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  • Improved smoking process of squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana)

    Doncillo, Leonora D.; Racuyal, Jesus T. (2017)
    The process of smoking squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) locally known as “Bakag” was enhanced. Chilling and marinating of squid mantle before smoking was introduced to improve taste and texture. The acceptable product was determined through sensory evaluation using a 5 -point hedonic scale rating. Chemical and microbial properties were determined using the standard method of analysis. Smoked squid which was chilled before smoking and those flavoured with Sprite soda was the most acceptable. The microbiological test revealed levels within acceptable limits.
  • Biophysical profile of Lutao Reef in 2007

    Diocton, Renato C.; Celmar, Raul B.; Mabonga, Danilo A.; Severo, Ricardo, Jr.; Garcia, Aaron D.; Taon, Dante G.; de Guzman, Fernando R. (2017)
    Coral reefs are one of the most productive marine ecosystems that helps replenish fish stocks in the sea. Samar, Philippines relies so much on marine products as the main source of food and livelihood, thus care of its reef is very important. There are several reefs in the bays and seas of Samar with Lutao Reef as the largest for the City of Catbalogan. The barrier reef is estimated to be 1.6 km long and 0.25 km width covering an area of about 37.64 hectares. Despite being a protected habitat since 1996, the reef shows a certain level of degradation attributed to some destructive fishing, gleaning of important marine resource, and practices such as improper waste disposals causing damage to the corals in the reef. Non-biodegradable waste clings on to the coral reef were observed. Only about ¾ is covered with about 13 genres of live corals mostly of Acropora genre. About 10% of the reef corals are dead, some exhibits coral bleaching. A total of 43 species of fish were identified with nine dominant species namely; Pomacentrus trilineatus, Pomacentrus richardsoni, Plotosus lineatus, Cheilodipterus novemstriatus, Abudefduf vaigiensis, Pterocaesio tile, Neoglyphidodon melas, Abudefduf sexfasciatus, and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus with numbers varying monthly. There are signs of slow phase of recovery which can be enhanced with strong intervention from the authorities and the people.
  • Bamboo tray module mussel farming

    Cebu, Emilio H. (2016)
    Mussel farming technologies such as staking and wigwam methods have been practiced in Maqueda Bay area in more than three decades already. They were observed to have no improvement in terms of production capacities due to inefficient use the bamboo poles as artificial substrate and could not withstand wind-induced waves due to typhoon. The Bamboo Tray Module was developed to improve farm productivity, efficient use of material and resistance to typhoons. This innovation has been tested in almost three years and compared its performance with the staking method in mussel farming. It was found out and concluded that the performance of the Bamboo Tray Module is more efficient in terms productivity, use of bamboo materials and resistant to typhoon and big waves compared to the staking and wigwam methods. This new technology in mussel farming will serve as an option to the recurring industry and environmental problem in Maqueda Bay area. Paradigm shift in mussel farming technology and policy redirection towards a sustainable environment were recommended.
  • Seawater physicochemical parameters in the green mussel belts in Samar Philippines

    Cebu, Emilio H.; Orale, Ronald L. (2017)
    Samar’s bays are among the few areas where green mussel thrives making it one of the major sources in the country. In 2007, Samar green mussel industry was almost wiped out due to mass mortality of the bivalve. Its survival depends on many variables, one of which is the environmental parameters such as salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, chlorophyll, water current, and depth. This paper presents the characteristics of the green mussel belts including the seawater physicochemical parameters as well as a qualitative assessment of water quality from 2004 to 2013 as observed by 92 residents. Results have shown that during normal conditions, the bays the mussel belts are sandy to sandy-muddy substrates. The seabed especially near river mouths are heavily silted and have dark muddy substrates believed to be carried by river waters. During heavy precipitation, the water in the bays changes to brown color. Contaminated water flows from agricultural farms as well as fish ponds. Communities along the river and the coast of the bays dispose their domestic wastes directly into the body of water. The physicochemical parameter varies from in the three bays studied attributed to the different configuration of the bay. Average seawater temperature, salinity, DO, and pH is 26.56oC, 32.13 ppt, 7.03 ppm and 7.32 respectively. The variation is attributed to the volume of water flowing into the bays and the bay's configuration. Residents believe that seawater quality was at its worst state in the years 2007 and 2008 and have improved since then.
  • Rock mounds as rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata von Born, 1778) bed in an intertidal zone

    Racuyal, Jesus T.; Mabonga, Danilo A.; Roncesvalles, Edgar R. (2016)
    Rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) or “sisi” are mostly gleaned from natural beds usually in a distant island. This limits the access and put gleaners, mostly women to risks. There is high demand of rock oyster and supply from the wild is not enough. There are various methods that have been tested to improve supply of raw materials however there have been no success. The paper explored the use of rock mounds as oyster bed in the intertidal zone of Catbalogan City. The peak of spawning in the rock mounds occurred in May. The length-width measurements were ranging from L=1.50-5.99 and W=1.0-5.49 cm, respectively; with mean L = 3.815cm; mean W=3.003cm. With a total surface area of 322.85 m², it produced a biomass at ~ 38.243kgs. Dominance and diversity indices were determined from a total of 62 quadrat samples. Overall mean of rock oyster settlements was at 328.2/m² with 99% relative abundance from a total of 20,546 individual samples, rock mounds were considered as effective growing cultch. The results also showed that it created relatively new biotic community, but Shannon diversity index (H’) ~0.071, and evenness index (e) ~0.028, showed <1.0, low value of indices of the community structure. Rock mounds are proven to be a better alternative in rock oyster farming. It was also found out that it also acted as coastal protection structure, serving as a breakwater.
  • Effect of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) and by-catch fish feeding on the growth, production and nutrient composition of mudcrab (Scylla serrata) in ponds

    Severo, Ricardo, Jr.; Amparado, Lolito O.; Amparado, Ma. Luningning L. (2016)
    The culture of mud crab (Scylla serrata) was carried out at the Brackishwater Fishpond of Samar State University Mercedes Campus, Catbalogan City. Nine net enclosures, each with 50 m2 area were stocked with crablets (25 g. average body weight) at 1 crablet/m2 and raised for 120 days. The study consisted of three treatments, as follows: Treatment I (fed with apple snail), Treatment II (fed with apple snail + by - catch fish combination), and Treatment III (fed with by - catch fish). Results showed that after 120 days, the highest final mean weight of 471.59 g was obtained in Treatment II, followed by 442.04 g in Treatment III and 424.27 g in Treatment I. Mean daily weight increments (g/crab/day) for Treatments I, II and III were 3.33 g; 3.72 g and 3.47 g, respectively. Survival rates were 45.67% (Treatment II and III) and 45.33% (Treatment I). Mean yield of 2,185.60 (Treatment II), 2,027.67 (Treatment III), and 1,887.27 kg/ha (Treatment I) do not differ significantly (P 0.05). However, final mean weights, mean daily weight increments, and percentage survival do not differ significantly (P 0.05) among treatments. Apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is a potential feed source for mud crabs or it could be administered in combination with by - catch fish. In order to improve production mortality rates should be reduced.
  • Crabbing into an uncertain future: the blue swimming crab fisher in coastal town of Eastern Philippines

    Cabrales, Pedro; Racuyal, Jesus; Mañoza, Alfredo (2012)
    This research project sought to find out the socio-economic status of the small-scale fishers of the blue swimming crab (Portunuspelagicus) in Samar, considering the diminishing volume of catch of the species in the recent years. Using a blend of quantitative and qualitative methods, the study employed an interview schedule, focus group discussion (FGD) and observation in collecting data not only from the fishers but also from other sectors directly involved in the blue swimming crab industry.
  • Traditional practices of fermenting small rock oysters (Sacosstrea sp.) "Sisi"

    Patosa, Florabelle; Doncillo, Leonora; Diocton, Renato; Gomba, Felisa; Orale, Ronald (2014)
    The fermented product from small rock oyster (Sacosstrea sp.) locally known, 'Sisi' is an essential source of livelihood in Zumarraga, Samar. Key informant interviews, ocular observation and focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted to find out the traditional practices used in producing 'Sisi'. Salient findings showed that non-standardized processing of Sisi was practiced, thus limiting the revenues derived from this marginalized industry. Furthermore, 'Sisi' has high ash content with high microbial count which indicates that there are some colonies that grow in the mixture. Hence, there is a need to standardize the methods applied in producing fermented small rock oyster 'Sisi'.
  • Socio-economic profile of the Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) beneficiaries in Jiabong, Samar, Philippines

    Enate, Rholyna T.; Diocton, Renato C.; Macopia, Janet L. (2013)
    A total of 37 beneficiaries under the Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) was interviewed using the structured survey questionnaire of Socioeconomic Monitoring Guidelines for Coastal Managers in Southeast Asia (SocMon SEA). Most of the members of the households are young and in-school. Household heads’ primary occupation is fishing, a shift from mussel farming- the town’s major industry in the past decades. Perceived threat by the beneficiaries is related to the environment specifically typhoon and the problems on waste disposal. It also identified law enforcement as weak leading to dwindling fish catch, mass mortality of mussel, red tide and other problems affecting their primary sources of income. However, they could not relate these phenomena to the most likely causes. The current occupation does not provide sufficient income for the family as they seek for alternative jobs. Garbage and poor implementation of laws are among the identified problems of the beneficiaries.