Recent Submissions

  • Bacteria from seawater used in Penaeus monodon larval cultures

    Llobrera, Alcestis T.; Gacutan, R. Q. (1977)
    Bacteria in the seawater used in P. monodon hatchery operations were isolated on Bachmann's agar. The total plate counts in 25 isolations ranged from 1.0 - 5.0 x 102 to 5.1 -10.0 x 105 cells per ml. Out of 124 isolates, 98 (79 percent) were Gram-positive and 26 (21 percent) were Gram-negative. Micrococcus and Staphylococcus were dominant in the former group, while Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Flavobacterium and Alcaligenes were most numerous in the latter. Twenty-nine of the Gram-positive isolates closely resembled Peptostreptococcus, Planococcus, and Pediococcus.
  • Reduction in Chaetoceros populations by furanace

    Baticados, Ma. Cecilia L.; Gacutan, R. Q. (1977)
    One of the most promising prophylactic agents being tested to control Penaeus monodon larval diseases is furanace (6-hydroxymethyl-2 2(5-nitro-2-furyl) vinyl pyridine). To evaluate further its suitability as a chemotherapeutic agent, its effects on the population growth of Chaetoceros calcitrans, the diatom used as feed for the zoeal stages, was examined. Chaetoceros populations of uniform density (initial density in all runs: 130-141x10 -3 cells /ml) were placed in nine white, circular (382 sq cm), plastic basins. The physio-chemical characteristics of the culture water were as follows: salinity, 28 . 5-30 . 0 ppt; pH, 8 . 62-8 . 72; temperature, 23-25 . 5 degree C; dissolved oxygen, 7 . 1-9 . 3 ppm; nitrate, 0 . 03-0 . 07 ppm; and ammonia, 0 . 005-0 . 03 ppm. Preweighed furanace granules were dissolved in the culture water, with resulting concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/l (3 replicates each). A set of replicates without furanace served as the control. Population counts of the diatom were taken after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hr exposures. After 4 hr, the population decreased in all three levels. The population in 2 mg/l furanace showed the lowest count and that in control the highest. The population means are not statistically different from one another. The results of the study show that the furanace causes reductions in Chaetoceros population at all durations of exposure.
  • Tolerance of Penaeus monodon larvae to cupric sulfate added in bath

    Canto, Jose Jr., T. (1977)
    Copper is used to deter the growth of bacterial, fungal and protozoan disease organism in fishes. Zoeae (Z1), myses (M1) and postlarvae (P1) were exposed to copper sulfate at concentrations of 0 . 025, 0 . 05, 0 . 75, 0 . 1 and 0 . 2 ppm from 24 to 96 hours. The number of surviving larvae were counted at the end of each 24-hour period and the percentage of survival is determined for each dose level. The LC SUB-50 for each of the larval stages was interpolated from the data whenever possible. Three trials with 2 replicates per trial were conducted. The physico-chemical characteristics of the bath taken before and at the end of the experimental period show insignificant differences between initial and final values in each trial. Results indicate that mortality rates of all larval stages increased with exposure time and that mortality rates of the experimental group is higher than the control. Interpolation of the LC SUB-50 is possible only for the 48-h and 72-h exposure times for both zoeae and myses and for the 48-h exposure time for the postlarvae. This is due to the high survival percentage of the 24-h group and the low survival percentage (below 50%) of the larvae exposed for 96 hours. The 48-hour LC50 for Z1, M1 and P1 are 0 . 225, 0 . 350 and 0 . 125 ppm respectively. Postlarvae seem to be more sensitive than either of the 2 larval stages having a lower 48-h LC50 and a low survival rate after 72 hours. The larvae were observed to lose their balance and were lethargic, producing few swimming movements so that they were mostly confined to the bottom of the aquaria. Moribund larvae observed under the microscope had a faster but weak heartbeat compared to healthy larvae. Slight or complete loss of feeding ability indicated by empty guts and delayed molting of Z1 to Z 2 were also noted.
  • Effect of furanace on the development of larval stages of Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Gacutan, Rogelio Q.; Llobrera, Alcestis T. (1977)
    Zoea 2 (Z2), Mysis 1 (M1) and Postlarva 1 (P1) of P. monodon artificially spawned in closed-system concrete hatchery tanks were bioassayed for their tolerance to the antibiotic furanace. The setup consisted of four 20-liter capacity plastic basins previously conditioned for 15 days with freshwater in full sunlight. During the experiment, each basin was filled with 5 liters of seawater to which was added filtered Chaetoceros and Brachionus to give densities of 5 . 0-7 . 5 x 10-4 cells/ml and 10-20 individuals/ml, respectively. The following are the properties of the water used throughout the experiments: salinity, 26-32%; pH, 7 . 3-8 . 4; temperature, 25-30 degree C; dissolved oxygen, 4 . 5-8 . 4 ppm; nitrite, 0 . 36-0 . 99 ppm; and ammonia, 0 . 10-0 . 30 ppm. To each basin were added 50 healthy larvae of specific stages of P. monodon. After an initial acclimation of one hour in the medium, preweighed amounts of the antibiotic were added and thoroughly dissolved. The concentrations tested were 1 . 0, 2 . 0 and 3 . 0 ppm. One basin always served as control. After 24 hours of exposure, the surviving population in each basin was counted. The survivors were then examined thoroughly under the microscope for unusual behavior and morphological defects brought about by the exposure. To minimize wide variations in the medium as a result of feeding and other manipulations, the systems were all prepared at 9:00 a.m. each time, and the feeds on two instances, one at 5:00 p.m. and another at 5:00 a.m. Fifteen trials conducted with Z2 showed survival ranges of 68% to 98% with a mean of 77 . 6% in the controls; 32% to 94% with a mean of 65 . 7% at 1 ppm, and 0% to 56% with a mean of 36.5% at 2 ppm. There were no survivors at 3 ppm. Interpolation from the survival-dose curve gave a 24-hr LC50 of approximately 1.6 ppm.
  • A suctorean parasite of Penaeus monodon larvae

    Gacutan, R. Q.; Llobrera, A. T.; Santago, C. B.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Lio, G. (1977)
    A new disease caused by a suctorean has been observed in tank-spawned and reared P. monodon larvae. Identification of the etiologic agent pointed to Ephelota gemmipara R. Hertwig, a species commonly found to inhabit hydroid colonies.
  • Identification and culture of common diatoms as possible feed for Penaeus monodon

    Pimoljinda, Thanom (1977)
    Diatoms were collected from Buyuan Bay, and from the hatchery tanks at Tigbauan, to determine the commonly occurring species, the feasibility of culturing these species, and the potential of these selected species as food for larval P. monodon. The commonly occurring diatoms were identified as Chaetoceros calcitrans, Navicula grimmei, Nitzchia seriata, Nitzchia closterium and Amphiprora sp. These diatoms were isolated and unialgal cultures prepared. Protein content analysis using the micro-Kjildahl method gave the following result: C. calcitrans, 11 . 78%; Nitzchia seriata, 25%; Nitzchia closterium, 30 . 5%; Navicula grimmei, 9 . 06% and Amphiprora sp. 8 . 96%. Feeding experiments were conducted to determine acceptability of the different diatom species and percentage survival of larval stages Z SUB-1 -M SUB-2 . Larvae were placed in 4-l capacity plastic containers with a stocking density of 10/l. The results of several feeding trials using the different mass-produced diatoms are summarized. From the data gathered, C. calcitrans appears to be the most promising candidate as feed for zoea and mysis stages of P. monodon. The average percentage survival of C. calcitrans was 63 . 76% for the 3 trials, and as high as 82 . 22% in the third trial. Comparatively high percentage survival of larvae was also recorded when Nitzchia seriata (48 . 17%) and Nitzchia closterium (67 . 6%) were given as feed, while both Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei gave 0% survival. The poor results with Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei may be due to their low protein content (8 . 96% and 9 . 06%, respectively) and the inability of the larvae to ingest them. Navicula and Amphiprora were observed to cling to the appendages of the larvae and to settle down in the medium making them unavailable to the larvae. Low survival was also noted when frozen C. calcitrans was used (14 . 25%). This may be due partly to the effect of the floculating agent (ALSO SUB-4 . 25 g/l) used in concentrating the diatoms. When protein contents of C. calcitrans, N. seriata and N. closterium are compared, the 2 Nitzchia species have relatively higher protein contents than C. calcitrans and, therefore, could be the more desirable feed candidates. However, few feeding trials were made using Nitzchia so that additional investigations will have to be done on this aspect.