• Influence of different diets on length and biomass production of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Kellog, 1906).

      García-Ulloa, M.; Gamboa-Delgado, J.; Zabala-Aguirre, J.L.; Ogura-Fujii, T.; Lavens, P. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 1999)
      Total length and biomass production of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were studied fed on soybean and wheat micropulverized meals (applied alone or mixed at different proportions), live microalgae (Tetraselmis suecica and Chaetoceros calcitrans), and dried Spirulina as diets. Eight diets were tested in triplicates during 10 days. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed from day 1 onwards. The mixed meal-based diets showed better production results. At day 1, the Artemia nauplii fed on the 70% wheat meal/ 30% soya meal diet were 30% longer compared to the animals from the C. calcitrans group. At day 10, the organisms fed with the 100% soya meal diet were 68% longer than those fed on the C. calcitrans diet. The final biomass production (wet and dry weight) for the mixed meal diet groups was higher than that obtained for the algal treatments, although survival rate was higher for the C. calcitrans diet. A soya-wheat meal diet is recommended for brine shrimp biomass production.
    • Primer registro de Torpedo peruana Chirichigno (Elasmobranchii: Torpedinidae) para el Pacífico colombiano

      Angulo, J.A.; Acero-P., A. (1999)
      Morphologic information about two individuals of Torpedo peruana from the Colombian Pacific coast is presented. The species had not been reported before from tropical South American waters; this finding ratifies its validity after its redescription.
    • Características estratigráficas y morfodinámicas de la franja litoral Caribe colombiana (Sector Barranquilla (Bocas de Ceniza) - Flecha de Galerazamba)

      Molina-M., A.; Molina-M., C.; Giraldo-O., L.; Barrera-O., R. (1999)
      The geologic (stratigraphic) and morphodynamic characteristics throughout 76 km of the coastal profile of the Colombian Caribbean, including those between Barranquilla (Bocas de Ceniza) and the spit of Galerazamba are described. The sections of the coast that have been affected by erosive events and those with sedimentary accretion are described. Some of them are associated to both natural and anthropic phenomena. Geologically, the coastal edge is defined by sedimentary rocks, weakly consolidated sediments and inconsolidated sediments, that include ages from the upper Paleocene to the Recent. From the point of view of the evaluation of the coast in terms of stability and instability, the high coasts are classified as: Critic zones (Punta Sabanilla, Castillo and Pradomar), unstable zones (from Punta Castillejo to Punta la Garita) and stable zones (elevated abrasion terraces of Puerto Caimán and Galerazamba). The low coasts were catalogued as highly erosive (beaches associated to the bog of Mallorquín, NE part of the ear of Puerto Colombia, north of Morro Hermoso and in front of the salt mines Galerazamba) and in sedimentary accretion (from the distal part of the ear of Puerto Colombia to the south end of Manzanillo and to the spit of Galerazamba).
    • Hábitos alimentarios de Epinephelus acanthistius y notas de otros peces serranidos capturados en el Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, Pacífico colombiano

      Gómez-C., G.O.; Zapata-P., L.A.; Frank-A., R.; Ramos-T., G.E. (1999)
      Food habits the Epinephelus acanthistius and other Serranidae fishes caught at the National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombian Pacific ocean. From June 1988 to July 1992, in non-continuos samples were caught 2681 fishes of the family Serranidae at the National Natural Park Gorgona; only 161 individuals showed some kind of stomach food content. From these, 95 belong to Epinephelus acanthistius, 26 to E. analogus, 6 to E. itajara, 5 to E. cifuentesi y 29 to Diplectrum eumelum. In general it was observed that these species predate mainly on crustaceans (Squilla panamensis, S. mantoidea, Portunus iridescens), followed by fishes (Cynoponticus coniceps) and by mollusks (Loliginidae), urochordates and some polychaetes. The present work gives up information about the food spectrum of some of the most important commercial species of the family Serranidae in the study area.
    • Estudio epizootiológico de Penaeus vannamei en tres fincas camaroneras del Caribe colombiano

      Vallejo-Isaza, A.; Newmark-U., F. (1999)
      An epizootiological study of the mayor deseases affecting the penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei was performed from june 1994 throuh august, 1995 in tree farms located on the colombian Carebbean coast. The presence and prevalence of infectious agents such as bacteria, protozoa, viral inclusions bodies and changes histopatologicals was determinated by means of gross examination and histological analysis.. The relationship between these infection agents and specific disease was also studies. The presence of some viruses such a Baculovirus penaei, IHHNV, TSV and LOVV, were determinated by demostration of the cytopathical effects characteristic of these agent. Additionaly, a logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between some clinical signs and the presence of the infectious agent; the risk factor of having the disease, was also determinated; thus, shrimp with tumors and deformities presented a risk almost two times higher having IHHNV disease, as determined by the presence of inclusion bodies Cowdry A (CAI’s) than those whitout deformities; in an analogous way, the risk factor of presenting alterations in the lymphoid organ (L.O) was higher in organisms that have exposed to the TSV desease, than in those were not. Bacterial infections an infestations by protozoa were also analyzed. Some differences concerning the presence and prevalence of some of the diseases according to the geographical location of the farms and the different climatic conditions in such the cultivation started, wer observed. Some physical-chemical variables such as salinity, where related to the presence and prevalence of some clinical signs.
    • Community analysis of the soft bottom megafauna (Crustacea, Mollusca) from the southeastern region of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

      Arango, C.P.; Solano, O.D. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 1999)
      Soft bottom megabenthic communities have been poorly studied in the Caribbean Sea. In this study we describe the structure and species composition of a Crustacea-Mollusca megafaunal community based on beam trawl samples taken between 13 and 60 m depth at the southwestern region of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. Classification and ordination analyses using abundance data of crustaceans and molluscs produced two main groups (A and C), which seem to be controlled by depth and sediment characteristics. Group A consisted of species collected at the deeper stations and high content of silts (between 30 and 60 m depth) and exhibited the highest density and biomass mean values. The decapod Chasmocarcinus cilindricus was found as the characteristic species for the group A. The bivalve Laevicardium pictum occurred as characteristic in the shallower cluster C (14 to 17 m) where the sediment was coarser. Trachypenaeus similis, Portunus spinicarpus, Lupella forceps and Penaeus duorarum were generalist species for both groups and were found as the most abundant species overall. There was not a clear evidence of temporal variation of the groups, however an increase in the abundance of dominant species at the shallower area during March may be related to the upwelling phenomenon known for the Santa Marta area.
    • Presencia de Metalpheus rostratipes (Pocock, 1890) (Crustacea: Alpheidae) en el Caribe colombiano

      Navas-S., G.R.; Lattig, P.; Moreno-Forero, S.K. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 1999)
      Samples of skeletons of the coral Acropora palmata obtained on the reef crest of Isla Grande, Islas del Rosario (colombian Caribbean),were found to contain two specimens of the family Alpheidae, Metalpheus rostratipes (Pocock, 1890). This shrimp species is reported for the first time from the colombian Caribbean.
    • Estimación del horizonte de autorrecolección espacial: el caso de las variables físico-químicas estudiadas en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

      Hurtado-Tobón, L.H.; García-González, M.D. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 1999)
      The spatial autocorrelation range, understood here as the minimum distance between points at which the spatial correlation becomes zero, is a very useful parameter to design samples that have as goal the study of the spatial behavior of a variable. In this paper the estimation of the autocorrelation range by means of the correlograms of confidence bands are discussed in detail, and estimations for a set of physical-chemical variables studied at the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Northern Colombia, are made. The results of the application show that for four of the variables included in the study (Nitrite, Nitrate, the addition of Nitrite and Nitrate, and Oxygen concentration) it is not possible to analyze their spatial behavior because the autocorrelation range is less than the minimum distance between the points that constituted the sample. The spatial autocorrelation range for the other variables were, 4900 m for ammonia, 4600 m for salinity, 3900 m for silicate, 2700 m for orthophosphate and 2700 m for chlorophyll. Through the application it can be further noticed the distortion that may result in estimating the ranges if the spatial trend is not previously removed.
    • Evaluación rápida de estructura y salud de las formaciones coralinas de la Isla de Malpelo (Pacífico colombiano)

      Garzón-Ferreira, J.; Pinzón-C., J.H. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 1999)
      Malpelo, a small rocky offshore island that supports one of the few coral populations in the eastern Pacific, was visited on June 1-5, 1999 with the purpose of evaluating the status of the coral communities. Using rapid visual methods, the cover of major categories of sessile organisms and the health condition of the coral species were assessed at 8 stations between 11 and 31 m depth. “El Arrecife”, which is the largest coral formation in Malpelo, seems to have suffered a 20% reduction of the live coral cover since 1972 when a mean value of 65% was recorded. This decline, which probably was originated by the 1982-83 strong bleaching event that affected widely the American Pacific, is reflected also by the present levels of recent coral mortality: mean of 23% at “El Arrecife”. Nevertheless, live hard corals continue as the dominant (mean 45%) bottom category in this formation, followed by the crustose calcareous algae (27%). As in 1972, Porites lobata is in general the most abundant hard coral species but Pocillopora spp. can dominate in the shallow zone. Among observed coral degradation agents and signs, current mortality was also frequent but affected only small areas of the colonies and was related to diseases or fish grazing in most cases. The presence of coral diseases in the Colombian Pacific is here recorded for the first time; the most frequent is similar to the White Band Disease (WBD) and was observed attacking Pocillopora spp. An event of strong wind and ocean swell occurred during this study, resulting in considerable physical damage on reef structure and coral colonies at “El Arrecife”. This damage included extensive fragmentation of Pocillopora branches, as well as overturning, fragmentation and scraping of many colonies of massive species.
    • El escáner convencional, una herramienta útil para la catalogación de organismos marinos

      Reyes-F., J.; Navas-S., G.R. (2000)
      A cheap and versatile methodology to get digital images of dry and wet preserved organisms, using a flat bed scanner, is presented. To obtain the images of wet specimens, a shallow pool was glued on top of the scanner glass. The pool is filled with water or alcohol and the organisms are immersed and their structures expanded. The best images were obtained with organisms between 1.5 and 15 cm in length. The depth of field was limited to 1.2 cm. These images are also useful for taxonomical research without the need of manipulating the organisms; they can be used too, to compare with better accuracy certain structures between different specimens.
    • Three species of sea spiders (Pycnogonida) from Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

      Arango, C.P. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      Se reportan tres especies de picnogónidos para la región sudoeste de Santa Marta en el Caribe colombiano. Nymphon surinamense, Anoplodactylus insignis y Pallenopsis schmitti fueron colectados en arrastres sobre fondos blandos entre 14 y 60 m de profundidad. Este reporte amplía la distribución geográfica de N. surinamense y A. insignis en el Caribe y resalta la abundancia de P. schmitti en el área. La distribución y la sistemática de las especies se discute brevemente y se presentan ilustraciones para cada una de ellas.
    • Presencia de Urotrygon microphthalmum (Elasmobranchii: Urolophidae) en aguas bajas de Maranhao (Brasil) y notas sobre su biología

      Almeida, Z.S.; Nunes, J.S.; Costa, C.L. (2000)
      From October 1997 to April, 1998 seventy-nine specimens of the ray Urotrygon microphthalmum were captured, all of them showing sexual dimorphism. They were processed in order to study their morphometrics, feeding habits, and reproduction. The largest was 300 mm in total length and the smallest one 64.4 mm, weighing 103.4 g and 12.5 g respectively. They fed mainly on crustaceans and ploychaeta; of the stomach contents 94.5 % were shrimp and 5.49% polychaeta. 7.6% of the total had empty stomachs. As far as reproduction, three sexual stages were found: 51% juvenile, 30% adult and 19% pregnant, with an average of three embryos per uterus. Among the male fishes analysed 84.4% were juvenile and 16.6% adults.
    • Moluscos y su taxocenosis en los fondos someros del sector sur de la plataforma continental del Caribe colombiano

      García-Valencia, C.; Díaz, J.M. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      During a baseline survey of the shallow bottoms (10-50 m) of the southern continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, a total of 35 molluscan species belonging to 24 families was collected. Three main molluscan bottom assemblages were recognized according to species composition and abundance, whose distribution seems likely to be controlled rather by depth than by sediment features. Twenty four of the species were not recorded before from this area of the Colombian Caribbean.
    • Las formaciones coralinas de Isla Tortuguilla (Caribe colombiano)

      López-Victoria, M.; Díaz, J.M.; Márquez, J.C. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      Tortuguilla is a small island off the southern portion of the Colombian Caribbean continental coast. It is surrounded by a shallow calcareous shelf which is overgrown by recent coral formations whose distribution, composition and zonation are herewith qualitative described for the first time. Observations and data collecting were conducted during two days from a boat by snorkeling at 63 stations and along manta tow transects. Despite the reduced area and the adverse turbidity and sedimentation conditions, at least 16 species of stony corals were registered (4 more to be confirmed), being Millepora spp. and Siderastrea siderea the most common. Five different coral assemblages were recognized.
    • Observations on the diet of Balistes vetula (Pisces: Balistidae) in the Gulf of Salamanca, Colombian Caribbean

      Von-Schiller, D.; García, C.B. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      Se describe el contenido de lo tractos digestivos de ejemplares de Balistes vetula capturados durante faenas de pesca científica. Los crustáceos representan la presa preferencial de esta especie en el Golfo de Salamanca y dentro de estos destaca el orden Brachyura. Estos resultados se contrastan con la dieta de la especie en otras latitudes.
    • Pontinus clemensi (Pisces: Scorpaenidae) at Malpelo Island, Colombia: new specimen and Geographic range extension

      Mora, C.; Jiménez, J.M.; Zapata, F.A. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      Pontinus clemensi es una especie descrita con un reducido número de especímenes. En Junio de 1999, un espécimen adicional de P. clemensi fue colectado en la isla Malpelo, Colombia (3º 59' N, 81º 35' W). Este ejemplar permitió ampliar la descripción original de la especie y su ámbito geográfico en el Pacifico Oriental.
    • Vegetación marina de un sector de la plataforma continental de la Guajira (Caribe colombiano)

      Diaz-Pulido, G. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      A list of 46 species of marine macrophytes (44 algae and 2 seagrasses) collected between 5 to 36 m depth off Riohacha, on the continental shelf of the peninsula La Guajira (Colombian Caribbean) is presented. 22 species of algae were not previously known from this area. A total of 149 apecies are now registered from the area of La Guajira. Three types of macrophyte asociations were found: (1) dominated by the seagrass Thalassia testudinum with a dry leaf biomass between 27 and 40 gm-2 at 5 m depth. (2) established at -17 m and also dominated by T. testudinum, but with a lower dry leaf biomass (14 gm-2) and a more scattered distribution; green rhizophytic macroalgae (Caulerpa spp.) are quite common. (3) dominated by red and green macroalgae with a total dry biomass of 14 gm-2 at -36 m. 92 % of the species found occurs also in the Santa Marta region, located 160 km far W-SW from the study area. In general, the species found are widely distributed in the Caribbean.
    • Primer registro de Opecarcinus hypostegus (Shaw y Hopkins) y Troglocarcinus corallicola Verril (Crustacea: Brachiura: Cryptochiridae) para la costa Caribe colombiana

      Werding, B.; Manjarrés, G. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      Two species of the crab family Cryptochyridae, Opecarcinus hypostegus (Shaw and Hopkins) and Troglocarcinus corallicola Verrill, are reported for the first time on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, thus extending the known distribution of the two species. For both species a short diagnosis and remarks on their distribution, depth range and association with corals are included.
    • Estructura de la comunidad de zooplancton en condiciones de descarga continental y afloramiento costero en Santa Marta, Caribe colombiano

      Bernal, A.; Zea, S. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2000)
      Se estudiaron las variaciones en la estructura taxonómica y trófica de la comunidad de zooplancton en la provincia nerítica del área de Santa Marta, Mar Caribe Colombiano, asociadas a fertilizaciones alternantes entre descarga continental y afloramiento costero. Los muestreos se efectuaron en noviembre de 1991 durante la temporada mayor de lluvias, y en marzo de 1992 durante la temporada seca. Los organismos fueron identificados y contabilizados, determinándose la biomasa por nivel trófico. Se discriminaron 82 especies-taxa, la mayoría de ellas oceánico costeras y con predominancia de omnívoros. La composición de la comunidad varió temporal y espacialmente con las condiciones oceanográficas predominantes, evidenciando procesos sucesionales relacionados con pulsos de fertilización. Durante condiciones de descarga continental, típicas de la temporada lluviosa, la composición de la comunidad y la biomasa y abundancia totales fueron espacialmente más heterogéneas, con especies más costeras y neríticas, omnívoros y detritívoros grandes, y carnívoros pequeños. Durante condiciones de afloramiento, que se presentan en pulsos localizados durante la temporada lluviosa, y se generalizan en toda el área en la temporada seca, la comunidad fue espacialmente más homogénea, con especies más oceánicas y de profundidad y, en su máximo desarrollo, con biomasas más altas, omnívoros pequeños, y mayor representación y tamaño de hervíboros macrofiltradores y carnívoros.
    • Primer registro del pez diablo Scorpaena afuerae (Pisces: Scorpaenidae) en el Pacífico colombiano

      Gómez-C., A.; Zapata-P., L.A.; Gómez-C., G.; Angulo-V., W. (INVEMAR, Santa Marta (Colombia), 2001)
      The presence of S. afuerae is registered for first time in Colombian Pacific waters. Considering the period and the relative abundance, the cause to be is presumed the migratory effect by the cold phenomenon “La Niña”, declared in the end of 1998 and/or the few samples in the rocky zones offshore the continental shelf.