• Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM): The scientific plan for the second phase of POEM. Fourth POEM Scientific Workshop Venice, Italy August - September 1990

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 1992)
      This report summarizes the events of the Fourth POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) Scientific Workshop, held in Venice, Italy, at the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, from 27 August to 1 September, 1990. During this workshop, the scientific plan for the second phase of POEM (POEM-BC) was designed; it includes biological and chemical components. POEM-BC began in 1991 and comprises: (i) two general hydrographic surveys with chemical and biological studies; (ii) intensive field experiments focussing on process studies of the formation, dispersion and spreading of the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water) in the Levantine Basin and of Deep Water in the Ionian Sea; (iii) a field experiment for biogeochemical fluxes studies. The field activity of POEM-BC is projected over a five year period.
    • Ocean Teacher Global Academy: OTGA, a global network of regional training centres delivering customised ocean training for ocean experts and practitioners, contributing to the IOC mandate.

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC of UNESCOOstend, Belgium, 2015)
      Flyer on the activities of the OceanTeacher Global Academy
    • Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS): world's largest open access, online data system on the diversity, distribution and abundance of marine species.

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC of UNESCOOstend, Belgium, 2015)
      Flyer on OBIS activities
    • Transfer of Marine Biology: Knowledge Sharing and Capacity Development for Sustainable Ocean and Coastal Management

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC of UNESCOParis, France, 2015)
      Brochure on the Transfer of Marine Technology - Knowledge Sharing and Capacity Development for Sustainable Ocean and Coastal Management. Overview of major activities facilitating the Transfer of Marine Technology amongst nations.
    • ABALOBI: Case study by UNESCO-Pearson Initiative for Literacy.

      Castillo, Nathan M.; Vosloo, Steven (UNESCO and PearsonParis, France, 2015)
      In 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, small-scale fishers convened from around the world as part of a global mobilization effort to obtain equal access to marine resources (MDT et al., 2014). Two years later, these same fishers, with support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), began to petition the South African Government. Their efforts led to a new human rights-based policy, gazetted in 2012, and currently being implemented. The policy aims to recognize the small-scale fisheries sector and provide legal recognition to this subgroup of fishers (South Africa, 2012). While the policy, which required an amendment of the Marine Living Resources Act, is being implemented in South Africa, many lower-income and historically marginalized communities are still not able to access marine resources fully or derive the maximum benefits from any access they have (Saunders et al., 2016). These groups are either unaware of their legal rights or remain excluded from market access because of prevailing value chain power dynamics, their low reading proficiency and post-harvest technical skills. Post-harvest refers to all activities after a fish is landed, from cleaning to preservation and marketing. The ABALOBI programme, launched in South Africa in 2015, recognizes that inclusive technologies can have positive implications for transforming the societal and economic inequality that is common among historically underserved groups within South Africa. ABALOBI1 is a suite of mobile apps co-designed by multiple South African stakeholders to be an information management system for the small-scale fisheries sector. The service provides an open-source platform to strengthen market participation of local fishers and to record catch data and promote fisheries- related data monitoring, resulting in transparent and traceable data relevant to the sector. After a successful pilot between July 2015 and June 2017 in three different fisher communities, assessment of a small-scale deployment in the Northern and Western Cape provinces, and now a growing user-base across South Africa, the Minister of Fisheries has endorsed the platform – and supports its growth in the country – to become the official catch management system for the small-scale fisheries sector. With an emphasis on usability among low-literate and low-skilled fishers, ABALOBI has served as a catalyst for cross- sector livelihood development among underserved communities in rural South Africa.
    • Discover Ocean Time Series.

      Isensee, Kirsten; Valdés, Luis; O'Brien, Todd; Lorenzoni, Laura (UNESOC-IOC and International Group for Marine Ecological Time Series (IGMETS)Paris, France, 2015)
      Ship-based biogeochemical and ecological time series are one of the most valuable tools to characterize and quantify ocean ecosystems. These programmes continuously provided major breakthroughs in understanding ecosystem variability, allow quantification of the ocean carbon cycle, and help understand the processes that link biodiversity, food webs, and changes in services that benefit human societies. A quantum jump in regional and global ocean ecosystem science can be gained by aggregating observations from individual time series that are distributed across different oceans and which are managed by different countries. The collective value of these data is greater than that provided by each time series individually. However, maintaining time series requires a commitment by the science community and sponsor agencies.
    • Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): the Biology and Ecosystems Panel.

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC of UNESCOParis, France, 2015)
      Flyer for the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)
    • The United Nations World Water Development Report, 2016: Water and jobs. Executive summary.

      Connor, Richard; Paquin, Marc; United Nations World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) (United Nations World Water Assessment ProgrammeColombella, Italy, 2016)
      Water is an essential component of national and local economies, and is needed to create and maintain jobs across all sectors of the economy. Half of the global workforce is employed in eight water and natural resource-dependent industries: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, resource-intensive manufacturing, recycling, building and transport. Sustainable water management, water infrastructure and access to a safe, reliable and affordable supply of water and adequate sanitation services improve living standards, expand local economies and lead to the creation of more decent jobs and greater social inclusion. Sustainable water management is also an essential driver of green growth and sustainable development. Conversely, neglecting water issues runs the risk of imposing serious negative impacts on economies, livelihoods and populations with potentially catastrophic and extremely costly results. Unsustainable management of water and other natural resources can cause severe damages to economies and to society, thus reversing many poverty reduction, job creation and hard-won development gains. Addressing the water-jobs nexus, notably through coordinated policies and investments, is therefore a prerequisite to sustainable development in both developed and developing countries.
    • World Oceans Day, 8 June 2016: Programme of the World Oceans Day Paris, France - 08 June 2016 UNESCO Headquarters.

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC of UNESCOParis, France, 2016)
      World Oceans Day is celebrated every year on 8 June to acknowledge the importance of the oceans in the global environment. This international day observed by the United Nations serves as an occasion to raise awareness on the protection of the oceans and on the sustainable use of its resources, as well as to discuss ways to further develop and share scientific knowledge on ocean related issues. This year, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, together with the Ocean and Climate Platform, dedicates this special day to the key role played by the ocean in maintaining a healthy environment. Held under the theme “Healthy Ocean, Healthy Planet”, World Oceans Day 2016 gives special focus on the prevention of plastic pollution.
    • Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC).

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC of UNESCOParis, France, 2016)
      Brochure on the activities of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC)
    • Transboundary Water Cooperation and the Sustainable Development.

      Sindico, Francesco; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); International Hydrological Programme (UNESCOParis, France, 2016)
      The last several years have seen a discernible shift in global priorities towards advancing the concept of sustainable development. In particular, the establishment of the post-2015 development agenda and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the UN General Assembly points towards an integrated plan towards tackling global challenges. The goals seek to protect and improve five key areas of the world including people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership. The intent of this paper is to emphasize the vital role that transboundary water cooperation plays in global development, and to map out the relationship that this cooperation has with the other goals. Existing and emerging rules and institutions have been developed in international law to minimise, and where possible halt, negative consequences stemming from poor management of transboundary waters. SDG 6 provides for an important spotlight on improving water and sanitation, however for the context of global development it is crucial for water management to be interpreted and actionably combined with the other relevant SDGs, rather than curtailed as an individual entity. From direct linkages to indirect references, transboundary water cooperation is intrinsically connected to several other principles of sustainable development reflected in the goals and targets, including environment, energy, and food amongst others, and therefore must be viewed as an integral piece of global water management. Furthermore, Target 6.5 requires a set of two indicators in order to fully capture the importance of both integrated water resources management (IWRM) and transboundary water cooperation in the implementation of the SDGs. It is paramount that an indicator is retained solely for the transboundary water cooperation element embedded in Target 6.5. This paper advocates for an indicator that should be broad enough to reward also cooperative frameworks aimed at developing a sound system of exchange of information, and not only fully fledged IWRM systems. This is particularly important in the context of transboundary aquifers governance, where many of the cooperative frameworks being discussed are at a very initial stage. The indicator can be reviewed throughout the implementation of the SDGs, especially in relation to the quantity and quality of the information that needs to be exchanged in order to meet the indicator. UNESCO-IHP and UNECE can play an important role, together with other members of UN Water, in monitoring this much needed indicator.
    • Safeguarding Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Pacific: Report on good practice in the protection and management of world war II- related Underwater Cultural Heritage

      Takahashi, Akatsuki; Valerie, Wayte; Pacific Underwater Cultural Heritage Partnership (UNESCOParis, France, 2017)
      This publication outlines good management practices but also explores how the protection of WWII UCH can benefit local communities and contribute to sustainable development in the region. The Pacific region covers about one-third of the total surface area of the Earth and has a long history of human migration and settlement. Beneath the waters of the Pacific Ocean lie traces of human existence that span across the centuries. These sites include ancient sunken villages, traditional fish traps of indigenous communities, and shipwrecks of missionaries and explorers. There is also a large number of shipwrecks and aircraft dated from WWII when the Pacific Ocean became the theatre of some of the fiercest battles of that time. Some of these sites are the final resting place of many lives and remain a sombre reminder of tragedies that wars bring upon people. Today many of these sites have become popular diving sites for tourists. However, some of the WWII-related UCH are slowly degrading with increasing risk of oil pollution, particularly in the event of severe storms.
    • Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment of the Baltic Sea region. Volume No. 1 - a status report.

      Pyhälä, Minna; Zandaryaa, Sarantuyaa (UNESCO-IOC and HELCOMParis, France, 2017)
      Emerging pollutants present a new global water quality challenge with potentiallyserious threats to human health and ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals represent a major group of emerging pollutants found in freshwater and coastal waters. Pharmaceuticals are essential for human health and well-being. However, the growing use of pharmaceuticals resulting from e.g. population growth and aging has become a new environmental concern due to their potential negative effects on humans and ecosystems. Not insignificant quantities of unmetabolized and unused pharmaceuticals and their byproducts are discharged into freshwater systems with untreated wastewater and effluents from wastewater treatment plants, as well as direct discharges from use within animal husbandry and aquaculture. These pollutants reach coastal and sea waters, as ultimate sinks. The occurrence of pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of global concern and the extent of their risks and impacts on human health and biota is largely unknown. This publication presents the first regional report with a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, concentrations and pathways of pharmaceuticals into the environment in the Baltic Sea region. The publication provides a comprehensive compilation of available data and information on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the Baltic Sea freshwater and marine environment and of their main sources and pathways collected through national reporting by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention). The report also presents estimates of sales and consumption of drugs as well as information on handling of household pharmaceutical waste in some of the Baltic Sea countries. Compiled data include concentrations of pharmaceuticals in river water, wastewater and Baltic coastal and open seas, as well as in Baltic Sea biota and sediment. The concentrations are compared to threshold values, when such information is available. Information about the environmental effects of pharmaceuticals in the Baltic Sea is also provided. Data were provided by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Poland, Russia and Sweden. The data presented in the report cover the period 2003-2014 and include 47,600 data points on sources and pathways of pharmaceuticals (i.e., measurements in wastewater influents and effluents, sludge and river water) and 4,600 individual data points on concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the coastal, open sea and transitional areas of the Baltic Sea marine environment. The report includes data on 167 pharmaceutical substances measured in the marine environment and 156 pharmaceutical substances and 2 metabolites sampled in surface freshwater systems and in influents, effluents and sludge of municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) situated in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Russia (St. Petersburg) and Sweden. This report is a case study in the framework of UNESCO Emerging Pollutants in Water Series under UNESCO-IHP’s International Initiative on Water Quality (IIWQ) Project on ‘Emerging Pollutants in Wastewater Reuse in Developing Countries’. It was developed jointly by the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) and Policy Area Hazards of the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, and serves as a follow up to the commitments of the 2010 and 2013 HELCOM Ministerial Declarations to assess the pharmaceuticals contamination in the aquatic environment
    • Strengthening the GEF Marine and Coastal Portfolio: How GEF Projects can benefit and contribute

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCOParis, France, 2017)
      A key element of improved ocean governance is mainstreaming cooperation and coordination between LME, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) projects with overlapping themes and geographic areas, both for GEF projects and for non-GEF projects. The project aims to reach a variety of GEF marine and coastal stakeholders including project managers, international and local project staff, government officials, implementing agency staff, non-governmental organizations, business community and others. GEF LME:LEARN promotes learning and partnership building, knowledge and experience sharing, and information management among projects in the GEF marine and coastal focal areas. It operates as a central hub for storing and sharing data and documents from GEF marine and coastal projects.
    • Agenda 2030: challenges for us all.

      Falt, Éric; Defourny, Vincent; Šopova, Jasmina; Denison, Ian; Markelova, Katerina; Ibrahimova, Malahat; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (UNESCOParis, France, 2017)
      The publication of this issue marking the relaunch of the UNESCO Courier is particularly fitting, given that it falls within the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that the United Nations adopted in September 2015. This new agenda represents a turning point towards a more humanistic attitude in global development policies, relying on people’s capacities to respond to the challenges of peace and climate change through education, science and culture, which is an underlying element of each of the objectives of sustainable development. We are convinced that in a world full of limitations — in terms of our resources and our means — humanity can count on the renewable resources of its intelligence, creativity and ingenuity. This wealth, fostered by the moral requirement to respect the rights and dignity of each individual, represents an infinite source of progress. To unlock this potential, we must also help raise awareness of the creative wealth of humanity, and the Courier can contribute to this by circulating words of peace, trust and intelligence in response to the discourse of hatred, fear and rejection that currently spreads so easily on the internet and on the streets. The UNESCO Courier is also a powerful tool of this fundamental aspiration, and I call upon all UNESCO Member States and partners, and first and foremost all intellectuals, artists and experts, to make their voices heard by enriching the pages of this Courier, which has inspired so many generations of readers and will continue to do so for a long time.
    • Water Management Curricula. Volume 1. Water Management Curricula Using Ecohydrology and Integrated Water Resources Management.

      Zainal Abidin, Mohamed Roseli; Dom, Norlida Mohd; Ghazali, Munirah; Heryansyah, Arien; Harun, Sobri; Sidek, Lariyah; Nor, Asmaliza Mohd; Sulaiman, Mohd Sofiyan; Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Yusuff, Ferdaus Mohamad; et al. (The Regional Humid Tropics Hydrology and Water Resources Centre for Southeast Asia and the PacificKuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2017)
      This water education modular curricula is in line with UNESCO's mandate as part of the project incorporating new strategies in the framework of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) Phase VIII (2014-2021) focusing on "Water security: Responses to local, regional, and global challenges" to deeper understanding of the interfaces and interconnections between the water, energy and food nexus, which aims to further improve Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and to deeper understanding of their interfaces and interconnections. Through South-South cooperation developing countries could strengthen regional scientific collaboration particularly in Ecohydrology and IWRM through UNESCO Category 2 Water Centres such as The Regional Humid Tropics Hydrology and Water Resources Centre for Southeast Asia and The Pacific, UNESCO Water Centre Category 2 (HTC KL) and Asia Pacific Centre for Ecohydrology (APCE) in Asia Pacific and Regional centre for Integrated River Basin Management (RC-IRBM) in Africa focusing on LDCs and/or SIDS (ASPAC/Africa), contributing at least to five LDCs in Asia and Africa's water resources management development. This curricula will contribute to the development of a long term strategy for water resources management to achieve water security, in line with UNESCO Country Strategic Document Malaysia 2017-2020
    • Ocean literacy and the IOC: fostering ocean-related education and the culture of conservation, restoration and sustainable use of our Blue Planet

      Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCOParis, France, 2017)
      The general public is not aware of the full extent of the medical, economic, social, political and environmental importance of the sea. Many of us are not aware that our day-to-day actions can have a cumulative effect on the health of the ocean and seas – a necessary resource that must be protected for all life on planet earth to exist. In other words, people lack a sense of ‘Ocean Literacy’ i.e. an understanding of the ocean’s influence on us and our influence on the ocean.
    • Evaluation of UNESCO's Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology Programme.

      UNESCO Internal Oversight Service (UNESCO-Internal Oversight ServiceParis, France, 2017)
      Since the 1990s UNESCO has been a leading UN Organization in Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology. It developed a number of international normative instruments, which were adopted by expert advisory bodies and became the basis for two global capacity building programmes (Assisting Bioethics Committees (ABC) and Ethics Education Programme (EEP)) that are managed by Headquarters and implemented with the support of Field Offices. This evaluation examined how the Organization’s Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology Programme had been designed and implemented during 2010-2016, as well as the results achieved with the aim of suggesting improvements. The evaluation found that past and current normative work continues to drive the programme. UNESCO also provides a global forum for reflection on Bioethics and Ethics of Science and Technology through its advisory bodies, though the working methods of the latter require review. Its capacity building programmes are relevant, but not sufficiently demand-driven and require different delivery modalities. The Organization’s partnerships in the field are underutilized and their full potential not yet realized.
    • The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach: an Engine for Achieving SDG 14.

      Henshaw, Taylor; GEF LME:LEARN (UNESCOParis, France, 2017)
      A combination of anthropogenic and natural pressures is impacting the health and productivity of LMEs, compromising the sustainability of LME ecosystem services. These pressures are accelerating, and without concerted action their impacts could become irreversible.
    • Ocean Data and Information System- Concept paper summary.

      Spears, Tobias; Simpson, Pauline; Chandler, Cyndy; Michida, Yutaka; Pissierssens, Peter (UNESCO-IOCParis, France, 2017)
      This paper summarizes IOC document IOC/IODE-XXIV/6.2.1 (Ocean Data and Information System – Concept Paper), describing a recommended strategy to move towards the implementation of a universal marine data and information system in response to the 2016 external audit of the IOC and its activities. After considering the observations presented in the audit, identifying the root causes which have contributed to the current state of the marine data and information systems landscape, it is recommended that the IOC work with existing stakeholders, linked and not linked to the IOC, to improve the accessibility and interoperability of existing data and information, and to contribute to the development of a global ocean data and information system, to be referred to as the Ocean Data and Information System in this document, leveraging established solutions.