• Les Thoniers. Congelateurs Francais Dans L’atlantique Africain

      Postel, E. (1965)
      Née il y a une dizaine d’années la pêche; industrielle du thon dans l’Atlantique africain a connu un rapide essor. Elle met en jeu trois techniques dont l’u’ne, pêche aux palangres c flottantes (/obg lines), s’adresse aux populations infrathermoclinales, le; deux autres, pêche 0 l’a,ppat vivant et pêche à la senne tournante, aux populations suprathermoclinales. Ces deux dernières sont les seules auxquelles l’armement français ait fait appel jusqu’à maintenant: On possède, grâce aux travaux iaponais, des renseignements précis sur la pêche aux palangres flottantes ‘dont les débuts datent de 1957 (Poste1 1964). On se trouve par contre devant un manque fâcheux de documentation en ce qui concerne les pêches 6 la senne et à l’appât vivant.
    • Proceedings of the Workshop on the Management of the Shallow Water Shrimp Fishery of Tanzania

      FAO, 1990
      The fishery is presently comprised of an industrial trawler component and an artisanal component. During 1989 there were sixteen trawlers engaged, two belonging to the parastatal Tanzania Fisheries Corporation (TAFICO) and the rest being foreign-owned. The landings from these vessels included 974 tonnes (whole weight) of shrimp and 1,069 tonnes of fish by-catch. Almost all the shrimp were exported. The wholesale (fob) value of the shrimp was probably in the order of US$ 5.5 million. On the basis of data collected during a socio-economic study undertaken immediately prior to the Workshop, the estimated landings by the about 859 artisanal fishing units in 1989 was 1,212 tonnes of shrimp suitable for export, along with over 3,000 tonnes of fish. An estimate of the value of this shrimp on the export market, assuming a price 2/3rd that for the shrimp caught from trawlers, is about US$ 4.5 million. The quantity that was actually exported is not known.
    • Introduction of Fish Aggregating Devices in the Southwest Indian Ocean (A Case Study)

      Venkatasami, A. (FAO, 1990)
      During the past decades, several countries of the Southwest Indian Ocean region have attempted setting Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) with varying success. Initially, FADs were rapidly lost without being able to produce any results. The gradual improvement in design through the work carried out mainly by SWIOP1 in the region, lead to the development of long lived FADs in Mauritius. The transfer of that technology to other islands such as Reunion, Madagascar, Comores and Rodrigues (Mauritius) gave a new impulse to the activity.
    • Laws of Kenya: The Fisheries Act

      The Fisheries Act Commencement: 25th August, 1989 An Act of Parliament to provide for the development, management, exploitation, utilisation and conservation of fisheries and for connected purposes
    • The Namibian Fisheries Experience

      Goodisan, P. (1991)
      As a consequence of the upwelling of the nutrient rich Benguela current the fishing grounds off the coast of Namibia were once the most productive in the world. Fishing activities off the coast of Namibia have always been organized into two quite separate in-shore and off-shore industries. In shore pilchard and anchovy dominate, whilst off shore hake and Horse Mackerel dominate. A highly integrated fish processing industry based on the in-shore pilchard has been built up at Walvis Bay, whilst of- shore long distance foreign fleets with few links to Walvis Bay have dominated the fishery.
    • Environmental Pollution In The Nigeria Coastal Waters; A Case Study Of The Lagos Lagoon

      Adekanbi, E.O.; Okoye, B.C.O.; Ajao, E.A. (1991)
      The state of pollution in the Lagos lagoon was examined by a field survey of twenty-six sites (stations) in the dry and wet season in 1985. Some selected sites were further re-examined in the same period in 1986. The sediment trace metals and total hydrocarbons were analysed. The relationship between non residual and residual trace elements was examined. For both years of study, total trace metal levels (mg/kg) fell in the ranges: Cu,1.9 – 132.4, Cr, 2.9 – 167; 7.8 – 830. 6; Ph, 1.6 – 483.1 and Cd, 0.04 – 15.5. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in 1985 ranged from 0.25 to 2766.27 mg/g with high concentrations in muddy and sandy sediments. The results show marked variations and non – uniform distribution from one season to another. With few exceptions, higher values of trace metals and total hydrocarbons were obtained at sites located in the Western industrialized portions and lower values at sites far moved from sources of anthrogenic inputs. The results pointed to a need for an environmental pollution monitoring programme to ensure good water quality and detect subtle changes which could provide early warning (signals) of potential gross damage.
    • Implications of Expected Climate Change in the Eastern African Coastal Region: an Overview

      Ogallo, L.J.; Alusa, A.L. (UNEP, 1992)
      Anticipated global warming as a result of the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere was the most important subject discussed during the fifteenth session of the Governing Council of UNEP and at the Second World Climate Conference. The so-called greenhouse effect is a most pressing environmental problem to the extent that it involves many scientific disciplines and hence presents major challenges. The greenhouse gases (CO2,' CFCs, CH4, N2O, O3, etc.) have the effect of changing the atmosphere's radiative balance by trapping more heat near the earth's surface resulting in a rise in global mean surface temperature. It is now clear that if the burning of fossil fuel continues at the present rate, global warming is a virtual certainty.
    • Coastal Ecosystems

      The coastal forest communities of Kenya exist mainly as isolated blocks which show high levels of species endemism and comprise a total of about 83,800ha in a narrow belt which extends inland for about 30km. The forests are characterized by dense or moderately dense stands of tall trees, species of the genera Sterculia, Chlorophora and Memecylon. The drier woodlands include stands of Cynometra, Manilkara and Afzelia. Centuries of human occupation have reduced the forest element which was originally more extensive. Mangrove swamps occur in tidal estuaries and lagoons while coconut palms are common above high tide. A complex of many bush types occur in the high bush area. Scattered baobab trees present a striking appearance while the prevalence of mango trees underlines long human occupation of the more productive areas.
    • Farming and Physiology of the Red Algae Eucheuma: Growing Commercial Importance in East Africa

      Pedersén, M. C.; Mtolera, M.S.P.; Collén, J.; Abrahamsson, K.; Semesi, A. (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1995)
    • Coral reef fish assemblages of Baie Ternay National Marine Park and Baie Beau Vallon, Mahé, Seychelles

      Pittman, S.J. (1995-11)
      The two most important foreign exchange earning activities in the Seychelles are tourism and fisheries and therefore, the coastal areas and their management are of the greatest importance to the Seychelles government (Khadun, 1991). In recent years government policy has encouraged marine conservation (Procter, 1970; 1984-1989 National Development Plan) and is part way to fulfilling the programme outlined in the Environmental Management Plan of the Seychelles (EMPS, 1990-2000). To date, five marine areas have been designated as national marine parks covering about 23 000 ha with several more proposed parks and protected areas. However, financial constraints, a deficit of qualified personnel, lack of boundary delimitation, inadequate legislation and increasing development has meant that the parks have never been managed or protected adequately. Increased tourism and poaching is leading to damage to reef integrity and decreasing aesthetic appeal due to anchor drops, illegal collecting and fishing, land based pollution and sedimentation as well as increased littering (EMPS, 1990-2000 and pers. obs.). Many natural communities worldwide are experiencing large and fundamental changes in structure, often as a result of anthropogenic activities and often manifesting themselves as a decrease in diversity (Sebens, 1994). The difficulties of monitoring reef ‘health’ through indicator species or species distributions is well documented. Problems usually arise due to a lack of baseline data, lack of fixed location monitoring sites, variation in methodology and often unsuitable comparative data. It is also particularly difficult to isolate some early stages or low level impacts, from normal variation. An important initial phase of any effective program of action is the collection and interpretation of baseline data on the distribution and richness of fish and invertebrate communities and assessments of the state of the reef habitat. A wealth of studies have examined distributions of reef-associated fish throughout the tropics yet remarkably few studies have sought to quantify the reef fish communities of the granitic Seychelles. It has become increasingly evident that assemblages of reef fish and their physical and biological environments vary greatly among habitat patches at all spatial scales (Bouchon-Navaro, 1980, 1981; Sale, 1980a; Harmelin-Vivien, 1981; Bouchon-Navaro and Harmelin-Vivien, 1981; Williams, 1982, 1983a, 1983b; Galzin et al, 1979, 1983, 1990, 1994; Bell and Galzin, 1984; Russ, 1984a,b; Williams et al., 1986a; Doherty and Williams, 1988a; Thresher, 1991; Roberts et al, 1992; TMRU, 1993, 1994, 1995; Caley, 1995a,b; and others). Generalisations concerning population dynamics and management strategies for fish communities must take into account spatial and temporal variation in diversity and abundance. Many factors have been attributed to variation in fish assemblages on coral reefs, including niche diversification, spatial and temporal variation in recruitment, food availability, live coral cover, substratum type, current flow, water quality, exposure to wave action, topographic complexity, availability of hiding places, and human extraction. Clearly, comparisons between reefs and within reefs must include information on a variety of influencing factors in any attempt to describe and explain species distributions. Analysis of data should provide meaningful baseline information from which to effectively manage, an increasingly important natural resource. Most published work on reef-associated fish in the Seychelles region has focused on taxonomy, with intensive collecting for museum curation. Smith and Smith (1969) and Randall and van Egmond (1994) give good historical accounts and bibliographies of this work to date. A brief account is given below. During French colonialism from 1743 until 1810, specimens were collected and sent to Paris, where they joined the collections to be later studied by Cuvier and Valenciennes and contributed to those species published in the volumes of Histoire Naturelle des Poissons in the early 19th century. The first species list of Seychelles fishes was compiled by Col. R.L. Playfair (1867) who recorded 211 species followed by Mobius (1880) and Mobius and Peters (1883) who listed fishes from Mauritius and Seychelles, Regan (1907) from Stanley Gardiner`s collecting in the Indian Ocean, and various resident collectors. Most notable is the work of Smith and Smith whose extensive collecting in 1954 culminated in the publication of Fishes of Seychelles in 1963 and a revised 2nd edition in 1969. 475 species were added to the known species list, with some 775 species described and illustrated from the Seychelles proper, (northern islands) including many pelagic and deep water species. However, many of these species have been regrouped since and some (particularly Labridae and Scaridae) are in fact juveniles or dichromatic variants of the same species. More recently expeditions to Seychelles (Seychelles Coral Reef Expedition, 1972, Catford, 1972 and RV Tyro Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme, 1992-3, van der Land, 1994) have added to the record of fishes. Polunin (1984) lists a further 79 records for the wider Seychelles and Randall and van Egmond (1994) a further 108 new records. Often overlooked and uncited in any of the recent literature and possibly the first paper on habitat and reef fish distributions in the Seychelles is by Landini and Sorbini (1988) on the ichthyofauna of back reef zones and sea grass environments of Mahe and Praslin. Artisanal fisheries and coral reef community structure in the Seychelles is currently an area of increasing interest and artisanal reef fisheries impact studies by Jennings et al. (1996a, 1996b) have compared fish community structure in areas exposed to varying fishing intensities.
    • Coralline Algae, Important Coral-reef Builders Threatened by Pollution

      Mohammed, S.M.; Björk, M.; Björklund, M.; Semesi, A. (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1995-12)
      The release of inorganic nutrients into the sea by domestic sewage is a major threat to many marine systems. This eutrophication affects coral-reef organisms indirectly by increased growth of microalgae, leading to increased sedimentation, decreased light availibility, rapid growth of opportunistic macroalgae, etc. In this paper, we report a decrease in the cover of important group of coral-reef builders, the coralline algae. This decrease might be caused by the outlets of sewage water from Zanzibar town. Laboratory and field experiments show that both the growth rate and the calcification of these organisms are negatively affected by high phosphate levels, but not by nitrate or ammonia.
    • Culturing Coral for Management

      Franklin, H.; Muhando, C. A. (1996)
      Anthropogenic pressures on the coral reefs of Tanzania are high. Over-exploitation, destructive fishing practices, unplanned tourism and high sedimentation load are amongst the most evident contributing factors whilst the poor economy and increased human population density along the coast is an underlying problem. There is a clear need for alternative sources of livelihood and effective ways to manage coral reef resources sustainably. Mariculture is becoming a common component in coastal zone management in Tanzania.
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Six Green Algae from Tanzania

      Mtolera, M.S.P.; Semesi, A. (1996)
      Many algae species have been shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic substances (Glombitza, I979;Michaneck, 1979; Caccamese et al., 1980; Fenical & Paul, 1984; Niang& Hung, 1984). The antibacterialagents found in the algae include amino acids, terpenoids, phlorotannins, acrylic acid, phenoliccompounds, steroids, halogenated ketones and alkanes, cyclic polysulphides and fatty acids. In a large numberof marine algae antimicrobial activities are attributed to the presence of acrylic acid.
    • Study of Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum Carrageenans Growing in T oliara, Madagascar

      Rasoamazava, A. (1996)
      The phycocolloids of two species of red algae, Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum, were studied. Eucheuma denticu/atum was found to contain mainly iota carrageenan, while kappa carrageenan was the main component in Eucheuma striatum. The carrageenan content in E. denticu/atum varied from 50 to 55'Yo; in E. striatum it varied from 42 to 51 %. Considering these yields and the abundance of these species in the Toliara area, the two Eucheuma spp. Are attractive for industrial exploitation. Industrial exploitation of carrageenans started in the 1930s, and by 1989 the worldproduction was at 17000 tons (Amat, 1989). Among the species of sea weeds which areconsidered to have economic interests (Andriamampandry, 1976), Eucheuma denticu/atum (Burman) Collins and Harvey, and Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) exist in abundance on the Toliara reef (southwest of Madagascar).
    • Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities. Affecting the Marine Environment

      UNEP, 1997
      The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Figure 1.1) constitute a unique ecosystem with high biological diversity. Their natural resources provide a substantial economic support for the region: in addition to the fishery industry, which has ensured food security to many people of the region and created jobs for others, tourism is an ever growing and increasingly important industry for commerce and other economic activities. Hence, the marine environment should be well protected from the adverse impacts of pollution to ensure the sustainable use of its resources and good health of its users. Continuous degradation of the marine environment poses a threat to public health through the contamination of seafood, direct contact and digestion of polluted water. Damage to the marine ecosystems adversely affects the tourism and fisheries. The preservation of a high level of biological diversity is essential for the future protection of human health, as the taxonomic knowledge of the species is still far from complete. It is thus essential to guard against the extinction of the largest possible number of species and strains, among which are some that may in the future provide us with food and medicine or be used in the biological control of pests and pathogens (WHO 1992). In general, the main sources of marine pollution come from land-based activities, including urbanization and coastal development (for example, dredging and filling operations), industries including power and desalination plants and refineries, recreational and tourism, waste water treatment facilities, power plants, coastal mining and quarrying activities, oil bunkering and habitat modification like dredging and filling of wetlands. In the present report, the main sources of land-based pollution in each country of the region and the region as whole have been addressed and prioritized. On the basis of the priorities established, the report defines specific management objectives and identifies and evaluates the effectiveness of strategies and programmes to achieve them. It also identifies the elements needed to support the related programmes of action.
    • Synthesis of case studies on the role of women in fishing communities

      Wétohossou, C.Z.; Satia, B.P. (1997)
      Being involved in artisanal fisheries activities, women have become unavoidable actors in the socio-economic development of West African countries. And yet, despite this key role, the importance of their contribution is often not well known. Thus, in 1995, IDAF Programme set up a Working Group on women's key role and issues related to gender in fishing communities. This group, composed of eleven women, all distinguished scientists and rural development experts in the sub-region, undertook ten case studies in fourteen (14) regions in eight countries. It also organized two meetings for an in-depth thought about women's effective involvement in fishing communities.