• The 1997-1998 Mass Bleaching Event Around the World

      Wilkinson, C.P. (1998)
      There has been significant bleaching of hard and soft corals in widely separate parts of the world from mid-1997 to the last months of 1998. Much of this bleaching coincided with a large El Nino event, immediately switching over to a strong La Nina. Some of the reports by experienced observers are of unprecedented bleaching in places as widespread as (from west to east) the Middle East, East Africa, the Indian Ocean, South, Southeast and East Asia, far West and far East Pacific, the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean.
    • Absolute migration and the evolution of the Rodriguez Triple Junction since 75 Ma

      Masalu, D.C.P. (2002)
      The Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) is a junction connecting three mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean: the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The evolution of the RTJ has been studied extensively for the past 10 Ma and the triple junction is believed to be largely a ridge-ridge-ridge (RRR) triple junction. However, due to the scarcity of data its configuration prior to that period is poorly understood. The migration of the RTJ in the hotspot reference frame, for the past 75 million years has been mapped, by reconstructing its traces on the three plates (African, Antarctic and Indian) to their former positions. The results show that the RTJ has migrated northeasterly at velocities varying from 10cm/yr at 70 Ma to 2.6cm/yr at 43 Ma and thereafter 3.6–3.8cm/yr, in a fairly straight-line trajectory, suggesting a stable configuration of the RTJ since its formation. Because the RRR triple junction is the most stable configuration that is possible, it is suggested that the configuration of the RTJ has been largely RRR triple junction since its formation.
    • Abundance and Reproductive Biology of the Penaeid Prawns of Bagamoyo Coastal Waters, Tanzania

      Mgaya, Y.D.; Teikwa, E.D. (WIOMSA, 2003)
      The coastal waters of Bagamoyo in Tanzania constitute an important penaeid prawn trawling ground. Despite the high economic value attached to this resource, the biological information necessary for its sustainable exploitation is scanty and fragmented. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the species composition, population abundance and reproduction of the penaeid prawns in Bagamoyo coastal and nearshore waters. Samples were obtained monthly for a period of one year from inshore waters adjacent to the Ruvu Estuary while additional samples were bought at the beach from artisanal fishermen. In the laboratory, samples were identified to the species level. Four penaeid species, Fenneropenaeus indicus (formerly known as Penaeus indicus [Farfante and Kensley, 1997]), Penaeus monodon, P. japonicus, and Metapenaeus monoceros were found in the Ruvu Estuary and nearshore waters. Fenneropenaeus indicus was the most abundant, and more so during the rainy season than the dry season. The sex ratio in F. indicus was found to vary significantly from the theoretical 1:1 ratio while that of P. monodon did not vary significantly from 1:1. The average size at first maturity was different within sexes. For F. indicus males and females carapace length was 3.4 and 3.9 cm respectively. For P. monodon it was 3.58 and 4.3 cm for males and females respectively. Fecundity ranged from 40,000 to 222,000 eggs for F. indicus and 72,000 to 314,000 eggs for P. monodon. Fecundity increased with prawn size, suggesting that much of the available energy in larger prawns is devoted to egg production rather than growth.
    • ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative Workshop

      ACP-EU, 1999
      A three day scientific conference on ‘Sustainable Use of Aquatic Biodiversity: Data, Tools and Cooperation’ was held from 3-5 September 1998 at the Instituto de Investição das Pescas e do Mar (IPIMAR) in Lisbon, Portugal, under the auspices of the ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative and the European Commission (DG VIII). The conference aimed at bringing together researchers, conservationists, fisheries managers, educators and decision makers, to gain a better and joint understanding of aquatic biodiversity issues and in particular to explore data gathering and sharing mechanisms and cooperative arrangements to address these issues. Over 100 participants from 28 countries contributed to the conference: mostly from Africa, the Caribbean, the Pacific and Europe....
    • ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative.

      ACP-EU, 2000
      This report presents the papers discussed at an EC/INCO-DC-sponsored international workshop ‘Markets, Global Fisheries and Local Development’ held on March 22 and 23, 1999 at the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI), Bergen, Norway. The main objective of the workshop was to initiate a debate on how markets impact on global fisheries, and how these in turn impact on the ability of developing fishing nations to improve the welfare of their citizens. The motivation for the workshop stems from the observation that over time two things have happened to the world’s fishing sector. First, through improvement in fishing technology and the activities of distant water fishing fleets, fish exploitation and harvest have become global. Second, with significant technological improvements in the handling, processing and transportation of fish products, the markets for fish products have also became global such that fish caught off Mauritania, for instance, may end up in the plates of people living thousands of kilometres away. These two developments raise immediate questions that need to be explored systematically, which is exactly what this seminar sought to initiate. Hence, the meeting explored three inter-related issues: the effects of globalisation of fish exploitation and marketing on the sustainability of world fisheries, the consequential effects on the development of fishing nations, and third, the potential incorporation of economic data into existing database and analytical tools (FishBase and Ecopath/Ecosim) that will enable us to explore these questions globally.
    • ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative.

      The present report contains the proceedings of the INCO-DEV International Workshop on Information Systems for Policy and Technical Support in Fisheries and Aquaculture, convened in Los Baños, Philippines, 5 -7 June 2000. It was convened to address issues associated with the difficult transition from abundance to scarcity in aquatic resources. Reliable information will spread the right perception of the productive capacity and result in more realistic assessment of decreasing benefits and rising costs. Conservation of aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem approaches to fisheries and aquaculture production and food quality and safety along the entire chain from production to the consumer are key concepts that will govern approaches to aquatic living resources in the future. International trade is a major driving force in bringing many of these problems to a head, while also offering opportunities for socio-economic development. To this effect, scientists and other knowledgeable persons active in relation to these key aspects contribute a panorama of existing information resources, experience with their development, but also difficulties encountered. The papers point out avenues how global public goods necessary for the transition towards sustainability can be either created or more effectively shared. International cooperation based on mutual respect and interest, mobilising the best of science across continents to ensure trustworthy information and knowledge, is confirmed as a most useful approach to support societal demands for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture.
    • ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative.

      ACP-EU, 2002
      This report presents the proceedings of a five day scientific conference on “Placing Fisheries in their Ecosystem Context”, held on 4-8 December 2000, at the Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora, Galápagos Islands. The conference was hosted by the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galápagos Islands and co-organized by Instituto de Ecologia Aplicada, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador; the Charles Darwin Research Station, Ecuador; and the North Sea Centre, Denmark. The conference as made possible through support from the European Commission's INCO-DC Concerted Action programme ERBIC18CT97175. The conference was based on the recognition that the sustainability of fisheries worldwide depends on the maintenance of the ecosystems in which they embedded. The negative impact of fisheries on ecosystems, and thus on the sustainability of both the fisheries and the ecosystems, is becoming more and more obvious and must be addressed. This conference brought together practitioners with experience in a wide variety of exploited marine ecosystems, having in common their use of the Ecopath suite of ecosystem modelling software. There were some 30 presentations at the conference, covering aspects of ecosystem-based management of fisheries; impact of fisheries on ecosystems; comparative ecosystem analysis; and ecosystem structure and dynamics, as well as a series of discussions. The presentations, which investigated marine ecosystems in many parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, were based on the Ecopath approach to ecosystem analysis and offered many insights into the nature of and trends in these ecosystems. The presentations also showed the utility of this approach in providing ecosystem-based management options for fisheries in a wide variety of situations.
    • Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World

      Huq, S.; Adger, W.N.; Brown, K.; Hulme, M. (2003)
      The world’s climate is changing and will continue to change into the coming century at rates projected to be unprecedented in recent human history. The risks associated with these changes are real but highly uncertain. Societal vulnerability to the risks associated with climate change may exacerbate ongoing social and economic challenges, particularly for those parts of societies dependent on resources that are sensitive to changes in climate. Risks are apparent in agriculture, fisheries and many other components that constitute the livelihood of rural populations in developing countries. In this paper we explore the nature of risk and vulnerability in the context of climate change and review the evidence on present-day adaptation in developing countries and on coordinated international action on future adaptation. We argue that all societies are fundamentally adaptive and there are many situations in the past where societies have adapted to changes in climate and to similar risks. But some sectors are more sensitive and some groups in society more vulnerable to the risks posed by climate change than others. Yet all societies need to enhance their adaptive capacity to face both present and future climate change outside their experienced coping range. The challenges of climate change for development are in the present – observed climate change, present-day climate variability and future expectations of change are changing the course of development strategies – development agencies and governments are now planning for this adaptation challenge. The primary challenge, therefore, posed at both the scale of local natural resource management and at the scale of international agreements and actions, is to promote adaptive capacity in the context of competing sustainable development objectives.
    • Africa Environment Outlook Integrated Environmental Assessment Reporting: An Update

      Ballance, A.; Chenje, J.; Fofung Tata, T.; Kakuyo, K. (UNEP, 2001)
      The Africa Environment Outlook report is the first comprehensive integrated report on the state of the environment about the continent. It provides a detailed analysis of environmental status and trends in Africa, integrated with the impacts of policies, laws and regional agreements. The report also analyses trends in human vulnerability and security due to environmental changes; and proposes alternative policy options for the future. Concrete policy actions are recommended for follow-up at national, sub-regional and regional levels.
    • African Aquaculture: A Regional Summary with Emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa.

      Moehl, J.; Machena, C. (FAO, 2000)
      The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations, most of which are practising some form of aquaculture, often at a very low level. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale, with fish ponds integrated into the mosaic of agricultural activities. Mean yield is approximated as 500 kg/ha/yr, although the range is wide, from less than a hundred to more than 10 000 kg/ha/yr. A typical scenario would be a 300 m2 pond producing 15 kg a year relying on family labour and on-farm inputs. There is little reporting of production from the region’s many reservoirs, although these are often exploited by nearby populations. Commercial finfish culture is fresh or brackish water, with Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Kenya and South Africa being important producers. Commercial tilapia farms report pond yields of 10 to 15 mt/ha/yr, while Clarias yields can exceed 20 mt/ha/yr. Marine shrimp culture is concentrated in Madagascar, although a few farms are found in Seychelles, Mozambique and Kenya. Mussels, oysters, abalone and seaweed are also marine cultures in some countries. Fish consumption has been decreasing as supply decreases relative to a growing population: from 9 kg per capita in 1990 to 6 kg per person at present. The attributes of Sub-Saharan Africa include under-utilized water and land resources, available and inexpensive labour, high demand for fish and a climate that favours a year-round growing period. However, optimal use of these resources has frequently been curtailed by poor infrastructure and lack of production inputs. The potential for expansion is nevertheless considerable, but requires several enabling factors that include: a positive perception of aquaculture, sound policies at the national level, strong public institutions, availability of nutrient inputs, conducive investment policies to attract increased private-sector participation, and access to credit for commercial-scale enterprises.
    • African Fisheries: Major Trends and Diagnostic of the 20th Century.

      Njock, J.C.; Njifonjou, O. (IIFET, 2000)
      The marine fisheries production from African coastal countries, combined with that of freshwater production of the continent is estimated to be 6 millions metric tons, corresponding only 5 % of the total world production. Africa's contribution to fisheries products (1,5 %) is insignificant compared to that of world commerce which is around 44 millions tons. This deplorable situation is due to a certain number of problems which include s among others, the relative biogenic poverty of African waters, the exploitation of African waters by foreign vessels, the total lack of catches effected by the African vessels out of their regional boundaries, the lack of knowledge on the mastering of commercialisation and on veritable commercial politics of fisheries products, including quality assurance. In addition to this, the almost inexistence of the aquaculture in the sub-Saharan countries. This paper analyses the African fisheries in the whole continent and presents the general characters, notably its evolution, fisheries resources, valorisation and consumption of fisheries products. The global analysis made here accords a priority to markets as well as to the framework of contribution of these products and tries, at the end of the 20th century, to present some trends. Facing the globalisation phenomena, how will African fisheries producers be challenged in the new millennium? This continental level analysis brings out field application and some different development perspectives for both small scale and industrial fisheries sub-sectors.
    • African Penguins Spheniscus Demersus Along The Kwazulu-Natal Coast, 1981–1999

      Whittington, P.A.; Underhill, L.G.; Esmonde-White, D.A.; Wilkinson, C.P. (1999)
      The African Penguin is rare east of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Ninety-nine penguins were found onshore along the coast of KwaZulu-Natal in 1981–1999, mostly in a state of starvation. Of these, 77% were between June and October during, and immediately after, the ‘sardine run’ of Sardine Sardinops sagax; 95% of birds that were aged were first-year birds; 96% were in the southern half of KwaZulu-Natal, south of Mtunzini (29°S) where the sardine run is strongest. The observations suggest that juvenile penguins from the nearest breeding colonies, in Algoa Bay, are drawn eastwards by the migrating Sardines; when these shoals dissipate, a lack of food leads to them coming ashore.
    • Agriculture And Savannah Biodiversity Loss

      Bourquin, O.; Hughes, G. R.; Sandwith, T. (1998)
      This paper investigates the question of what influence human beings have had on biodiversity in the region of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. A historical analysis has been made of human impact on local ecosystems and species accompanied by statistics on the reduction of habitats and systems caused by urbanisation, cultivation, silviculture and state dams. The major causes of biodiversity loss are identified as being habitat destruction or modification and extractive utilisation. The most important problem is that the government of South Africa does not have an effective environmental management system to ensure wise decision-making. The result has been sectoral ministries empowered with the dual role of both exploiting and preserving natural resources. In 1989 guidelines for Integrated Environmental Management were produced by the Department of Environmental Affairs with an environmental impact assessment procedure. However, the procedure is weak because cumulative and synergistic impacts of development are poorly considered, because the land-use planning framework at the regional and even subregional scale is incomplete, and because there is generally poor understanding of how various land-uses impact on biodiversity. What is more, the procedure hasn't been given force of law due to the worry that the country cannot afford expensive assessment procedures when economic growth is the priority.
    • Anakao fringing reef system: biodiversity and anthroprogenic impacts

      Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and Institute of Marine Sciences, Toliara, Madagascar., 2003
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Six Green Algae from Tanzania

      Mtolera, M.S.P.; Semesi, A. (1996)
      Many algae species have been shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic substances (Glombitza, I979;Michaneck, 1979; Caccamese et al., 1980; Fenical & Paul, 1984; Niang& Hung, 1984). The antibacterialagents found in the algae include amino acids, terpenoids, phlorotannins, acrylic acid, phenoliccompounds, steroids, halogenated ketones and alkanes, cyclic polysulphides and fatty acids. In a large numberof marine algae antimicrobial activities are attributed to the presence of acrylic acid.
    • Application of an Ocean Color Algal Taxa Detection Model to Red Tides in the Southern Benguela

      Etheridge, S.M.; Roesler, C.S.; Pitcher, G.C. (2000)
      A forward reflectance model is used to demonstrate the sensitivity of hyperspectral ocean color observations to phytoplankton biomass, species composition and cell size. An inverse ocean color model is developed which has explicit terms for 5 taxonomic groups of phytoplankton. The model expresses the contributions of each group in terms of the magnitude of the absorption coefficient, which is proportional to biomass. The model is applied to a time series of reflectance data from an expansive red tide off the west coast of South Africa. The results compare favorably with those derived from microscopic cell counts. This demonstrates the utility of in situ ocean color detection of the composition and concentration of potentially harmful algae.
    • Applications of an Indian Ocean Observing System to Climate Impacts and Resource Predictions in Surrounding Countries in the Context of ENSO-Monsoon Teleconnections

      Jury, M.; Gadgil, S.; Meyers, G.; Ragoonaden, S.; Reason, C.; Sribimawati, T.; Tangang, F. (2000)
      We explore the path between Indian Ocean observations and monsoon dynamics, the societal impacts of interannual climate variations and applications of resource predictions in southeastern Africa, the Mascarene Islands, India, southeast Asia and Australia. Recent progress in understanding ocean dynamics associated with SST variation is reviewed. The global El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects monsoon winds and ocean temperatures in a manner consistent with, but lagging, the Pacific. The ENSO influence often propagates across the tropical Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia, modulating the tropospheric moisture flux over the Indian Ocean and rainfall in surrounding continents. An east-west dipole in SST anomalies and monsoon rainfall is identified and related to the atmospheric Walker Cell. It appears partially in response to global ENSO conditions during build-up phase (July-Nov.). The eastern ‘node’ is confined near Sumatra, whilst the western centre of action extends from the Maldives to the Seychelles Islands. Correlations indicate that the strength of ENSO in the Indian Ocean region has decreased in recent decades, while large scale, spatial and temporal patterns suggest independent variations of the Indian Ocean. Apart from annual variations of the monsoon and year-to-year fluctuations of climate, short-term weather events have a dramatic impact on countries around the Indian Ocean. Recent floods in southern (2000) and eastern (1997- 98) Africa and southeast Asia (1998) are related to SST patterns and localised atmospheric responses. Predictions of the future availability of food and water resources, and short-term forecasts of storm events are some of the decision tools that can be offered through information from ocean data. The close relationship between regional SST anomalies and impacts on the food and water resources of surrounding countries provides a strong motivation for sustained observations in the Indian Ocean. A specific design plan for the observational network is proposed, linking eastern and western efforts in an efficient manner.
    • An Approach to Sustainable Water Management Using Natural Resource Accounts: the Use of Water, the Economic Value of Water, and Implications for Policy

      Lange, G.M. (1997-06)
      A Natural Resource Accounting project is currently underway to document the status of the nation’s resources and their current economic use. Accounts for water constitute a major component of the Natural Resource Accounts (NRA) since water is the limiting resource for economic development in Namibia, as it is for much of Southern Africa. The NRA include both stock and use accounts for water, as well as related environmental statistics. In order to design development strategies that are sustainable over the long run, it is essential to know the full value of this scarce resource. This is especially important for a resource like water which is used throughout the economy and must be managed to achieve sometimes conflicting economic, social, and political objectives. A comparison is made of user fees, costs of delivery, and the economic contribution of water in different sectors of the economy as a first step toward estimating the opportunity cost of water. As in many countries, government-provided water is heavily subsidized, especially in agriculture. An analysis of two of the largest and most heavily subsidized users of water -- commercial crop irrigation and rural subsistence production -- has important implications for agricultural policy and rural development strategy. Further development of the opportunity cost approach to water pricing would greatly enhance policy analysis. There is also a need for similar, coordinated work to be carried out in other countries in Southern Africa in order to design strategies for sustainable management of resources, like water, which transcend national boundaries.
    • Aquaculture Training for Kenyan Fisheries Officers and University Students

      PD/A CRSP, 2000
      Lack of technical training has been cited as a major reason for the low output of fish ponds in Kenya. The lack was observed at all levels, from the lowest-level extension agent through university levels. The training program undertaken by the Kenya Project in Kenya seeks to improve training and to provide a cadre of trainers who have extensive practical fish-production experience. This year the Kenya Project continued scholarship support for two M.S. students, one at Moi University’s Chepkoilel Campus, Eldoret, Kenya, and the other at Auburn University, Alabama. Small stipends for student research conducted at Sagana Fish Farm have allowed undergraduate as well as graduate-level university students to remain longer to complete projects and gain valuable field experience.....