• A preliminary report on the gonadal development of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, reared in tank

      Liao, I-Chiu; Chang, Yea-Sha (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976)
      Milkfish is one of the most important food fishes in Taiwan. There are more than 16,000 ha of culture area and over 160 millions of fry are needed for milkfish farming industry every year. The fry are collected from the sea and also imported from other countries. However, due to several environmental factors, there is unpredictable fluctuations in the occurrence of these wild fry. In recent years, the demand for milkfish fry has gone up considerably owing mainly to the fast-growing populations, the natural resources being so limited that there is insufficient supply of stocking materials of this important foodfish. To solve the problem of shortage of milkfish fry, Tungkang Marine Laboratory started the preliminary work on artificial propagation of milkfish in 1970. In addition to capturing wild spawners, the Laboratory has also been raising the adult milkfish in tanks for this objective. After being reared for six years, one male and one female were dissected on 11 April 1976. The male had ripe sperms; the testes weighing 4.63 g with the GSI of 0.12. The gonad of the female weighed 21.20 g with the GSI of 0.66 and part of the ovarian oocytes was found to be at the oil droplet (yolk vesicle) stage. Judging from the condition of maturity of the above female, the feasibility of raising tank-reared spawners was ensured. It is believed that this is the first attempt on the world and is the prelude to successful artificial propagation by using tank-reared milkfish as spawner.
    • A preliminary study on the purified test diet for young milkfish, Chanos chanos

      Lee, Dong-Liang; Liao, I-Chiu (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976)
      In studying the nutritional requirements of young milkfish experiments were conducted to develop a purified test diet. Mixtures of the purified constituents tested were: vitamin-free casein, vitamin-free gelatin, supplemented with L-tryptophan and L-cystine as the protein sources; shark liver oil and soybean oil as the far sources; and dextrin as the carbohydrate source. Mineral mixture and vitamin mixture were also added. The results showed that a test diet containing vitamin-free casein supplemented with L-tryptophan as the protein source was best for the growth of young milkfish. Soybean oil was found to be a better source of fat. Vitamin mixture (4%) and mineral mixture (10%) were observed to promote growth in young milkfish. A purified test diet consisting of vitamin-free casein 60%, L-tryptophan 0.5%, soybean oil 10%, vitamin mixture 4%, mineral mixture 10%, carbohydrate and others 16% was thus suggested for young milkfish.
    • A simple method for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in net enclosures

      May, Robert C.; Akiyama, G. S.; Santerre, M. T. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976)
      A simple method is described for monitoring the spawning activity of fish held in suspended net enclosures. The method, which involves an airlift pump, has been used successfully with the threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, and has revealed important aspects of the daily, monthly and yearly spawning rhythms of this species. It is suggested that this approach may be useful in studies of Chanos chanos.
    • Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of Penaeid shrimps: global perspective

      Bondad-Reantaso, Melba; Pakingking, R. V., Jr.; de Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T.; Acosta, B. O. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2016)
      The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 201214) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the “Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture” identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same. Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water. This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: “EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses” held from 22–24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.
    • An uncertain future for seahorse aquaculture in conservation and economic contexts

      Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Koldewey, Heather J.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      Seahorses (family Syngnathidae, genus Hippocampus) have set precedents globally. They were among the first marine fishes of commercial importance to be listed on both the IUCN Red List and CITES Appendix II. Overfishing and non-selective fishing are two agents in their depletion, so management is clearly needed. We here outline what is known about these fishes and their trade, before considering the potential role the culture and release could play in rebuilding wild populations.
    • Application of DNA-based markers in stock enhancement programs

      Romana-Eguia, Maria Rowena R.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      Aquaculture and fisheries management require tools for identifying individuals or groups of aquatic organisms for the purpose of monitoring performance (growth, survival and behavior) and stock structure. In aquaculture research, commercially important traits of tagged individuals are assessed to generate supportive data for selective breeding, genetic improvement and commercial-scale fish farming. Fisheries management employs identification systems for the evaluation of stock abundance, population dynamics and documentation of wild and hatchery-bred stocks. Stock structure analysis is useful in the planning and implementation of sound stock management and more importantly, in stock enhancement programs. Blankenship and Leber (1995) underscored the inclusion of tagging/marking strategies for released hatchery stocks in the guidelines for responsible marine stock enhancement. Identifying and keeping track of introduced stocks in release habitats allows an assessment of their adaptability in the wild (Allendorf et al., 1988) and the success of the reseeding and/or restocking effort. Although often used interchangeably, the terms ‘tags’ and ‘markers’ differ by definition. Tags are artificial or synthetic materials that are attached to the aquatic organism to allow individual or group identification while markers are traits or characters either applied or inherent to the organism (Thorsteinsson, 2002). Tags/markers are essential in evaluating resource distribution patterns, behavior, migration and movement of stocks, dynamics of exploited aquatic populations and evolutionary processes, all of which comprise baseline information for any stock management, enhancement and conservation program in aquaculture and fisheries (Allendorf et al 1988, Mulvey et al., 1998).
    • ASEAN-SEAFDEC directives related to species of international concern

      Vichitlekarn, Suriyan; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      To achieve sustainable fisheries for food security in the ASEAN region, the Resolution (RES) and Plan of Action (POA) urge the Member Countries to rectify their fisheries practices through improvement of existing fisheries management policy, framework and practices as well as implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), RES and POA. Improvement of fisheries management includes the gradual introduction of decentralized rights-based fisheries and co-management systems, regulation/control of fishing activities, protection/rehabilitation of important aquatic resource habitats, resource/stock enhancement, and so on. In addition, the RES and POA also highlight the need to enhance partnership among Member Countries in the region through the formulation of common positions as well as to increase their participation and involvement in international fora (FAO, CITES, etc.) to safeguard and promote ASEAN interests particularly on issues of international concern. In line with the above general directives, especially in relation to stock enhancement of species under international concern, senior fisheries officials of ASEAN and SEAFDEC have urged proactive approaches in tackling the issues and gave the following directives: 1) To increase support to national initiatives and to facilitate regional cooperation on stock enhancement including identification of concerned species and their status, interaction between concerned species and fishing, and integrated approach and community involvement in management and conservation of aquatic resources; 2) To identify issues/species of international concern and conduct review on status of the issues/species as basis for formulation of fisheries policy as well as common positions among the Member Countries in international fora; 3) To compile information on status and initiatives related to management and conservation of aquatic resources and to disseminate them in appropriate international fora to enhance awareness of the regional situation and seriousness of the issues; 4) To promote appropriate inter-agency coordination on the issues at national and regional levels, and 5) To promote involvement of national fisheries agencies in national/regional/international fora/mechanisms related to utilization and management of aquatic resources.
    • Bibliographical sources on the biology and culture of milkfish, Chanos chanos

      Kuronuma, Katsuzo (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976)
      A comprehensive bibliography of the publications on the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) that was published in 1975 or earlier.
    • Biology and status of aquaculture for giant clams (Tridacnidae) in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan

      Iwai, Kenji; Kiso, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Hirofumi; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      The Ryukyu Islands consist of many islands located between Kyushu in mainland Japan and Taiwan. The islands in the south-western area of the Ryukyu Islands belong to the Okinawa Prefecture. The Ryukyu Islands are strongly affected by the Kuroshio Current and are renowned for their coral reefs with high diversity of tropical and subtropical species. Giant clams traditionally have been utilized as fisheries resources for a long time in this area. According to fisheries statistics, catches of Tridacna crocea in Okinawa have decreased drastically during the last 30 years and currently are less than one tenth of previous catches. Fishing can easily deplete stocks of giant clams because the clams inhabit shallow waters and take at least three years to attain sexual maturity. Techniques for the mass seed production and aquaculture of three species (T. crocea, T. squamosa, and T. derasa) were established in Okinawa. Four hundred thousand seeds of giant clams of 8 mm shell length (SL) are supplied to fishermen for use in aquaculture or stock enhancement every year. This paper will review the (1) biology of giant clams, (2) present status of aquaculture of giant clams in Okinawa, and (3) other studies on giant clams in southern Japan.
    • Capture, transport and domestication of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos

      Vanstone, William E.; Villaluz, Antonio C.; Bombeo, P. E.; Belicano, R. B. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976)
      Methods used in the capture, transport and domestication of adult milkfish are described and illustrated.
    • Chemicals in Asian aquaculture: need, usage, issues and challenges

      Subasinghe, Rohana; Barg, Uwe; Tacon, Albert (2000)
      This paper outlines the opening introductory presentation made at the “Expert Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia,” which was held 20-22 May 1996 at the SEAFDEC facilities in Tigbauan, Iloilo, the Philippines. Its purpose is to provide a balanced and realistic perspective on the needs, issues and challenges with respect to the use of chemicals in Asian aquaculture. We hope to assist participants in identifying development opportunities and in differentiating real hazards from hypothetical threats to cultured organisms, end-users and the environment as a consequence of chemical use. We do not attempt to provide answers to issues related to chemicals in Asian aquaculture, but rather offer some basic directives and opportunities to the workshop participants to assist them in their discussions and in the compilation of realistic recommendations.
    • Community-based stock enhancement of topshell in Honda Bay, Palawan, Philippines

      Gonzales, Benjamin J.; Galon, Wendell M.; Becira, Joel G.; Primavera,, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      In Palawan, Philippines, observed reduction of trochus shell resource in various areas was due to unregulated harvest mainly by compressor (hookah) divers and free diving fishers from other provinces. The latter migrate to Honda Bay for greater livelihood prospects (Gonzales, 2004), increasing the population of coastal communities along the Bay. According to fishers in Honda Bay, their shellfish resources were bountiful until traders and divers from other parts of the country came to Palawan in the 1970s, depleting topshell Trochus niloticus and other species. One of the objectives of Coastal Resource Management (CRM) is the regeneration of depleted resources and their sustainable use. On the other hand, the socio-economic objectives are: a) to alleviate poverty in coastal communities through added income and, b) to encourage responsible use of coastal resources through active participation of coastal communities in decision-making, planning, and implementation. The community-based topshell stock enhancement in Barangay Binduyan was assisted by the Fisheries Resource Management Project (FRMP) of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of the Department of Agriculture (DA-BFAR). The objectives of this paper are to: 1) describe the processes in a community-managed stock enhancement project; 2) document monitoring and evaluation of the project; and 3) give recommendations to improve future community-managed stock enhancement project.
    • Coral culture and transplantation and restocking of giant clams in the Philippines

      Gomez, Edgardo D.; Cabaitan, Patrick C.; Vicentuan, Kareen C.; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      Recently, the Pew Project (2001 to 2005) of the senior author entitled ‘Coral reef habitat and productivity enhancement through coral transplantation and giant clam restocking’ was implemented with the aim to improve the biodiversity and productivity of stressed coral reef habitats in 10 selected demonstration sites in the Philippines. These were meant to serve as models for other communities. Transplantation of corals and reseeding of giant clams were the approaches. Nubbins or small fragments from nearby large coral colonies and abundant solitary forms were transplanted to the target sites. Care was exercised to avoid or reduce any negative impacts on the natural source communities. Only cultured giant clams were used, specifically the threatened Tridacna gigas at sizes that would ensure their chances of survival in the wild (approximately 20-30 cm shell length). Following deployment, monitoring activities were undertaken, focusing on macro-invertebrates and fish, as well as the assessment of the survival and growth of experimental animals. Liaison work was done with local communities to raise their environmental awareness and to ensure their cooperation. This manuscript draws principally from results of the Pew Project. At present, two other restoration projects supported by the European Union and the Global Environment Facility Coral Reef Targeted Research Project are being implemented at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP-MSI) in Pangasinan. These projects are testing the efficiency of floating and standing coral nurseries in growing coral nubbins in addition to transplanting fragments or branches of corals to restore degraded coral reefs.
    • Design, operation and economics of a small-scale hatchery for the larval rearing of sugpo, Penaeus monodon Fab.

      Platon, Rolando R. (Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. Aquaculture DepartmentTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1978)
      One of the major problems in the mass production of sugpo is how to obtain a constant supply of fry. Since ultimately it is the private sector which should produce the sugpo fry to fill the needs of the industry, the Barangay Hatchery Project under the Prawn Program of the Aquaculture Department of SEAFDEC has scaled down the hatchery technology from large tanks to a level which can be adopted by the private sector, especially in the villages, with a minimum of financial and technical inputs. This guide to small-scale hatchery operations is expected to generate more enthusiasm among fish farmers interested in venturing into sugpo culture.
    • Ecological effects of the use of chemicals in aquaculture

      Weston, Donald P. (2000)
      Many aquaculture chemicals are, by their very nature, biocidal, and may be released to the surrounding environment at toxic concentrations either through misuse, or in some cases, even by following generally accepted procedures for use. Thus, there is a potential for mortality of non-target organisms. Illustrations are provided of three classes of aquaculture chemicals and their effects on non-target biota: 1) use of a carbaryl pesticide and mortality of non-target invertebrates; 2) use of an organophosphate parasiticide and suspected effects on nearby biota; and 3) effects of antibacterial residues in aquatic sediments on the associated microbial community. Efforts to assess the risks posed by aquaculture chemicals are often frustrated by a lack of information on environmental fate and effects, and data needs to resolve this situation are identified.
    • Effects of salinity on growth of young milkfish, Chanos chanos

      Hu, Fei; Liao, I-Chiu (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976)
      Growth of young milkfish was studied at different levels of salinity over a period 68 days. Results suggested that young milkfish reared in freshwater or less saline sea water grew faster than in sea water. The increase in body weight was neither due to the increase in water content nor increase in feeding rate. The difference in growth rate might be attributed to the deviation from the original acclimating salinity. Mechanisms of the effect of salinity in retarding or accelerating milkfish growth should be investigated in the future.
    • Endangered fish species and seed release strategies in Vietnam

      Chien, Thai Ngoc; Khanh, Nguyen Huu; Truong, Nguyen Xuan; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      World economic growth has led to considerable changes in the ecosystem in many places and has raised concerns on global resource management particularly aquatic animal resources and their living environment. In Vietnam, aquatic animal resources play an important role in the national economy and are one of the targets for economic development. However, under high population pressure, high demand for seafood has resulted in unfavorable living environment. Aquatic animal resource has been over-exploited and in some places reported to be declining; hence some species have become extinct or endangered. This paper provides a list some endangered freshwater, brackishwater, and marine species. Moreover, the seed production activities and the release strategies for resource conservation of the government of Vietnam are also presented.
    • Fisheries, aquaculture and stock enhancement in Lao PDR

      Choudara, Hanh; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      Fisheries development in Lao PDR is confined to inland fisheries development and sustainable freshwater aquaculture including culture-enhanced capture fisheries and fishery-enhanced aquaculture. Given the potential of water, wetland and aquatic resources and the magnitude of decline in fish catches from the Mekong River and its tributaries, the Government of Lao PDR has given priority to fisheries development with strong concern for sustainable aquaculture. The overall policy framework is therefore geared toward the sustainable use, appropriate management and protection of natural resources: forest, land and water resource including aquatic biodiversity. The national goal for fisheries development during the last decade was focused on how to increase fish production from aquaculture while maintaining capture fisheries, recognizing that about 50% of the dietary protein of Lao people comes from living aquatic resources which are important for food security of the nation.
    • Fishery stock enhancement in Malaysia

      Ibrahim, Kamarruddin; Ilias, Zaidnuddin; Primavera, J. H.; Quinitio, E. T.; Eguia, M. R. R. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterTigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2006)
      Species extinction is a global issue that requires all nations to practice sustainable management. This paper aims to examine the status of endangered fisheries species in Malaysia, and highlight some resource management initiatives including the restocking and stock enhancement program in the country. Its scope covers only aquaculture-based species, which is in line with the Program on Stock Enhancement for Species of International Concern being implemented by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center/Aquaculture Department in the Philippines.
    • Information-Seeking Behavior (ISB) of IAMSLIC Members in Response to a Query

      Superio, Daryl L.; Oliveros, Mary Grace H.; Palcullo, Vince Ervin V. (2018)
      Using a three-part survey instrument, a quantitative study was conducted to determine the information-seeking behavior of the members of the International Association of Aquatic and Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC) in response to queries. Specifically, the study aimed to determine if aquatic science librarians, like other professionals, would opt to go to the Internet first rather than library databases when searching for information (Jamali & Asadi, 2010; Niu et al., 2010; and Superio et al., 2018). Likewise, the study documented the most commonly used websites, open access databases, and repositories used by the respondents. All of the IAMSLIC members were included in the study. An online survey instrument was used. After 40 days, 76 valid responses had been received. Findings of the study revealed that regardless of the librarians’ gender, age, educational attainment, position or designation, regional group affiliation, and library type, they would prefer to use their library’s online public access catalog (OPAC) first when searching for information. Moreover, Aquatic Commons, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics (FAO Stat), and OceanDocs were the most commonly accessed open access databases and repositories. IAMSLIC established the Aquatic Commons, so it was no surprise that it was the most frequently accessed repository by the IAMSLIC member librarians. The results also suggest that academic social-networking sites (SNS), specifically ResearchGate and Google Scholar, were essential search tools for some of the respondents. Google Scholar has made searching and retrieval of scholarly articles easy.