Challenge 5- Projects
Science Action Plan (SAP) of CSK-2The Draft CSK-2 Science Action Plan (SAP) was prepared by the CSK-2 Task Force on SAP Development, which was formed as per the decision of the CSK-2 International Steering Group at its first meeting (virtual, 8 December 2021).
Half-Century of Scientific Advancements Since the Cooperative Study of the Kuroshio and Adjacent Regions (CSK) Programme - Need for a new Kuroshio ResearchProgress in OceanographyThrough the Cooperative Study of the Kuroshio and Adjacent Regions (CSK) program during 1965–1979, the capacities of current member states (MSs) of the Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) were enhanced with regard to regional ocean science and data management. Following the termination of the CSK in 1979, each MS continued the work to advance ocean science. The results of scientific studies of the Kuroshio and its adjacent regions have been published by various experts including many from the MSs of the WESTPAC; however, to-date, there has been no systematic approach to the research of the Kuroshio and its adjacent regions. This review considered the Kuroshio from the regional perspective of experts of the MSs, that is, from the perspectives of MSs, science, and the future prospects. Experts from each MS reviewed past activities and con tributions and reviewed the knowledge gaps in the fields of physical, biological, and biogeochemical science. Many scientific questions remain regarding the path of the Kuroshio from south to north, as well as associated phenomena, including mesoscale eddies and fronts, the important roles of ocean variations in adjacent regions, and the different roles and mechanisms of air–sea interactions in low- and mid-latitude areas. Despite consid erable effort by many biologists, substantial gaps remain in our biological knowledge of the region. The Kuroshio and its adjacent regions comprise one of the areas of the world with high biodiversity; however, there has been insufficient research into what is the cause of this high biodiversity. From a biogeochemical aspect, high resolution spatiotemporal observations will be required to understand interactions with physical processes both in the Kuroshio region and in the marginal seas. It has been highlighted that long-term fixed-location observations will be needed to understand the key mechanisms of biogeochemical processes, particularly in relation to climate change.