement. Identifying and keeping track of introduced stocks in release habitats allows an assessment of their adaptability in the wild (Allendorf et al., 1988) and the success of the reseeding and/or restocking effort. Although often used interchangeably, the terms ‘tags’ and ‘markers’ differ by definition. Tags are artificial or synthetic materials that are attached to the aquatic organism to allow individual or group identification while markers are traits or characters either applied or inherent to the organism (Thorsteinsson, 2002). Tags/markers are essential in evaluating resource distribution patterns, behavior, migration and movement of stocks, dynamics of exploited aquatic populations and evolutionary processes, all of which comprise baseline information for any stock management, enhancement and conservation program in aquaculture and fisheries (Allendorf et al 1988, Mulvey et al., 1998).
  • ASEAN-SEAFDEC directives related to species of international concern

    Vichitlekarn, Suriyan; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2006)
    To achieve sustainable fisheries for food security in the ASEAN region, the Resolution (RES) and Plan of Action (POA) urge the Member Countries to rectify their fisheries practices through improvement of existing fisheries management policy, framework and practices as well as implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), RES and POA. Improvement of fisheries management includes the gradual introduction of decentralized rights-based fisheries and co-management systems, regulation/control of fishing activities, protection/rehabilitation of important aquatic resource habitats, resource/stock enhancement, and so on. In addition, the RES and POA also highlight the need to enhance partnership among Member Countries in the region through the formulation of common positions as well as to increase their participation and involvement in international fora (FAO, CITES, etc.) to safeguard and promote ASEAN interests particularly on issues of international concern. In line with the above general directives, especially in relation to stock enhancement of species under international concern, senior fisheries officials of ASEAN and SEAFDEC have urged proactive approaches in tackling the issues and gave the following directives: 1) To increase support to national initiatives and to facilitate regional cooperation on stock enhancement including identification of concerned species and their status, interaction between concerned species and fishing, and integrated approach and community involvement in management and conservation of aquatic resources; 2) To identify issues/species of international concern and conduct review on status of the issues/species as basis for formulation of fisheries policy as well as common positions among the Member Countries in international fora; 3) To compile information on status and initiatives related to management and conservation of aquatic resources and to disseminate them in appropriate international fora to enhance awareness of the regional situation and seriousness of the issues; 4) To promote appropriate inter-agency coordination on the issues at national and regional levels, and 5) To promote involvement of national fisheries agencies in national/regional/international fora/mechanisms related to utilization and management of aquatic resources.
  • Spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos, in captivity

    Vanstone, William E.; Villaluz, Antonio C.; Tiro, Leonardo, Jr. B. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 1976)
    Newly captured milkfish released 0.8 mm in diameter non-hydrated eggs spontaneously in captivity. After injection with partially purified salmon gonadotropin (SG-G100), 1.2 mm in diameter hydrated eggs were released. These eggs, however, were not fertilized.
  • Preliminary observation on the number of vertebra in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal)

    Senta, Tetsushi; Kumagai, Shigeru (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 1976)
    The existence of races and/or subpopulation in milkfish, a widely distributed species, is suggested by many workers. Comparison of mean numbers of vertebrae is one of the useful method of distinguishing subpopulations. The present paper reports the results of preliminary studies made on the vertebral counts of milkfish fry collected from several areas. The results obtained, though not conclusive, suggest the scope for further study in the line.

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