• About terraces on the shore of the Teriberskaya Bay of the Barents Sea (the Kola Peninsula)

      Neradovsky, Yu. N.; Miroshnikova, Ya. A.; Companchenko, A. A.; Chernyavsky, A. V. (2022)
      The paper considers the results of the study of modern terraces on the coast of the Lodeyny Peninsula in the Barents Sea. According to field observations, decoding of space and geodetic maps and volumetric modeling, signs of three terraces have been identified. Two terraces having a rear seam, a cliff, a brow and horizontal platforms have been studied in more detail. The rear seams are located at 7 and 30 m, and the edges at 10 and 40 m above the sea level. The third terrace is confined to the level of 40–60 m, and has not been studied in detail. According to estimates, the first two terraces were formed about 3,300 and 6,000 years ago respectively. The 1st terrace characterizes the period of slow land rise by 10 m, at the speed up to 3 mm/year, which began about 3,300 years ago and continues to the present. It is characterized by a uniform sea retreat of about 15 mm/year. The erosion products of this terrace are common in the lateral zone and represent modern marine sediments, including beaches forming a new terrace. The 2nd terrace characterizes to the dynamics of rapid land rise by 30 m at a speed of about 11 mm/year, which occurred in the period from 6,000 to 3,300 years ago. The erosion products of this terrace are most common on the coast and are found at a distance of 100 m to 2–3 km from the shore. It is assumed that the speed of movement of the coastline during the retreat of the sea was different and reached up to 900 mm/year. According to the authors, preliminary data indicate the instability of the territory and the manifestation of block movements, which may have a negative impact on the development of infrastructure.
    • Bycatch of marine mammals in the Northwest Atlantic during commercial fishery (based on literature materials and observations by the Polar branch of VNIRO in 2013–2020)

      Mishin, Т. V. (2022)
      This paper describes one of the most acute problem for both environmental companies and fisheries – bycatch of marine mammals caused by bioresource exploitation in the Northwest Atlantic (NWA). There is no doubt that fishing has some impact on marine mammals, but information on bycatch of marine mammals is needed to understand the extent of the impact of different fishing gears. The paper is based on data from reports of observers of the Polar branch of VNIRO from fishing vessels in the 3LMNO NAFO zone (Newfoundland Island), as well as literary materials. As a result of the analysis, it has been found that small species of marine mammals, such as gray, common, harp seals from the Phocidae family, common dolphin, short-finned pilot whale (Delphinidae family) as well as harbour porpoise from the Phocoenidae family are most often injured by various fishing gears. Toothed whales (sperm whale, bottlenose whale) are the least susceptible to bycatch. Among the baleen whales, humpback whale, northern right whale and minke whale are often the victims of fishing. Gillnets, trawl fishing, and longlines are the greatest threats to small marine mammal species, while baleen whales are most vulnerable to traps, usually to catch ten-legged crustaceans Decapoda. Analysis of the literature has shown that, in general, the stocks of most marine mammal species in the NWA, excluding the northern right whale, are in a stable condition. The manuscript considers measures aimed at reducing bycatch of marine mammals.
    • Changes in the smoltification age of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Yokanga, Kharlovka and Vostochnaya Litsa Rivers (the Murmansk Region)

      Dolotov, S. I.; Kuzmin, D. O. (2022)
      Throughout the world, in recent decades, there has been a decrease in the abundance of Atlantic salmon, the main reason for which is a decrease in its survival rate during life at sea. Its value has a direct dependence on the length and, accordingly, the age of the smolts. Foreign researchers have found that the nature of long-term changes in the age structure of smolts can vary significantly by region. At the same time, the age of Atlantic salmon in Russian rivers, which account for a significant part of the area of the range of this species, was not considered. In this regard, the analysis of long-term data characterizing the age composition of salmon smolts of some rivers of the Murmansk region has been carried out. It has found been that in the first years of the period 2000–2018, the age structure of Atlantic salmon smolts was transformed in the rivers Yokanga, Kharlovka and Vostochnaya Litsa. As a result, fish at the age of 6 ceased to occur among them, the abundance of fish at the age of 5+ significantly decreased and the abundance of fish in the age groups of 3+ or 4+ significantly increased. The most likely reason for this is the change in the temperature regime of rivers since the mid-1990s, as a result of which the life time in the rivers of juvenile salmon has been reduced. Rejuvenation of the smolt population may have ambiguous consequences for the abundance of adult salmon, which are determined by the cumulative effect of reducing natural mortality at the stage from eggs to smolts, increasing their abundance and reducing their length, and reducing the survival rate during salmon life in the sea.
    • Polychaeta fauna in the northeastern Barents Sea

      Dikaeva, D. R. (2022)
      The northeast of the Barents Sea (the area between the Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya archipelagos) is one of the little-studied areas characterized by a complex structure of the hydrological regime, bottom relief and bottom sediment structure. This area is characterized by the predominance of brown soils with a large number of foraminifera shells, which affects the species composition and structure of benthic communities. The species composition and quantitative characteristics of polychaetes in the northeastern part of the Barents Sea were analyzed on the basis of material collected in December 2019 during Murmansk Marine Biological Iinstitution expeditions on the r/v Dalnie Zelentsy. Faunal complexes of polychaetes have been identified in the study area depending on environmental conditions (type of bottom sediments, depth, hydrological conditions). In the areas of marginal troughs, the detritophagus Spiochaetopterus typicus dominates in terms of biomass and abundance, forming abundant settlements on soft silty-sandy, silty-clay soils. Low values of biomass and abundance have been noted on brown silts with a large number of foraminifera, dominated by Laonice cirrata. On the slopes of underwater hills, washed more strongly by bottom currents, on rough sandy soils with low nutrient content, the dominance of Nephtys ciliata has been noted. The species Sphaerodoridium kolchaki sp. n. recently encountered in the Barents Sea has been noted in the study area as well. The obtained data complement information on the species composition of the northeastern part of the Barents Sea and make it possible to trace further changes in the composition and structure of benthic communities.
    • The role of rotifer in water quality improvement in a fishpond

      Gerasimova, T. N. (2022)
      Rotifers are common in fresh and brackish water bodies, in coastal areas of the seas, and can be an effective tool for analyzing the state of the environment. The ability of rotifers to adapt to unfavourable environmental conditions has been considered in the course of studying the species composition of rotifers in a fish pond near Moscow under the conditions of the supply of organic artificial food for fish and changes in the temperature regime of water. During the period of increased temperature of the water (21–25 °C) and decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen from the surface to the bottom layers of water from 3.8 to 0.2 mgO2/L in early July, Asplanchna priodonta helvetica, Brachionus angularis angularis and Brachionus calyciflorus dominated in the pond (98–100 % of the abundance and 99–100 % of the biomass of rotifers). During the period of elevated temperatures, the turbidity indices in the upper layer (0.2–0.5 m) were an order of magnitude lower than those in the deeper layers of the reservoir. Bacteria and tiny particles served as food for rotifers. The temperature of 18–25 °C was favourable for the development of B. angularis angularis in the fish pond. At a temperature of 18 °C, its abundance reached 1,500 ind./L (70 % of the abundance of rotifers). In August, when the temperature of the water column decreased from 20 to 18 °C, the biomass of A. priodonta helvetica changed from 0.3 to 9.5 mg/L (99 % of the biomass of rotifers). Polyarthra vulgaris dominated among small rotifers. During the period of low temperatures, the biomass of rotifers increased to 20 mg/L; its basis was A. priodonta helvetica. Rotifers are able to adapt to conditions of high organic input in a wide range of temperatures and participate in the restoration of water quality in a fish pond.