Recent Submissions

  • Introduction to the Workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)"

    Kirchner, Andree; Schiano di Pepe, Lorenzo; ISRIM; University of Genoa (ISRIM; University of Genoa, 2023)
    In the first part of the introductory video (1/6), Prof. Dr. Andree Kirchner (@ISRIM) and Prof. Dr. Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe (@Uni.Genova) are giving some background information about the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)". In the second part of the introductory video, Prof. Dr. Marco Giovine (Centro del Mare, @Uni.Genova) explains the importance of the topic from the perspective of the Centre of the Sea at the University of Genoa. The presentations are part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (ISRIM) and the University of Genoa on 1 September 2023. The workshop is an UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Capacity-Building and the Transfer of Marine Technology

    Grainger, Carl; ISRIM; University of Genoa (2023)
    In the sixth video (6/6) of the series, Mr Carl Grainger (Department of Foreign Affairs, Ireland) explains the provisions of Part V on "Capacity-building and the transfer of marine technology" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM ) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova ) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Environmental Impact Assessments

    Lindström Battle, Jessica; ISRIM; University of Genoa (Universita di Genova, Institutie for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law, 2023)
    In the fifth video (5/6) of the series, Ms. Jessica Lindström Battle (@WWF) the provisions of Part IV on "Environmental impact assessments" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Measures such as Area-based Management Tools, Including Marine Protected Areas

    Becker-Weinberg, Vasco; ISRIM; University of Genoa (Universita di Genova, Institutie for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law, 2023)
    In the fourth video (4/6) of the series, Prof. Dr. Vasco Becker-Weinberg (New University of Lisbon) explains the provisions of Part III on "Measures such as area-based management tools, including marine protected areas" of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement), which was adopted on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (@ISRIM ) and the University of Genoa (@Uni.Genova) on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • The new BBNJ Agreement.

    Kirchner, Andree; ISRIM; University of Genoa (Universita di Genova, Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law, 2023)
    In the second video (2/6) of the series, Prof. Dr. Andree Kirchner (ISRIM) explains the historical background of the initiative and the negotiation processes, which lead to the adoption of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ Agreement) on 19 June 2023 in New York. The presentation is part of the workshop "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)", which took place in the framework of the 9th Summer School on the European Union and the Law of the Sea (EULoS). It was organized by the Institute for the Law of the Sea and International Marine Environmental Law (ISRIM) and the University of Genoa on 1 September 2023. The workshop is a UN Ocean Decade Activity.
  • Addressing underwater noise in Europe: Current state of knowledge and future priorities

    Thomsen, Frank; Mendes, Sónia; Bertucci, Frédéric; Breitzke, Monika; Ciappi, Elena; Cresci, Alessandro; Debusschere, Elisabeth; Ducatel, Cecile; Folegot, Thomas; Juretzek, Carina; et al. (European Marine Board, 2021)
    The Ocean presents a cacophony of sounds originating from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Marine organisms heavily rely on sound to communicate and understand the world around them, and are therefore potentially impacted by anthropogenic sound. However, in developing our Blue Economy and in advancing our knowledge of marine environments and ecosystems, anthropogenic noise is sometimes unavoidable. Understanding the potential effects of anthropogenic noise is therefore integral to addressing this conflict, as it is needed to develop proportionate mitigation strategies and effective regulation. Next to providing an overview of our current knowledge about underwater noise, this publication highlights the priority areas for further research addressing the remaining knowledge gaps about the effects of anthropogenic noise. Furthermore, it points out the relevant actions needed to take in order to ensure ecosystem-based and precautionary legislation.
  • Ocean oxygen: The role of the Ocean in the oxygen we breathe and the threat of deoxygenation

    Grégoire, Marilaure; Oschlies, Andreas; Canfield, Donald; Castro, Carmen; Ciglenečki, Irena; Croot, Peter; Salin, Karine; Schneider, Birgit; Serret, Pablo; Slomp, Caroline; et al. (European Marine Board, 2023)
    EMB Future Science Brief No. 10 highlights the most recent science on Ocean oxygen, including causes, impacts and mitigation strategies of Ocean oxygen loss, and discusses whether “every second breath we take comes from the Ocean”. It closes with key policy, management and research recommendations to address Ocean deoxygenation and communicate more accurately about the role of the Ocean in Earth’s oxygen. The sentence “every second breath you take comes from the Ocean” is commonly used in Ocean Literacy and science communication to highlight the importance of Ocean oxygen. However, despite its widespread use, it is often not phrased correctly. In contrast, there is little awareness about the threat of the global oxygen loss in the Ocean, called deoxygenation, particularly in comparison with other important stressors, such as Ocean acidification or increasing seawater temperatures. Deoxygenation is increasing in the coastal and open Ocean, primarily due to human-induced global warming and nutrient run-off from land, and projections show that the Ocean will continue losing oxygen as global warming continues. The consequences of oxygen loss in the Ocean are extensive and include decreased biodiversity, shifts in species distributions, displacement or reduction in fisheries resources, changes in biogeochemical cycling and mass mortalities. Low oxygen conditions also drive other chemical processes which produce greenhouse gases, toxic compounds and further degrade water quality. The degraded water quality directly affects marine ecosystems, but also indirectly impacts ecosystem services supporting local communities, regional economies and tourism. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge, we know enough to be very concerned about the consequences: the impacts might even be larger than from Ocean acidification or heat waves, and three out of the five global mass extinctions were linked to Ocean deoxygenation. The sense of urgency to improve Ocean health is reflected in the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (Ocean Decade) and the EU Mission: Restore our Ocean and Waters (Mission Ocean), and tackling the loss of oxygen in the Ocean is critical to achieving the aims of these two initiatives.
  • Blue Carbon: Challenges and opportunities to mitigate the climate and biodiversity crises

    Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Hicks, Natalie; Neukermans, Griet; Landschützer, Peter; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Heymans, Sheila JJ; Heymans, Sheila JJ; Rodriguez Perez, Ana; Alexander, Britt; Muñiz Piniella, Ángel; et al. (European Marine Board, 2023)
    Climate change and biodiversity loss are two of humanity’s greatest challenges. Blue carbon, i.e. the carbon captured and stored by marine living organisms and ecosystems, has the potential to help mitigate both challenges, because marine ecosystems that are important for sequestering carbon often also harbour rich biodiversity. Expanding and protecting Blue Carbon ecosystems has therefore been proposed as a Nature-based Solution to complement climate change mitigation efforts on land and to protect and restore marine biodiversity. In addition, securing and rebuilding Blue Carbon ecosystems can stabilise livelihoods, protect coasts, and support other societal needs such as food provision from the Ocean. However, the effectiveness of Blue Carbon ecosystems as a Nature-based Solution depends on the available space and ecosystem productivity, which can be impacted by climate change. Moreover, the overall carbon sequestration potential of Blue Carbon ecosystems is low and their contribution to climate stabilisation will only be significant once greenhouse gas emissions are strongly limited. Therefore, a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to keep global warming close to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels is essential to maintain the health and long-term functionality of Blue Carbon ecosystems as a Nature-based Solution. This document describes examples and benefits of Blue Carbon ecosystems, and discusses uncertainties and challenges for the conservation and restoration of Blue Carbon ecosystems as a climate change solution. It also highlights the wider role of the Ocean in mitigating climate change through the carbon cycle, and closes with key research and management recommendations.
  • "Protected" but exactly from what? An overview on environmental monitoring insights, upcoming conservation purposes and outreach priorities from recent field-based experiences aimed at the SCUBA diving sector.

    Gaglioti, Martina; Saracino, Annarella; Cellini, Stefano (2022)
    UN Decade of Ocean Sciences, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and forthcoming conservation issues, a new global framework for biodiversity resulting from COP15 negotiations, public engagement sessions and much more, but which kind of goals are we really going to pursue? The latest initiatives, supported also by the Spanish National Agency in the framework of an Erasmus+ initiative, are part of the personally promoted project “FINS INTO THE WATER OCEAN LITERACY INTO PRACTICE”. At first this initiative has been set on a voluntary basis, subsequently, the engagement of other partners at national level and across Europe, sharing some working goals also within the EMSEA Med regional working group and with some of the leading representatives of SCUBA diving sector (teaching agencies and private sector professionals), made possible the development of teaching resources in order to significantly contribute to the aforementioned gap filling. Despite some formal hostilities occurred over the years from institutional representatives toward some field-engaged professionals, there is a great willingness among these people to be actively engaged in conservation goals concerning their daily working environment. This contribution is a tangible proof of this shared attitude and highlights the need to address properly conceived multidisciplinary educational sessions [1;2;3;4;5]. According to FAIR data principles all the observations and field data obtained so far will be publicly shared within the next few months even on other digital platforms, in order to contribute to the baseline research and ameliorate the upcoming steps necessary to successfully fulfill marine conservation and coastal management duties.
  • Marvin, o amigo do oceano.

    Simon, Juliana B.; Simon, Vanessa B. (The Authors, 2023)
    Olá! Você sabia que o oceano é imenso? Que somente20% das espécies foram identificadas? Que a maior partedo oxigênio é produzido lá? Quanta informação, não é?! Oque sabemos atualmente é que muitas ações humanas sãoresponsáveis pelo desequilíbrio que ocorre nesse ambiente,e um movimento chamado Cultura Oceânica chega paratrazer mais informação e sensibilização às pessoas,principalmente a crianças e a adolescentes, que cuidarãodeste planeta. Nosso protótipo baseia-se em um livrochamado Marvin, o amigo do oceano, composto poratividades voltadas à Cultura Oceânica e ao PensamentoComputacional (PC), que é justamente uma metodologia deresolução de problemas. Estas atividades colocarão emprática os quatro pilares do PC: algoritmo, abstração,reconhecimento de padrão e decomposição, para auxiliarnosso personagem a resolver os problemas quecomprometem o ambiente marinho.. ENGLISH === Hello! Did you know that the ocean is immense? That only 20% of species have been identified? That most of the oxygen is produced there? It's a lot of information, isn't it?! What we currently know, is that many human actions can negatively impact this environment. A movement called Ocean Literacy is here to bring more information and awareness to people, especially children and teenagers,who will take care of this planet. Our prototype is based on a book called "Marvin, the Ocean's Friend," composed of activities focused on Ocean Literacy and Computational Thinking (CT), which is precisely a problem-solving methodology. These activities will put into practice the four pillars of CT: algorithm, abstraction, pattern recognition, and decomposition, helping our character to solve the problems that affect the marine environment.
  • Fins into the Water: Ocean Literacy in the Marine Protected Area of “Tavolara- Punta Coda Cavallo.

    Gaglioti, Martina (2022)
    To date this project is our main contribution on the field Several outreach initiatives already occurred, but even more will come very soon!
  • Fins into the Water - Ocean Literacy in practice.

    Gaglioti, Martina; Pischedda, Arturo (Self Published, 2022)
    This manual is the final outcome of a field-based mission, performed in collaboration with different representatives of the SCUBA diving sector and acted on favour of different teaching agencies sharing the same standards at EU level (RSTC standards). This product aimed mainly at diving professionals and recreational divers is part of a personal commitment in the field of marine education and Ocean Literacy research. From this bottom-up conceived initiative an EU Erasmus+ project will be financed under the formal supervision of the Spanish National Agency. The outcome of the personal work is the result of a multiperspective field-based commitment and is part of a wider multidisciplinary approach to environmental research. The main goal of this work is the educational dimension in line with the purposes of the SDG14 and is conceived in line with the OL principles, at the basis of the wider outreach mission, promoted under the leading supervision of the IOC-UNESCO in the framework of the UN Decade 2021-2030 for Ocean Sciences. This work is an homage to a great diver and friends representing the most rewarding side of the italian diving sector.
  • MSC en marknadsöversikt för Sverige 2022

    Marine Stewardship Council (Marine Stewardship Council, 2023)
    During the UN conference COP15 in Montreal in December in 2022, the world's governments set several common goals to protect, increase and regenerate it biological diversity in the oceans until the year 2050. In order to able to maintain and reproduce the biological diversity, tools are needed to be able to measure the. MSC's global standards for sustainable fishing and traceability was recognized during COP 15 in Montreal as a way to scientifically measure that of organizations efforts to reverse the alarming decline of biological diversity worldwide.
  • Arctic Impact Report: How the Marine Stewardship Council ecolabelling program contributes to the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development

    Marine Stewardship Council (Marine Stewardship Council Regional Office Scandinavia & Baltic Sea region, 2022)
    This report shows how the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and its certification program contributes to the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (Ocean Decade hereafter) by driving sustainable fishing. Unsustainable fishing is a major global challenge and pressure on our oceans is increasing. At the same time greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are having a severe impact on our oceans, not least in the Arctic region where ocean warming is happening three times faster than the global average. These changes are expected to have profound effects. However, if we manage the oceans carefully and fish responsibly, we can still enjoy marine resources in the future. Many fisheries around the globe have already shown that they operate sustainably and have achieved MSC certification following the MSC Standard for sustainable fishing. But many more fisheries have yet to demonstrate their sustainability. They are invited to enter the MSC program to document their sustainability and to continuously improve their performance in line with best practice in fisheries management. To achieve the MSC Standard, fisheries must demonstrate a level of performance consistent with internationally accepted scientific knowledge and fisheries management best practice. Through the process, the MSC program ensures that fisheries continuously develop towards global best practice and encourages them to further develop new ways of conserving marine resources for future generations. This supports the UN Ocean Decade vision of “The science we need for the ocean we want.” The MSC sets globally recognised standards for fisheries’ sustainability and supply chain assurance, based on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). By working with and rewarding sustainable fisheries, the MSC program contributes to the challenge of feeding the world’s population under changing environmental, social and climate conditions. This major goal is also in line with aims of the Ocean Decade to “support sustainable food supply and a sustainable ocean economy.” At the same time the MSC program follows rigorous, systematic and transparent methods, making the process, data and results of the independent evaluation publicly available and open for stakeholder engagement. This supports the Ocean Decade aim of achieving “an accessible ocean with open and equitable access to data, information and technology and innovation.” By recognising and rewarding sustainable fishing practices, influencing the choices people make when buying seafood, and working with our partners to transform the seafood market to a sustainable basis, the MSC program contributes to securing the productivity and health of the ocean, supporting sustainable food supply and a sustainable ocean economy. Certified fisheries not only contribute to more transparency and accessibility, but also drive and support changes in the ocean. The Arctic fisheries highlighted in this report exemplify how fisheries continued their sustainability pathway even after being certified.