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  • Women Diversify Their Livelihoods

    Lowrey, P. (SPC/CPS, 2003)
  • Remote Sensing and Emergency Management for Coastal Environmental Disasters

    Huh, O.K. (1998)
    It is estimated that approximately 50% of the worlds population live on the coastal fringes of landmasses and the likely trend is for this number to increase to 75% within a decade. For centuries people have been drawn to coastal regions for the rich soils for agriculture (of deltas and lowlands), the extensive fisheries resources, transportation opportunities and recreation, and just for the natural beauty of living on beachfronts. However, the air-sea-land boundary referred to as the coastal zone is dangerous, comprised of an extremely dynamic, complex physical / biological set of environments. Worldwide, the coastal zone is characterized by high population densities, extremely varied and important biological diversity, including coastal fisheries, rich agricultural lands, and economically important major ports and rivers arteries to the continent'’ interior. Such economically significant regions located on the fringes of the continents are prone to major catastrophic hazards that immediately affect large segments of the population and have lasting impacts on a nation’s economy....
  • A Marine Fisheries Policy For South Africa

    Government Communications (GCIS), 1998
  • Sea Level Measurement And Analysis in the Western Indian Ocean. National Reports. Comores, French Indian Ocean Islands & Somalia

    IOC, 1999-07
    During the fourth session of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's RegionalCommittee for the Co-operative Investigations in the North and Central Western IndianOcean (IOCINCWIO) held in Mombasa, Kenya in May 1997, a project proposal entitled "Sea Level data and Information in the IOCINCWIO region" was submitted and endorsed.Subsequently the Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRl) and the Instituteof Marine Sciences of the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania prepared a detailed proposal which was approved for funding by IOC within the framework of the IOC-Sida-Flanders Marine Science programme.
  • Culturing Coral for Management

    Franklin, H.; Muhando, C. A. (1996)
    Anthropogenic pressures on the coral reefs of Tanzania are high. Over-exploitation, destructive fishing practices, unplanned tourism and high sedimentation load are amongst the most evident contributing factors whilst the poor economy and increased human population density along the coast is an underlying problem. There is a clear need for alternative sources of livelihood and effective ways to manage coral reef resources sustainably. Mariculture is becoming a common component in coastal zone management in Tanzania.
  • Large Scale Sportfish Tagging Programs : Pros and Cons

    Pepperell, J.C. (IOTC, 2000)
    Tagging of fish by fishery participants, both recreational and commercial, is a popular activity. It gives the fisher a sense of participation in a scientific activity which will add to knowledge about their target species. The best known examples of this activity are so-called cooperative tagging programs through which recreational anglers (and sometimes, commercial operators) tag and release fish as part of a broad scale, long term undertaking. There are many such programs in operation around the world, some of which are very large, and have been in operation for several decades....
  • Regeneration Status of Mangrove Forests in Mida Creek, Kenya: A Compromised or Secured Future?

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Kairo, J.G.; Gwada, P. (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2002)
    The structure and regeneration patterns of Mida Creek mangrove vegetation were studied along belt transects at 2 forest sites of Mida Creek (3°20'S, 40°00'E): Uyombo and Kirepwe. Based on the species importance values, the dominant mangrove tree species in Mida were Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Robinson and Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. Tree density varied from 1197 trees ha–1 at Kirepwe to 1585 trees ha–1 at Uyombo and mean tree height was higher at the former site compared to the latter. The sizeclass structure at both localities of Mida showed the presence of more small trees than large ones. Spatial distribution pattern of adults and juveniles varied greatly between sites and they showed a close to uniform pattern (Morisita’s Index I0 << 1) for trees, but a tendency to random distribution (I0 = 1) for juveniles. The present paper shows that unmanaged but exploited mangroves do not necessarily disappear, but change qualitatively from locally preferred R. mucronata to the less preferred C. tagal. Whereas the effects of this change on the ecological function of the mangrove cannot be estimated yet, the economical function of the mangrove has evidently weakened.
  • Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected Fish Species in Mombasa, Kenya

    Mwashote, B.M. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    Flame absorption spectrophotometry was used to investigate the concentration and distribution of cadmium and lead in water, sediments and selected fish species in Makupa and Tudor creeks in Mombasa, Kenya between May 1997 and March 1998. The results were compared with those obtained in relatively less anthropogenically influenced areas along the Kenyan coast. The mean concentrations for Pb ranged from not detectable (nd) to 0.012 mg/l, 0.2 to 58.0 mg/kg and nd to 59.3 mg/kg in water, sediment and fish samples respectively. Cadmium concentrations in water were generally below detection limits, while in sediment and fish samples, they ranged from nd to 1.0 mg/kg and nd to 3.7 mg/kg respectively. Overall, Pb and Cd concentrations were low in the water column of Makupa and Tudor creeks, with a few incidents of elevated levels in sediments and some fish species, especially during the rainy season. Makupa creek had the higher levels overall. The levels of Pb and Cd in most of the fish species analysed were generally within acceptable limits by FAO standards.
  • Water Quality in the Integrated Mariculture Pond Systems (IMPS) at Makoba Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Mmochi, A.J.; Mwandya, A.W. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    The Makoba integrated mariculture pond system project (IMPS) has been on-going since 1998. Except for a period from mid 1999 to 2001, various water quality parameters, namely temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved oxygen concentration and saturation, have been monitored continuously. In 2002, measurement of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and consumption of oxygen by sediments was initiated. Dissolved oxygen concentration varied from the highest monthly average of 7.16 mg/l in October 1998, to 2.2 mg/l in March 2000 (r = –0.69). Nutrient concentrations remained moreor- less constant, except in the finfish ponds, where slight variations were recorded. The lowest concentration of ammonium-nitrogen (3.02 mg-at N/l) was recorded in the Kiwani creek in December 2001, and the highest (18.02 mg-at N/l), in the finfish ponds in December 1998. In 2002 the concentrations became much lower and the overall regression from 1998 to 2002 was negative. Dissolved inorganic phosphate concentration in the finfish ponds increased from 4.36 to 7.97 mg-at P/l (r = 0.75) between August 1998 and April 1999. In 2002, however, the concentration was low, making the overall trend also negative. pH ranged from 7.07 in Kiwani creek to 8.54 in the outlet. There was no clear pattern in the pH trends at the individual stations. In 1998 and 1999 there was a general decrease in pH with a corresponding increase in nutrient concentrations and decrease in dissolved oxygen. The SOD values in the ponds and the outlet were higher than in the creek and the reservoir, and the half life of dissolved oxygen was lowest in the ponds compared to the rest of the sites. The nutrient concentrations at Makoba ponds are generally acceptable for the environment and fish farming. INTRODUCTION Aquaculture of animals in most of Africa is still small-scale and freshwater. Recently, however, the Institute of Marine Sciences (IMS) of the University of Dar es Salaam has received an increasing number of requests for advice on subsistence and commercial mariculture (Mmochi & Jiddawi, 1996). In 1986 some attempts at prawn farming were made in Bagamoyo in Tanzania but were stopped due to land controversies (Bryceson, 2002). What would have become the biggest prawn farm in the world (Boyd, 1996; Bryceson, 2002) was about to be started in Rufiji River delta, but joint opposition from interested parties caused the project to be halted in 1999/2000 (Bryceson, 2002). Environmental problems have resulted from the conversion of wetland habitats to aquaculture ponds. These include nutrient, sediment and organic waste accumulation leading to deterioration of water quality, one of the important factors that determine the viability of fish farming. The water quality problem is associated with both physical and chemical problems such as too high or too low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations,
  • Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red Alga Gracilaria sordida (Harv.) W. Nelson

    Mtolera, M.S.P. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH, EC catalyse the entry of ammonium into the organic cycle via amination of a-ketoglutarate and its release via deamination of Lglutamate. NAD-GDH facilitates NAD-/NADP-dependent deamination while NADPH-GDH facilitates NADH-/NADPH-dependent amination reactions. In the study reported here, GDHs were extracted from the red alga Gracilaria sordida and purified 10- to 180-fold before examining their amination and deamination reaction properties. NAD-/NADP- and NADH-/ NADPH-dependent activities were the order of 11:1 and 1:1.8, respectively. The pH optima for amination and deamination were 8.2 and 8.4 under NADH- and NADPH- and 8.4 and 9 under NAD- and NADP- dependent activities, respectively. Whereas both NAD- and NADP-dependent deamination activities were activated by calcium ions (Ca2+), only NADPH-dependent amination was activated. The Km values (in mM) were 3.0–3.6 for ammonia, 2.0–3.3 for a-ketoglutarate, 0.00286 for NADH, 0.0033 for NADPH),1.7–2.1 for L-glutamate, 0.344 for NAD and 0.476 for NADP. It appears that the GDHs in G. sordida are dominated by NAD-dependent deamination enzyme and that in NADH-NADPH- dependent amination reactions, NADPH is more preferred. It is suggested that NAD-GDH’s role in G. sordida could be as a catabolic shunt facilitating respiration. Anabolic functions could be assimilation of ammonia released during photorespiration and synthesis of N-rich transport compounds.
  • Standing Stock, Agar Yield and Properties of Gracilaria salicornia Harvested along the Tanzanian Coast

    Buriyo, A.S.; Kivaisi, A.K. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    Seasonal biomass variation and agar yield of G. salicornia (C. Ag.) Dawson from Oyster Bay, Dar es Salaam, and Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, were determined, and some properties of the agar examined. Mean biomass and canopy cover values ranged from 21–60 g/m2 and 7– 20 %, respectively. The highest mean biomass and cover values were obtained during the SE monsoon. Agar yield varied from 13.7 to 30.2 % (dry weight) and was highest during the dry NE monsoon period. Alkali treatment generally reduced agar yield by 25–56 %. Gel strength of the agar gels ranged between 118 and 251 g/cm2 and was significantly higher during the NE monsoon period (t = 2.2; P = 0.04 and t = 8.9; P << 0.05) for samples collected from Oyster Bay and Chwaka Bay respectively). Mean gel strengths of native agar samples (205 ± 45 g/cm2) was about 42 % of that of the standard agar used. The 3,6-anhydrogalactose content was highest during the rainy season (37.4–44.3 %) and tended to coincide with low gel strengths. Sulphate content varied between 0.5 and 2.8 % in both populations. It was concluded that the best period for harvesting G. salicornia for agar production in Tanzania is the dry (NE monsoon) period. INTRODUCTION Gracilaria is one of the algal genera from which agar is extracted commercially (Lewis et al., 1990). and the main source of agar in the world (Oliveira et al., 2000). The algae are harvested by hand from natural populations in Spain, Portugal, Morocco, the Azores, California, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Chile and Japan (Armisen, 1995). Currently, the commercial mariculture of agar-producing seaweeds is led by the production of Gracilaria chilensis Bird, McLachlan et Oliveira in Chile (Buschmann & Correa, 2001). The seaweed has also been cultivated in China, Taiwan, Namibia, Venezuela, Mexico (Armisen, 1995), Indonesia and Vietnam (Oliveira et al., 2000). Seven species of Gracilaria including G. cornea J. Agardh (previously known as G. crassa Harvey, Buriyo et al., in press), G. corticata J. Agardh, G. arcuata Zanardini, G. salicornia, G. edulis (J. Ag.) Silva, G. fergusoni J. Agardh
  • Clionasterol, a Triterpenoid from the Kenyan Marine Green Macroalga Halimeda macroloba

    Jaspars, M.; Dzeha, T.; Tabudravu, J. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    The triterpenoid clionasterol (1), a 29 carbon structure compound was isolated from the less polar extract (20% EtOAc in hexanes) of the green alga Halimeda macroloba collected at Shimoni near Mombasa, Kenya. The structure and relative stereochemistry of this compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and mass spectrometry. This metabolite was inactive against DLD-1 cells on the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Further experiments on mosquito larvae and brine shrimp lethality confirmed this result.
  • Nutritional Studies and Development of a Practical Feed for Milkfish ( Chanos chanos) Culture in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Jiddawi, N.S.; Mwangamilo, J.J. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    A study was conducted to find a suitable diet and feeding level for the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) in Zanzibar. Two growth trials and one digestibility trial were done. The first growth trial was conducted using 25, 32 and 40% protein diets to determine the optimal level that could be used for the second growth trial on feeding levels. There were no significant differences on feed intake and growth performance of milkfish among the treatments (P<0.896). Body composition analysis showed that fish had more fat (lipid) when fed 32 than 25 and 40% protein diets. The digestibility of protein increased with increasing protein levels: it was 87.3, 92 and 93% respectively. There were no significant differences among the diets (P<0.291). The 32% protein diet was chosen for the second growth trial to test a suitable feeding level. Milkfish were fed at 0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4% of their body weight. There was a significant linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) between digestible energy fed and energy gain, digestible protein fed and protein gain among protein and feeding levels. Protein and energy efficiency were 0.37 and 0.27 respectively. Results of growth, protein and energy efficiency and utilisation indicate that the suitable level of milkfish feeding was 4% of body weight per day when a 32% protein level was used. INTRODUCTION Worldwide the aquaculture industry has gained importance due to an increasing demand for fish to feed the world’s increasing human population. In Tanzania, the demand for protein has also been rising steadily. This is due to declining fish landings and an increase in the prices of meat and similar animal protein, accompanied by a rise in living standards, and a thriving tourism industry. For these reasons there is a local need to introduce alternative sources of animal protein to supplement the natural harvest and reduce the fishing pressure. Fish farming is one way of increasing production. In order to improve fish production, a detailed knowledge of the feed requirements of the fish along with information on their ability to utilise the protein and energy in the diet are needed. Feed accounts for the major portion of rearing costs
  • Coral transplant damage under various management conditions in the Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya

    Cros, A.; McClanahan, T.R. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    Two coral species, Porites palmata and Porites lutea, were transplanted into three distinct management areas adjacent to the Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya: A no-fishing MPA; a gear-restricted reserve with no beach seining; and a reserve with beach seining. Corallivory by fish or breakage by fishing gear was measured over a 57-day period. Porites palmata, the branching species, was more susceptible to disturbance than Porites lutea, the massive species, which showed no difference in mortality rate between the three management areas. Porites palmata was affected more by corallivory than fishing gear and, therefore, suffered more damage from coral predators in the no-fishing MPA. Corals transplanted into the gearrestricted fishing site had the highest survival. The damage from predators was small and seldom resulted in total colony mortality, which was common in the fishing area with beach seining.
  • Abundance and Reproductive Biology of the Penaeid Prawns of Bagamoyo Coastal Waters, Tanzania

    Mgaya, Y.D.; Teikwa, E.D. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    The coastal waters of Bagamoyo in Tanzania constitute an important penaeid prawn trawling ground. Despite the high economic value attached to this resource, the biological information necessary for its sustainable exploitation is scanty and fragmented. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the species composition, population abundance and reproduction of the penaeid prawns in Bagamoyo coastal and nearshore waters. Samples were obtained monthly for a period of one year from inshore waters adjacent to the Ruvu Estuary while additional samples were bought at the beach from artisanal fishermen. In the laboratory, samples were identified to the species level. Four penaeid species, Fenneropenaeus indicus (formerly known as Penaeus indicus [Farfante and Kensley, 1997]), Penaeus monodon, P. japonicus, and Metapenaeus monoceros were found in the Ruvu Estuary and nearshore waters. Fenneropenaeus indicus was the most abundant, and more so during the rainy season than the dry season. The sex ratio in F. indicus was found to vary significantly from the theoretical 1:1 ratio while that of P. monodon did not vary significantly from 1:1. The average size at first maturity was different within sexes. For F. indicus males and females carapace length was 3.4 and 3.9 cm respectively. For P. monodon it was 3.58 and 4.3 cm for males and females respectively. Fecundity ranged from 40,000 to 222,000 eggs for F. indicus and 72,000 to 314,000 eggs for P. monodon. Fecundity increased with prawn size, suggesting that much of the available energy in larger prawns is devoted to egg production rather than growth.
  • Long-term Trends in Coral Reef Fish Yields and Exploitation Rates of Commercial Species from Coastal Kenya

    Kaunda-Arara, B.; Rose, G.A.; Muchiri, M.S.; Kaka, R. (WIOMSA, 2003)
    Analysis of long-term (1978–2001) marine fisheries data showed that Kenyan coralreefs produced an estimated 2–4 metric t/km2/year of demersal fish. A rapid overall decline in landings occurred during the 1990s. Yields (t/km2/year) showed bimodal peaks in 1982 (2.98) and 1991 (2.90). The average total landings dropped by 55% during the last decade following peak landings in 1982. Landings of the commercially important families (e.g., Siganidae, Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae) declined by about 40% during the last decade, with the groupers (Serranidae) showing the steepest (72%) decline. Analysis of landings per administrative district showed a 78% decline in the densely populated Mombasa district between the periods 1983–1991 and 1992–2001. The less populated districts have registered stable (e.g., Kilifi) to increasing (e.g., Kwale) catches over time. An autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) model forecast of landings predicted a gradual decline in catches during the next decade (2002– 2011) with a trend slope of -0.01 t/km2. Length-frequency analysis for the commercially important species indicated above optimum exploitation (E) and fishing mortality (per year) rates for the sky emperor, Lethrinus mahsena (E = 0.64; F = 2.48) and lower but strong rates for the emperor, L. sangueinus (E=0.51; F=0.93). The more abundant and commercially important whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, showed equally strong rates (E= 0.56; F = 1.44/year). A precautionary approach in the management of Kenya’s coral-reef fisheries is recommended. INTRODUCTION Fishing is the dominant extractive activity in Oceania and an important source of income and sustenance in coastal communities worldwide. However, in the past decade many marine fisheries resources have declined (FAO, 1995). Although ocean climate variation has likely played an important role in many regional declines (Lauck et al., 1998; Drinkwater & Mountain, 2002), the most important factor has been overfishing (Pauly & Christensen, 1995; Hutchings, 2000; Rose et al., 2000). The effects of fishing have been the subject of recent reviews (Jennings & Polunin, 1996; Jennings & Kaiser, 1998). Growth overfishing reduces the size and yield of target species

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