Recent Submissions

  • Development of a special purpose LED ultraviolet lamp in a T8 flask

    Zhuravleva, Yu. A.; Nesterkina, N. P.; Kuznetsov, E. A. (2020)
    Fluorescent tubular ultraviolet lamps are used in medicine, industry, cosmetology, forensic science, and banking. During the development of the LED ultraviolet lamp in a T8 flask, a comparison of its lighting characteristics (power, energy flux, spectral distribution of radiation) with the parameters of special-purpose fluorescent lamps produced at industrial enterprises has been carried out. The design of the LED lamp includes a glass uviole tube with a diameter of 26 mm and a length of 322 mm (wall thickness is 1 mm, glass grade – SL97-3). For precise installation of the lamp in the irradiation facility and supplying electric power to it, plastic caps of the G13 pin type (the distance between the electrical contacts is 12.7 mm) are used. Measurements of electrical parameters, energy flux and spectral distribution of radiation have been carried out at nominal mains voltage on a Gooch & Housego photocolorimetric measuring device. The developed LED lamp consumes seven times less electricity, has significantly longer (five times) expected service life and is a safer source of ultraviolet radiation, since it does not contain harmful vapors of mercury and its compounds. The LED ultraviolet lamp in a T8 flask can be used instead of the manufactured LUFT-10 lamps for special purposes, namely, in irradiators for carrying out technological processes (photochemical reactions, drying, curing), for attracting and disinsecting insects in traps, in photocopiers.
  • Assessment of wind energy potential of the Murmansk Region and performance of Kola wind farm

    Beley, V. F.; Kotsar, G. V. (2020)
    The paper gives an analysis of perspectives for development of wind power generation, information on the share of wind energy in electricity generation in the world and in Russian Federation is provided as well. Data on gross, technical, economic potential of wind energy of Russia and the Murmansk Region has been presented. When calculating the gross wind energy potential of the region, data from the last 10 years of observations carried out at 37 meteorological stations have been used. The territory of the region has been divided into 6 distinctive zones, based on the wind activity. Gross energy potential has been calculated for each zone: for the heights of 10, 50, 100, and 150 m. Gross wind energy potential of the region at the height of 150 m has thus been estimated at 23,090 billion kWh. The Murmansk Region's 201 MW Kola wind farm, which consists of 57 Siemens Gamesa SG 3.4-132 wind turbines with a unit capacity of 3.465 MW, is to be constructed by 2021 under the direction of Enel Green Power. Wind energy potential and annual power generation of the Kola wind farm have been assessed. The difference between the obtained results and calculations of Enel Group's specialists amounts to less than 15 %. For the cases of relocation of Kola wind farm to different wind zones, the annual power generation of the wind farm has been estimated. It has been determined, that in case of Kola wind farm's relocation to the zone with the highest wind activity its annual electricity generation could be increased up to 1.5 times. A model of the Kola energy system has been developed in NEPLAN software, its validity has been proven. The calculations of the wind farm's operation modes show that voltage levels of the system nodes and powerflows are within the boundaries defined by normative documents. The effectiveness of reactive power regulation of the wind farm has been shown.
  • Development of a stand for researching electric drives of pumping units

    Tsvetkov, A. N.; Kornilov, V. Yu.; Safin, A. R.; Kuvshinov, N. E.; Petrov, T. I.; Gibadullin, R. R. (2020)
    In the modern oil industry, the vast majority of oil production units are represented by sucker rod pumping units, driven mainly by asynchronous electric motors without using any monitoring, control and regulation means. Studies carried out on such installations show their low energy efficiency and reliability. Therefore, the issue of developing complex electric drives of a new generation based on the use of synchronous valve electric motors is relevant allowing to significantly increase the energy efficiency and reliability of both individual installations and to ensure the creation of "smart" oil field control systems. The paper discusses new technical solutions of the experimental stand which makes it possible to study the energy characteristics of electric drives based on asynchronous and synchronous valve electric motors, as well as allowing to create conditions as close as possible to real field conditions with imitation of the operation of an oil pumping unit of a sucker rod pumping unit. In modern test equipment systems, devices are often used to create a mechanical load on the shaft of the electric motor under study. The system proposed and implemented as such a device is "a frequency converter – load asynchronous electric motor", which has been tested on a stand and has proven to be the best in comparison with traditional circuits using DC motors. But using of a load asynchronous electric motor as part of the test stand has revealed a number of disadvantages: overheating of the electric motor operating in the opposing mode, low accuracy of creating the load torque and the speed of the system's response. The problem of overheating of the load electric motor has been solved by transferring the frequency converter to the direct torque control mode, while a significant decrease in the motor current and stabilization of the temperature regime have been detected. The low accuracy and response speed of the system have been increased by introducing feedback and a PID controller into the stand control system.
  • Investigation of the effect of ultrasonic radiation on varnished and compounded impregnating compositions with an innovative method of dismantling electric motor windings

    Nemirovsky, A. E.; Kashin, A. I. (2020)
    For the purposes of energy efficiency, ecology and less time for the cycle of repairing electric motors in the part of the excavation of the stator winding, an innovative method for dismantling ultrasound-based windings has been investigated. From a technical point of view the method has shown to be more optimal in comparison with existing methods of removing the winding. The paper is a continuation of fundamental research on the development of an innovative method of repairing electric motors. It is in this article that the main emphasis is placed on the material from which the insulation of windings is made. Lacquer and compound insulations have been considered being the main types of insulation of industrial electric motors in our country. The analysis of impregnating electrical insulation compositions of motor stator windings has been carried out; the ultrasound effect during the dismantling of motor windings at different levels of influencing factors has been studied, namely duration and power of ultrasonic action, concentration and temperature of the working solution. The validity of the scientific results obtained in the work is confirmed by the correctness of the applied mathematical apparatus and the methods of mathematical modeling, the convergence of the results of numerical modeling and full-scale experiments. A system of equations has been simulated and models of the effect of useful factors relative to each other have been built, the results obtained have been optimized during the experiment and the optimal parameters of both lacquer and compound insulation systems have been identified. The optimal parameters of the types of insulation under study have shown encouraging results on many important points compared to the existing ones: duration, energy consumption, and environmental friendliness. The validity of the conclusions regarding the adequacy of the mathematical models used has been confirmed by the results of experimental studies conducted in the framework of this work of the process of depolymerization of the electric motors' stator windings.
  • Algorithms and models of power losses in circuit breakers installed in networks

    Gracheva, E. I.; Gorlov, A. N.; Alimova, A. N. (2020)
    Determination of the main characteristics of the topology and technical condition of equipment under operating conditions is necessary for analyzing and assessing power and electricity losses in intrashoplow-voltage industrial power supply networks. A comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of automatic circuit breakers VA57-31 (KEAZ), NSX100 TM-D (Schneider Electric), DPX3 160 (Legrand), Tmax XT1 TMD (ABB) has shown that the main technical parameters of the machines are close in their values. At that it has been found out that automatic switches of the BA57-31 series have the lowest value of power losses per pole (7.5 W), whereas the automatic switches of the Tmax XT1 TMD series have the highest value (10 W). Thus, under the operating conditions of the equipment, the lowest value of power and electricity losses is characteristic of low-voltage electrical networks with installed circuit breakers of the BA57-31 series, and the highest value of losses is noted in in-shop systems with installed circuit breakers Tmax XT1 TMD. Using catalog data, the dependences of active power losses in circuit breakers on rated currents have been established; the algorithms have been developed and the obtained dependences have been modeled using approximating functions. The standard deviation of the compiled approximating functions has been calculated. Analytical expressions of the dynamics of power losses per pole have been determined as a function of the rated current. The graphical dependences of the investigated parameters of low-voltage equipment have been presented. The developed models are recommended to be used to increase the reliability of the assessment and refinement of the amount of active power and electricity losses in low-voltage electrical networks of industrial power supply systems, agrotechnical complexes, and enterprises of the public utility sector.
  • The estimation of ship cable condition by the means of measuring its insulation characteristics

    Vlasov, A. B.; Buev, S. A. (2020)
    Timely detection of defects in electrical equipment and cable network is required for the ensuring the fire safety of a modern marine vessel. The method of continuous monitoring of the resistance value of cable insulation is not very informative and is not applicable for assessing the service life of cables and predicting their replacement during operation and repair. Currently the problem of developing modern non-destructive methods of insulation control is very urgent in order to determine the operability of the cable, search for diagnostic parameters characterizing the state of insulation during prolonged aging, as well as the introduction of traditional methods of diagnostics of electrical equipment that have shown their effectiveness at the facilities of the coastal infrastructure. A promising solution for this problem is a method for monitoring the values of the tangent of the dielectric loss angle tgδ of cable insulation using devices that allow registering parameters with high accuracy. In this study the determination of changes in the parameters of a ship cable subjected to accelerated thermal aging at temperatures 120–130 °C has been made. The tgδ measurements of the cable sheath have been carried out using the Tangent-2000 insulation meter. The tests have shown that aging of cable hose insulation is accompanied by a non-linear change in tgδ at certain values of the tangent of dielectric loss angle, visible cracks appear indicating the onset of an emergency condition of the cable. The nature of the change in the parameter tgδ is explained by the occurrence of reactions of oxidative dehydrochlorination of polychloroprene in the process of thermal aging of insulation and changes in its mass. Thus, the tangent of the dielectric loss angle can be one of the diagnostic parameters for assessing the state of the insulation of the ship's cable and predicting its service life.
  • Assesment of dynamic losses in power switches of autonomous inverters with different modulation algorithms

    Mashkin, A. V.; Fedotovsky, S. B. (2020)
    When designing an automated electric drive, it is required to provide the necessary quality indicators of speed control as much as possible with the lowest energy losses in it. Assessment of dynamic losses in power semiconductor switches of autonomous voltage inverters (AVI) is due to the need to select optimal control algorithms for them in order to increase energy efficiency in frequency-controlled asynchronous electric drive systems. To solve the set tasks, the method of mathematical modeling has been used. With the help of the developed program, an assessment of the dynamic losses in a high-speed electric drive during its operation in a steady state has been made. At a typical modulation frequency fм = 6,000 Hz, which with scalar control algorithms provides a sufficient degree of approximation of the generated phase voltage envelopes to a sinusoidal form, and the use of pulse-width control (WIR) algorithms, significant dynamic losses are observed in the switches of an autonomous voltage inverter. In the course of using the WID algorithms, an accurate approximation of the sinusoidal shape is not required, which makes it possible to reduce the modulation frequency and, as a consequence, reduce the amount of dynamic losses in the AVI keys. Therefore, a comparative assessment of dynamic losses has been carried out for the scheme of a classic three-phased AVI using the algorithms of unipolar and bipolar pulse-width control. The obtained simulation results have shown that the unipolar WID algorithm is more energy-saving compared to the bipolar WID algorithm when used in high-speed electric drives.
  • Study of rheological properties of gels based on thorny skate cartilage broth (Raja radiata) in the technology of natural fish culinary products – aspic fish, in jelly, fish jellies and potions

    Shokina, Y. V.; Kuchina, Yu. A.; Novozhilov, M. P.; Popov, M. М.; Shokin, G. O. (2020)
    The paper deals with methodological approaches to study the rheological properties of gelatin gels based on the thorny skate cartilage broth (Raja radiata), which is an aqueous extract of chondroitin sulfate, depending on the manufacturing technology. It is shown that the use of modern instrumental methods for studying the rheological properties of gels and methodological approaches typical of physical and colloidal chemistry allows to obtain the most complete and objective information about the mechanisms of formation of key consumer properties of fish products and the main directions of improving the technology of its manufacture. The influence of gelatin concentration in the range from 0.5 to 5.0 % in chondroitin sulfate-containing broths from the thorny skate cartilage on kinematic and dynamic viscosity of broths, as well as on the strength, melting point and shear stress indices of gels based on these broths was studied. As control samples, aqueous solutions of gelatin in concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 % and gels based on them were used in the studies. The analysis of the results of the study showed that the broths prepared on the basis of the thorny skate cartilage have increased relative to the control samples the values of kinematic and dynamic viscosity, the increase in indicators is characterized by a directly proportional dependence on the concentration of gelatin in the broth. Gelatin gels based on chondroitin sulfate-containing broths made from the thorny skate cartilage have increased strength, which has a positive effect on the organoleptic evaluation and consumer properties of the finished culinary products.
  • The texture changing of fresh champignons under the influence of processing by accelerated electrons during the refrigeration storage

    Fedyanina, N. I.; Karastoyanova, O. V.; Korovkina, N. V.; Shishkina, N. S. (2020)
    Technologies for processing and storage of food products using physical methods of exposure, in particular ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, have been actively developing in recent years. One of the types of ionizing radiation is processing by accelerated electrons, used to reduce losses, prolong the shelf life and sale of plant materials. The work has investigated champignons of the Agaricus bisporus species – the most common among cultivated mushrooms, which are a source of protein, containing useful micro- and macroelements, biologically active substances, vitamins of group B, PP, D. The dynamics of changes in texture as a qualitative indicator of the storage capacity of packaged fresh champignons in the process of refrigerated storage (at a temperature of +4...5 °C and a relative humidity of 85–90 %) for 29 days after treatment with accelerated electrons with an energy of 5 MeV in the range of accumulated doses from 0.8 to 3.2 kGy with a discreteness of 0.4 kGy. Treatment in the dose range of 3.4 kGy leads to a negative effect of changing storage capacity and is impractical. Treatment with accelerated electrons in the dose range from 0 to 3.2 kGy leads to an increase in storage capacity and reaches its extremum at 2 kGy. When extrapolating the results of experimental data, such a tendency is observed presumably up to a dose of 3.4 kGy. On the basis of experimental data, the dynamics of texture during storage after processing with accelerated electrons have been obtained, a mathematical model of the dependence of the limiting storage capacity in terms of the texture of mushrooms on the radiation dose has been constructed, and the modes of processing champignons have been established.
  • Forming technological traits of dry milk

    Radaeva, I. A.; Kruchinin, A. G.; Turovskaya, S. N.; Illarionova, E. E.; Bigaeva, A. V. (2020)
    Dry milk is used in a wide variety of products due to its high energy value and long shelf life. Its use is especially valuable in the dairy industry, since it smooths the seasonality of raw milk production. Moreover, dry milk makes it possible to generate socially essential products in the regions of Russia where dairy farming is not developed or where it is impossible to produce raw milk. There are different methods to form dry milk's traits and the required functional features like cheesability, heat stability and solubility. Among these methods we emphasize on technological ones, based on prevention measures of impact on raw milk during its processing. As a result, methods for the increase of dry milk's heat stability are among the most essential, since its low values make it impossible to generate products of high quality or to use this milk in any processing at all. A number of foreign and national works are dedicated to the improvement of dry milk's heat stability. These studies offer various methods like an effective refining of raw milk, its preliminary heat treatment, the use of specific food supplements and raw milk components, the correction of physicochemical values, the variation of temperature regimes, the use of unconventional equipment for desiccation and condensation. Integrated methods of heat stability increase do not require core changes in the current technological requirements of dry milk production and can be integrated into the existing production conditions, thus they arose a lot interest and have prospects. This overview allows to broaden knowledge and to find new methods to form technological traits of not only dry milk, but canned milk as well.
  • Effect of functional and technological properties of vegetable shortenings on qualitative characteristics of biscuit

    Misteneva, S. Yu.; Savenkova, T. V.; Demchenko, E. A.; Shcherbakova, N. A.; Gerasimov, T. V. (2020)
    The modern market has strict requirements for competitive products, forcing the manufacturer to implement scientific and technological progress in production, increase labor productivity and product quality, and reduce cost. The unchanged favorite on the confectionery market is sugar biscuits, it is in high demand among all groups of the population, the share of domestic products is more than 85 %. The quality and nutritional value of food products largely depend on the properties and composition of the predominant amount of raw materials, which in the production of sugar cookies are wheat flour, sugar and fat component. In order to update the technological control schemes and optimize the recipe composition of sugar cookies, depending on the type of fat component used, the influence and the relationship between the functional and technological properties of fatty products traditionally used in the production of sugar cookies (margarine, confectionery fat, milk substitute fat, palm oil), and quality characteristics of finished products (structural and mechanical, physicochemical and organoleptic indicators, rheological indicators of emulsion and dough) have been investigated. As a result of the studies, it has been found that the type of fatty products has a significant impact on the development and optimization of technological methods in relation to specific production conditions, the formation of sensory and structural characteristics of the finished product. Recommendations have been developed for optimizing the recipe composition of cookies depending on the type of fat used. In particular, it has been shown that it is advisable to use a milk fat substitute or margarine in products with a simple recipe composition, while the use of palm oil and confectionery fat is more justified in products with a rich recipe composition, in which organoleptic characteristics are formed by the presence of additional raw materials: dairy products, cocoa powder, nuts, dried fruits, etc.
  • Optimization of fatty acid composition of cottage cheese bagel

    Efremova, A. A.; Lyulkovich, V. S.; Naumova, N. L. (2020)
    The triglyceride composition of the fat base of margarine used in the technology of flour confectionery products (FCP) includes up to 70 % monounsaturated acids, up to 25 % saturated ones. It has been established that for a more complete assimilation of FCP, a fat-intensive product should contain these fatty acids in equal proportions and should not contain trans-isomers of fatty acids, the main source of which are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Trans fats contained in margarines can cause the development of many diseases. It is known that the fat of sunflower flour is represented by unsaturated acids: linoleic (≈ 70 %) and oleic (≈ 18 %), which are of great physiological importance. The aim of the research was to optimize the fatty acid composition of cottage cheese bagel through the use of flour from sunflower seeds. The nutritional value of raw materials has been investigated. Tests of several variants of modification of cottage cheese bagel recipe in the process of baking laboratory samples have shown the advantage of sunflower flour in comparison with wheat flour in terms of the amount of fat, proteins, dietary fiber. The possibility of replacing 15 % of wheat flour with flour from sunflower seeds with a decrease in margarine by 19.8 % in bagel technology has been established. The product of the modified prescription composition contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 28.4 %), of which linoleic – by 29.9 %, ?-linolenic – by 50 %, docosahexaenoic – by 20 %, eicosatrienic – by 35 %; less saturated fatty acids (by 6.2 %), of which caprylic – by 14.0 %, lauric – by 13.9 %, capric – by 10.7 %, myristic – by 9.6 %, butyric – by 9.1 %, palmitic – by 6.7 %; fewer transisomers of fatty acids (by 8.7 %), of which transisomers of oleic acid – by 9.6 %, linolenic – by 33.3 %. The proposed development has good consumer properties, and is characterized by a high content of protein (by 11.6 %) and dietary fiber (by 7.2 %).
  • Curd paste for calcium metabolism correction

    Donskaya, G. A. (2020)
    Calcium is one of critical elements influencing metabolic processes in the body. It is an essential ingredient of bone tissue. Once its amount in the blood is insufficient, bone calcium resorption occurs that leads to osteoporosis development. The goal of this publication is to demonstrate feasibility of introducing curd paste supplemented with additional source of calcium in the diet of population for improving antioxidant defense and strengthening bone tissue. This publication summarizes our previous research on developing calcium-enriched dairy products for osteoporosis prevention. It is supplemented with new data on significance of separate ingredients of curd paste, including whey protein antioxidant properties; ability of calcium and potassium salts as counterparts of strontium and cesium to reduce radionuclides absorption from gastrointestinal tract and others. Based on natural ingredients and targeted the mass consumer, Vitacalcin paste can provide a solid competition to domestic and foreign products. Formulations and technological process for curd paste Vitacalcin enriched with calcium from either eggshell powder or calcium alginate, and functional additives, such as nettle or garlic, has been developed. Products have been tested in animals and patients of Central Institute of Traumatology with primary form of osteoporosis. Bioavailability of calcium is more pronounced when consuming pastes with ESP and sulfur-containing additive. In animal model, bone mass increase has been observed after 28 days of curd paste consumption. Patients with pronounced osteoporosis consuming 200 g of curd paste daily for 30 days have demonstrated increased serum calcium level. It has been shown that the new product has a positive impact on bone tissue formation, and possesses antioxidant properties. As a result of the research, technical documentation for Vitacalcin curd paste is developed. The Institute of Nutrition recommends this product for osteoporosis prevention and correction of calcium balance.
  • Determination of thermophysical characteristics and viscous properties of minced raw materials from pond carp

    Aleksanian, I. Yu.; Nugmanov, A. H.-H.; Yartseva, N. V.; Feklunova, Yu. S. (2020)
    The thermophysical characteristics and structural-mechanical properties of a functional minced fish product have been examined, the knowledge of which is necessary for thermal calculations of the developed or improved freezing units. To find the thermophysical properties, the authors used a probe method based on the thermal inertial properties of a thermocouple, which is rarely used by modern researchers, although its advantages are obvious: in particular, it allows one to determine the desired characteristics during the working process. When studying the viscous rheology of minced semi-finished products, choosing between different types of viscometers, the authors have given a detailed analysis of the principle of their operation, as a result of which it is noted that rotary viscometers are most preferable for minced fish, since they require a smaller amount of test material to achieve the required variability of shear rates in him. Low-temperature processing of raw materials from aquatic organisms, due to its high importance for aquaculture, is constantly in the field of vision of specialists connected with refrigeration technologies for storing and processing food objects. The main trends in the development of freezing technology are aimed at increasing the intensity of processes for removing heat from the objects of freezing, but it is important to ensure the safety of their consumer properties, which directly affect the choice of the applied method of carrying out the technological process. Nowadays, there are a sufficient number of freezing methods, and the choice of the method and technical means of refrigerating various food materials requires a systematic approach, the formation of which is impossible without knowledge of the thermophysical and rheological characteristics of the processing object. The use of the results obtained by the authors, together with other necessary studies, will make it possible to identify rational operating parameters for obtaining frozen minced fish pellets with specified consumer properties. These granulated products will reduce the time for the production of minced fish culinary products at catering enterprises due to the exclusion of the stage of separate defrosting of minced semi-finished product from the technological chain.
  • Design, calculation and use of the multipurpose vacuum ground meat mixer

    Verbytskyi, S. B.; Kopylova, Y. V.; Patsera, N. N. (2020)
    Ground meat mixers mixing minced muscle tissue with other pre-formulated ingredients, are among the most common types of specialized meat processing equipment. The quality of minced meat, this being a food dispersed medium, including a solid, liquid and, in part, a gas phase, is determined by the dispersity and uniformity of its structure, as well as the uniformity of the distribution of components, that is, by the efficiency of the mixing process. The research carried out made it possible to theoretically substantiate the processes of mixing minced meat with the help of specialized technological equipment, including that providing vacuuming of processed food masses. A list of regulatory requirements for the structures of industrial meat mixers, which determine their technological efficiency, safety and hygiene, is given. Two main layouts of the specified equipment are described, horizontal and vertical. The design of a horizontal compact vacuum meat mixer with a coaxial double working spiral is presented. The results of work on the creation of a model range of vertical vacuum meat mixers are described, the possibility of using vertical vacuum machines for maceration by massaging medium-sized and small-sized meat raw materials is proven. It is advisable to carry out such a transformation of the equipment by replacing the working bodies of mixing with special massaging arms, these ensuring the most efficient performance of the specified technological operation. The diagram is presented, the design is described and the working cycle of the vertical vacuum machine with the geometric capacity of the working bowl is 0.15 m3 is described; the main technological and dynamic calculations of the said machine are given. The calculations made it possible to create an advanced non-metal-intensive design of a vacuum machine for mixing minced meat and/or massaging meat raw materials, which meets current requirements for equipment of the purpose. Studies of the quality of mixing of ground meat have shown that vacuuming makes it possible to consistently achieve a better density of minced meat, and for minced meat processed on an atmospheric mixer, a more uniform distribution of components was characteristic.
  • Molecular genetic methods of analysis to identify the species affiliation of the raw material composition in food products

    Yurova, E. A.; Zhizhin, N. A.; Filchakova, S. A. (2020)
    Methods based on the analysis of proteins and DNA molecules are more and more used to assess the composition of food products. Proteins research methods include immunological, electrophoretic and chromatographic ones. The analysis of DNA molecules is most often used to identify the species affiliation of food components. This is due to the stability of their structure compared to proteins, as well as their presence in most biological tissues. The results of studies evaluating methodological approaches for the application of the PCR diagnostic method to identify the composition of food products and the possibility of their use for monitoring dairy products have been shown. The objects of research were samples of cow, goat, sheep milk, as well as milk samples of different animal species mixed in various ratios. DNA was extracted from milk samples according to a unified technique for the separation of DNA molecules in milk and dairy products. The work also considers the possibility of using the PCR diagnostic method to identify the raw material origin of the product. To evaluate the measurement methods, artificially created samples of raw milk were used, which were cow, goat and sheep milk, a mix of three types of milk in different ratios. As a result of the research, the main method has been chosen as the real time PCR method, which has reliability, high sensitivity, sufficient rapidity, with the possibility of using it for dairy multicomponent products with a complex structural matrix, as well as products that have undergone deep technological processing.
  • Justification of unconventional protein-containing raw materials for the construction of milk chocolate formulas with increased biological value

    Linovskaya, N. V.; Mazukabzova, E. V.; Rudenko, O. S.; Savenkova, T. V. (2020)
    Milk chocolate is particularly popular with different age groups. It is characterized by low protein content with a large amount of fats and carbohydrates determining the food imbalance of the product. In conditions of high-grade animal proteins deficiency the selection of high-quality protein-containing ingredients for food production is very relevant. The aim of this work is to study the protein adequacy of various components of milk chocolate to enhance its biological value. The amino acid scale method has been used to assess the biological value of proteins; it is based on the determination of amino acid (chemical) score. It has been found that the limiting biological value amino acid for classical white raw ingredients of milk chocolate (cocoa products and milk powder) is methionine + cysteine. For constructing chocolate formulas with increased biological value it is advisable to use protein-containing raw materials (whey protein concentrate, oat flour, etc.) to compensate for the limiting amino acids. The indicator of amino acids utilitarianity of proteins of raw milk chocolate components has been calculated. On the basis of the utilitarian index we have established the coefficient of utilitarian of the amino acid composition of the raw materials characterizing essential amino acids' balance. We have determined the biological value of protein and the amino acid composition imbalance coefficient. It has been found that the amino acid composition of milk and whey protein concentrates is most balanced compared to the amino acid composition of traditional protein-containing raw components of milk chocolate. The limiting acid of whey protein concentrate is valine, which makes its use in the manufacture of chocolate products more attractive compared to milk protein concentrate (the limiting amino acid is methionine + cysteine). In the group of vegetable non-conventional raw materials oat and buckwheat flour are characterized by the best indicators of biological value. The amino acid adequacy of oat flour is comparable to the qualitative protein indicators of cocoa products, the limiting amino acid is lysine. Buckwheat flour is characterized by the smallest imbalance in amino acid composition, which distinguishes the proteins of this raw material with the highest degree of digestibility compared with the proteins of all the studied protein-containing components of milk chocolate.
  • The use of flour from flax seeds in the production of cake of high nutritional value

    Kameneva, K. S.; Shcheveva, K. V.; Naumova, N. L. (2020)
    The composition of the cake is overloaded with fats and fast carbohydrates, poor in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals, and the assortment requires improvement in terms of increasing nutritional and biological value, for this purpose, manufacturers use various types of non-traditional plant materials. It is well known that flax seeds and their processed products, by the composition of functional and biologically active substances, are universal enrichment agents for food products. In this regard, the aim of the research is to optimize the classic formulation of cake in the direction of increasing its nutritional value through the use of flax flour. Sensory compatibility, physicochemical parameters and nutritional value of raw materials – wheat flour, flax seed flour – have been studied. The superiority of flour from flax seeds over wheat raw materials in the number of nutrients has been revealed. Several modifications of the European Cupcake recipe have been tested by baking model samples. The practical possibility of replacing 20 % premium wheat flour with linseed flour in the European Cupcake technology has been established, which contributes to the formation of new taste, aromatic and color shades, an increase in the number of mineral elements (magnesium – 3.9 times, copper – 2.9 times, selenium – 2.4 times, manganese – 1.9 times, zinc – 1.7 times, calcium – 20.9 %, phosphorus – 24.5 %, iron – 17.6 %), protein (by 13.4 %) and dietary fiber (by 12.6 %) in products with a decrease in the laying of vegetable oil in the cake formulation.
  • Sorption of heavy metals by the filtering containers with serpentine materials

    Mosendz, I. A.; Kremenetskaya, I. P.; Drogobuzhskaya, S. V.; Alekseeva, S. A. (2020)
    The search for effective technologies for the remediation of technologically polluted natural objects is an urgent problem of environmental protection. At the experimental site near Kola MMC JSC (Murmansk region, Monchegorsk), experiments have been carried out on the use of mining waste to create phyto-adsorption sites in technologically polluted territories. During the experiments, filtering modules were used to study the processes of sorption/desorption of emission components with vermiculite-sungulite composition materials obtained by enriching phlogopite mining waste (Murmansk Region, Kovdor). To load two types of filtering modules designed to study open (I) and partially open (II) systems, the authors have used the initial and heat-treated granular sungulite, as well as slurry products (the content of sungulite and vermiculite was 30 %). As a control option, an experiment has been carried out using pure peat, selected in the vicinity of Apatity (Murmansk region). As a result of the study, the layer-by-layer content of the acid-soluble (or semi-gross) form of the components has been determined; the toxicity module has been calculated (the ratio of the total molar content of metals (Cu + Ni) and macronutrients (Ca + Mg)) used to assess the possible toxic effect of products in relation to plants. Pure peat has proved to possess the greatest sorption ability, however, at the end of the experiment, the highest degree of toxicity has been observed for peat; mineral products have been the least toxic. An analysis of the distribution of metals among the layers of filtering modules (II) has shown that intense accumulation of metals is observed in the upper layers; with increasing depth (layers 2–4) there is a gradual decrease in the copper content, in some products nickel is leached in the lower layers. The results of the study have shown that for loading phyto-adsorption sites it is advisable to use a granular sungulite product characterized by good sorption ability and low toxicity.
  • Correlation between the material constitution components in apatite-nepheline ores of the Khybiny Rock Massif (the Kola Peninsula)

    Marchevskaya, V. V.; Korneeva, U. V. (2020)
    Raw apatite-nepheline ores of the Khibiny alkaline massif are similar in terms of the set of ore-forming minerals and differ in their quantitative ratio. A special place among apatite-nepheline ores is occupied by ores of tectonically destroyed zones, which are widespread in the Khibiny apatite-nepheline deposits. Destruction zone ores are product of secondary changes in raw ores and are characterized by the presence of finely dispersed secondary minerals represented by hydrated micas, zeolites and clay minerals. In the aquatic environment they form colloidal sediments with active surface properties. This fact, as well as thin films of clay and other minerals formed on the surface of apatite grains, cause a decrease in the degree of hydrophobicity of fluorapatite and deterioration of the selectivity of apatite flotation. According to the analytical determinations of the chemical components of the ores and their mineralogical composition, a correlation-regression analysis of the ratio of the components of the material composition of the ores has been performed. The results of correlation-regression analysis have shown that the presence of hypergenically changed ores related to difficult-to-treat ones can be identified by lower ratios of sodium and potassium oxides, as well as sodium and aluminum relative to their average. The presence of products of nepheline change in all ores processed has allowed revealing the most stable correlation between nepheline and sodium oxide, rather than aluminum oxides, in contrast to the earlier opinion. The very high correlation relationship between fluorapatite, nepheline, and titanite and the oxides of phosphorus, sodium, and titanium, respectively, and the statistical significance of the correlation and regression coefficients allow determining the content of these minerals using the regression equations presented in the paper.

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