Recent Submissions

  • Brachial veins: a new site for blood collection in sea lions

    Sobrado-López, A. (2013)
    Este es el primer estudio realizado para colectar sangre en lobos marinos entrenados. Se lleva a cabo de forma voluntaria y se obtiene una sangre de calidad, en poco tiempo utilizando la vena braquial.
  • Condición de los arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Guanahacabibes, Cuba.

    Perera-Valderrama, S.; Alcolado, P.M.; Caballero-Aragón, H.; Guardia-Llansó, E.; Cobián-Rojas, D. (2013)
    En el 2007 se evaluó el estado de salud de los arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Guanahacabibes, Cuba, sobre la base de la condición de las comunidades de corales. Se analizaron indicadores de condición de los corales escleractinios (diámetro máximo, riqueza de especies, enfermedades y mortalidad) a distintas profundidades, en 13 estaciones con diferentes niveles de exposición a los principales fenómenos océano-atmosféricos generadores de oleaje en el área (vientos nortes, sures y alisios). Se identificaron 42 especies de corales pétreos. Las más abundantes fueron: Siderastrea siderea, Montastraea faveolata, Agaricia agaricites y Porites astreoides. El promedio de cobertura de coral vivo varió entre 4.8% y 31.2%, con un promedio general de 17%. El análisis integrado de todos los indicadores de condición de las comunidades de corales sugirió la existencia de dos áreas diferenciadas según la exposición a los vientos y el consecuente efecto del oleaje y los sedimentos. La primera área abarcó el este de la Bahía de Corrientes (entre Uvero Quemado y Cuevas de Pedro), la más resguardada, y donde los indicadores biológicos sugieren un ambiente más favorable. La segunda comprendió la parte occidental más expuesta (entre Veral y Faro Roncali), que presentó la mayor cobertura relativa del conjunto de especies resistentes a la sedimentación, especialmente en 10 y 15 m de profundidad. Estos resultados indican que los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Guanahacabibes no escapan del proceso de degradación que afrontan la mayoría de los arrecifes de la región del Caribe.
  • Dos especies del género Uraspis de la costa norte de la Habana.

    Duarte-Bello, P.P. (1961)
    Amplia descripción y fotografías de las especies.
  • Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal

    Baisre, J. A. (2013)
    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices.
  • Caballitos de mar, joyas en peligro.

    Pérez, A.; de la Nuez, D.; Piloto, Y.; Pastor, L.; González, E. (Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera y Alimenticia, 2009)
    De forma breve se describe la biología de la especie, hábitats, distribución geográfica, su reproducción, la situación en cuanto a CITES y a la Lista Roja de UICN, y, para concluir lugares de Cuba en los cuales se estudian las especies que habitan en las costas del país.
  • Assessment of nitrogen flows into the Cuban landscape

    Baisre, J. A. (2006)
    The alteration of the nitrogen (N) cycle by human activities is widespread and has often resulted in increased flows of nitrogen to the marine environment. In this paper we have attempted to know the changes of N fluxes in Cuba by quantifying the N inputs to the landscape from (1) fertilizer applications, (2) atmospheric deposition, (3) biological nitrogen fixation and (4) net import of food and feeds. N-inputs to the country progressively increased until the end of the 20th century, reaching a peak during the 80s when low cost fertilizer imported from the former Soviet Union led to heavy rates of application. This rapid growth represented more than a 5-fold increase with respect to pristine values; higher than the two-fold global increase of anthropogenic N reported by Vitousek et al. (1997 Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol. Appl. 7:737-750). Inorganic fertilizer was the largest single source of reactive N, followed by atmospheric deposition, biological fixation, and net imports of foods and feedstocks. Nitrogen inputs peaked in 1987 and data expressed on an area basis show that N flux to the Cuban landscape, in the 80s, was one of the highest reported in the literature. During the 90s, there was a dramatic drop in nitrogen inputs mainly associated to a decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizer. Other factors reducing nutrient inflows to Cuba, during the same period, were imports of foodstuff and livestock feeds, a decrease of nitrogen oxide emissions, and a decrease in the sugar cane crop area. Using an empirical relationship (Howarth et al. 1996 Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & O fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35:75-139) we present a very preliminary estimate of N-inputs to coastal waters and discuss the consequences of these changes on the coastal zone.
  • Going against the flow: Effects of river damming in Cuban fisheries

    Baisre, J. A.; Arboleya, A. (2006)
    Over the last decade eutrophication of freshwater artificial reservoirs in Cuba occurred in parallel to oligotrophication of estuarine and coastal waters. These two processes influenced both freshwater and marine fisheries. A dramatic shift in species composition in freshwater fisheries has occurred, from dominance by cichlids (tilapia) to dominance by cyprinids. The high fishery yield from some reservoirs, and shift in species composition, seems related to progressive eutrophication of reservoirs by nutrient subsidies from different anthropogenic activities; particular those related to the size of urban areas within their watersheds. On the other hand, marine landings of estuarine-dependent species declined more significantly than for other groups associated with seagrass beds–coral reefs and oceanic waters. The ratio between catches of estuarine-dependent species and those associated with seagrass beds and coral reefs, decreased significantly over the last 20 years. The decrease in landings was more evident in typical estuarine species, such as shrimps (Litopenaeus schmitti and Farfantopenaeus notialis), mangrove oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and mullets (Mugil spp.). River damming increased during the same period and is significantly correlated with these decreases. It is hypothesized that two different processes acted synergistically, leading to dramatic decreases of several orders of magnitude, in the catches of estuarine species over the last decade: the trapping of nutrients and sediments by river damming, and a drastic reduction in nutrient inputs from land-based sources due to reduced fertilizer use. These are postulated to have affected not only estuarine resources, but also the whole coastal ecosystem.
  • Historical development of Cuban fisheries: why we need an integrated approach to fisheries management?

    Baisre, J. A. (Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 2007)
    Un análisis de los datos arqueológicos e históricos sobre la pesca en Cuba muestra que el impacto de la población aborigen sobre los recursos pesqueros no fue significativo debido a su baja densidad poblacional y a las tecnologías de pesca. El interés por el oro, el tamaño de la población, las limitaciones tecnológicas para la pesca y preservación de las capturas así como las preferencias dietéticas de los españoles todas indican que la pesca tampoco fue una actividad económica importante durante los tres siglos que siguieron a la llegada de Colón. Las preferencias por la carne de res y el bacalao salado y la baja tasa de crecimiento poblacional durante el período colonial determinaron que la mayor parte de los recursos pesqueros, con la excepción del manatí y las tortugas marinas, permanecieran prácticamente inexplorados durante varios siglos después de la Conquista. Los datos estadísticos e históricos revelan que la pesca experimentó un rápido crecimiento desde 1950 y este patrón parece ser una característica común en el Caribe así como en otras partes del mundo. Las presiones sobre la vida marina fueron más evidentes en la segunda mitad del siglo xx cuando el crecimiento poblacional, las mejoras tecnológicas y las demandas del mercado aceleraron el sector pesquero así como la urbanización en la mayoría de los países del caribe.
  • Desove inducido en el caballerote (Lutjanus griseus Linné, 1758) en condiciones de laboratorio

    González, E.; Damas, T.; Millares, N.; Borrero, M. (1979)
    The aim of this work was to induce spawning in the gray snapper under laboratory conditions using Human Chorionic (H.G.G).
  • Desove inducido en la biajaiba (Lutjanus synagris Linné, 1758)

    Millares, N.; Borrero, M.; Damas, T.; González, E. (1979)
    El trabajo tuvo como objetivo provocar el desove en el caballerote en condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando la hormona Gonadrotopina Coroniónica Humana (HGC).
  • Desove inducido en Eugerres plumieri (Patao) en condiciones de laboratorio

    Millares, N.; Borrero, M.; González, E. (1979)
    Este trabajo refleja el resultado de las investigaciones realizadas en la inducción al desove de Eugerres plumieri en el periodo comprendido de junio a noviembre de 1976. Se determinó el rango de dosis efectiva de utilizando la hormona Gonadrotopina Coroniónica Humana (HGC), para obtener experimentalmente el desove, fertilización y desarrollo embrionario. Se efectuaron 4 ciclos experimentales donde fueron tratadas 35 hembras, de las cuales podemos considerar como representativas del experimento a 19 de las mismas. De ellas, 3 respondieron completamente al tratamiento hormonal. Las dosis efectivas para inducir al desove y obtener huevos fértiles y larvas son de 3,2 a 3,1 U.I. por g de peso de cuerpo del pez. No se encontraron diferencias entre los índices gonadosomáticos I.E. de las hembras sacrificadas antes 1,8 % y después del desove 1,7 %.
  • Caracterización cuantitativa y cualitativa del zooplancton en la Ensenada de la Broa

    González, E.; Alfonso, I. (1982)
    Se presentan los resultados obtenidos de una caracterización cuantitativa y cualitativa del zooplancton de la Ensenada de la Broa durante 9 cruceros de investigación, efectuados en el periodo de abril 1979 a febrero de 1980. Los meses de junio a julio resultaron los de mayor abundancia, con densidades promedios de de más de 3000 organismos por m¯ ³. Se reporta diferencia significativa entre las medias de concentración de organismos correspondientes a los meses: diciembre, enero, febrero y el resto de los meses. Se señala a la zona más productiva de la Ensenada de la Broa a la comprendida entre Playa Rosario y la Tasajera. Con más de 2 700 org./ m¯ ³.
  • El Acuario Nacional de Cuba: ciencia y educación ambiental.

    García-Montero, G.; Montolio-Fernández, M. A.; Serrano-Jeréz, M. de los A. (2012)
  • A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta) from the Atlantic Ocean: Loxosomella cubana n. sp.

    Varela, C.; Tierno-de-Figueroa, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L. (2011)
    A new species of Entoprocta belonging to the genus Loxosomella is described: L. cubana n. sp. It has been found on the coast of Cuba living as an epizoite on the sponge Aiolochroia crassa. It is one of the largest Loxosomatidae described up to now and the first record of an entoproct for Cuba.
  • Una especie nueva de la familia Artotrogidae (Copepoda : Siphonostomatoida ) de Cuba.

    Varela, C. (2012)
    A new species of copepod belonging to the genus Bradypontius Giesbrecht, 1895, collected in the South Central region of Cuba is described. This is the first record of the family Artotrogidae Brady, 1880, for the Caribbean Sea.
  • Intraspecific variation in the advertisement call of the cloud-forest frog Eleutherodactylus glamyrus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    Rodríguez, A.; de la Nuez, D.; Alonso, R. (2010)
    We analyzed variation in the advertisement calls among three localities of Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a frog endemic to the Sierra Maestra mountains in Eastern Cuba. We assessed the levels of withinmale variation of each call property and the influence of temperature and size of calling male on acoustical features. The typical single-note advertisement call of the species was described using temporal and spectral parameters. Rise time and frequency modulation were highly variable within individuals, whereas dominant frequency and call duration were the most stereotyped properties. Call rate showed an intermediate level of variation. Air temperature strongly influenced call rate and call group duration. Snout–vent length (SVL) strongly influenced dominant frequency and rise time. Localities differed in call rate, call duration, and rise time. This acoustic differentiation might be the result of past divergences arising from a distribution gap between the two mountain massifs surveyed. Because acoustical features are increasingly used in interspecific or intraspecific comparisons in the genus Eleutherodactylus, we encourage researchers to assess whether temperature or SVL have sufficiently important effects on their data and use statistical procedures to remove these confounding factors. The multinote call of the species is quantitatively described for the first time. This call type resembles that of other members of the genus and probably carries an aggressive message.
  • Noticia sobre un Lepidocybium flavobrunneum pescado en Cuba.

    Duarte-Bello, P. P. (1961)
    El que se ilustra en esta publicación es el 12mo. y el de mayor tamaño que se publica en el mundo hasta ahora, la 4ta. noticia para el Atlántico, la 2da. para Cuba, y el primer individuo completo que se ha pescado en nuestros mares.
  • Lack of mtDNA differentiation among hamlets (Hypoplectrus, Serranidae).

    García-Machado, E.; Chevalier, P.; Solignac, M. (2003)
    The hamlets are a group of vividly colored fish species of the Serranidae family differentiated only by the color pattern of the body. Although there are divergent views about hamlet taxonomy, experimental and field observations have shown a strong assortative mating, justifying a species status for the different color morphs. Here we analyze the level of evolutionary divergence among six species in respect of mitochondrial DNA, with a view to contrasting the pattern observed with color partitions and previous results obtained with isozymes. The estimated molecular distance among species was low and of the same magnitude as nucleotide diversity within species. Consequently, the net distance and hence the time of divergence between taxa was virtually zero in most comparisons. Although not critically tested, haplotype distribution showed no clear phylogeographic structure,and in many cases the most closely related haplotypes were found at different geographical locations. The absence of differentiated clades between species, based on mitochondrial DNA and isozyme analysis, may have one of two possible origins: a very recent differentiation of species or a lack of absolute barriers to gene flow.However, the available information is insufficient to determine the effect of one or the other, and may require supplementary information from other genes as well as experiments on hybrid fertility. Finally, based on some biological evidence, we suggest that self-fertilization may be an interesting phenomenon to be tested in Hypoplectrus.
  • Actividad antileishmanial de seis extractos de organismos marinos

    García Parra, M.; Monzote Fidalgo, C.L.; Castañeda Pasarón, C.O.; García Delgado, N.; Pérez Hernández, A. (2012)
    Introducción: las infecciones causadas por protozoos del género Leishmania constituyen un problema de salud mundial con una alta prevalencia en países subdesarrollados. En la actualidad no existe una vacuna contra esta enfermedad y el tratamiento utilizado es deficiente, por lo que la búsqueda de medicamentos más efectivos y seguros constituye una urgente necesidad. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad antileishmanial in vitro de 6 extractos acuosos e hidroalcohólicos de organismos marinos. Métodos: se determinó la actividad frente a promastigotes y amastigotes de Leishmania amazonensis, así como su toxicidad frente a macrófagos peritoneales de ratones BALB/c. Resultados: en el ensayo de promastigotes los extractos de Bryothamnion triquetrum, Bunodosoma granulifera, Halimeda opuntia, y Physalia physalis mostraron una inhibición del crecimiento a concentraciones menores de 100 μg/mL; mientras que frente a amastigotes, estos 2 últimos extractos fueron los más activos y menos tóxicos con un índice de selectividad de 6 y 8, respectivamente. Conclusiones: teniendo en cuenta estos resultados se consideró que los extractos de H. opuntia y P. physalis mostraron una promisoria actividad, por lo que se sugiere continuar los estudios de su actividad in vivo
  • Reclutamiento de corales pétreos en arrecifes coralinos a diferentes distancias de fuentes de contaminación en La Habana, Cuba

    Alcolado Prieto, P.; Caballero Aragón, H.; Alcolado, P. M.; Lopeztegui Castillo, A. (2012)
    The effect of pollution on coral recruitment has been insufficiently studied. This research deals with coral recruitment in coastal areas and aimed to determine the variations of density and dominant species of corals recruits in sites at different distances from pollution sources. The composition and structure of stony coral (scleractinian and milleporids) recruit associations were characterized in the fringing reef of Western Havana, Cuba. This reef is influenced by urban pollution from the Almendares River and a sewage outlet located at its mouth. Four sites were sampled on the upper fore reef escarpment at 10m deep every three months between July 2007 and May 2008. A 25cm side quadrat was used to determine the density and taxonomic composition of recruits smaller than 3cm in diameter. Sampling units were placed following a random-systematic pattern. The mean density of recruits was determined both at assemble and species level. Bifactoral ANOVA tests were applied to compare mean densities at both sampling sites and dates. Student-Newman-Keuls test was applied to compare pairs of means. Cluster and nMDS analyses were applied to evaluate between site similarities. The predominant species was Siderastrea siderea followed by S. radians and Porites astreoides. Recruit densities were similar among La Puntilla, Calle 16 and Acuario sites. Lower densities were always found in Malecón. Significant differences in mean stony recruit densities were found both between sites and sampling dates. The statistic analysis did not show significant spatial-temporal interactions. Malecón, the most polluted site, showed the lowest recruit density and the greater presence of species considered as indicators of organic pollution, sedimentation and abrasion. The density of recruit species was higher in October 2007 and lower in May 2008, and it was apparently influenced by reproduction and cold front seasons, respectively. The higher dominance and abundance of S. siderea, S. radians and P. astreoides recruits were apparently due to their high reproductive potential and resistance to disturbances. The identity of dominant species was apparently related to distance from major pollution sources. We highly recommended the replication of this research in other areas of the greater Caribbean region to test the generality of present results and to compare among areas. Future research should take into account the influence of other environmental factors, along with an appraisal of recruit species tolerance to these factors, to better ponder the effect of urban pollution on recruitment. Areas with well assessed pollution regimes are recommended for research.

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