Sub-communities within this community

Recent Submissions

  • Recovery of Coastal Livelihoods in the Red Sea State (RCLRSS) – Sudan Red Sea : an Environmental Report related to selection of suitable locations for establishment of fish landing sites along the coast .

    D. El hag, A'Gadir (Red Sea University, Institute of Marine Research, 2010)
    It is relevant to mention that the project developed a set of environmental assessment and review procedures (EARP) as well as fisheries safeguarding module (FSM) to address any direct or indirect significant impacts on environment and living resources resulting from the different project activities involved. Therefore, it is recommended that an environment impact assessment (EIA) should be carried out for the already selected fish landing sites preceding construction to avoid or mitigate any expected adverse effects to ensure protection of environment and sustainable use of living resources.
  • Phytochemial screening and anti-microbial activity of Mangrove Gum against some Pathogens.

    Sugga, Awatif; Elageed, Salma; Rajakhan, Omyima; Bashair, Aisha (Department of Biological Oceanography, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Red Sea University, 2015)
    Methanolic crude extracts of the gray mangrove Avicenna marina gum was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity and phytochemial screening. The results have shown that the extract attempt to inhibit the growth of six species of Bacteria and fungus which were Bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in addition to Fungus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans . The methanol extract of gum has significant effect on bacteria and fungus with inhibition zones ranging from 13 to 26mm and 12 to 15 mm respectively whereas it showed no antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms with aqueous extract. The results of the qualitative photochemical analysis of the extract showed that the extract contains more amounts of Terpenoids and Saponins as compared to the concentrations of Steroids and Flavonoids whereas alkaloids, Coumarins, tannis and Anthraquinones are not found in the extract.
  • Elkhair Oil Terminal (Phase II) Environmental Baseline Study.

    Institute Of Marine Research (IMR),; Faculty of Marine Sciences & Fisheries (2014)
    The project area is located directly southern part of Elkhair oil terminal jetty and regarded as a new development of the oil terminal. Although the terminal has been operating since 2008, nevertheless, the marine environment is still in good condition. According to the baseline study conducted at the project area, the measurements of the physical, chemical and biological water characteristics were normal and comparable with the readings at the adjacent areas (e.g. Abuhashish). Similarly the phytoplankton communities' measurements showed normal results with remarkable abundance of the Cyanobacteria over all other species of diatoms and dinoflagellates which is one of the Red Sea normal features. Additionally, the dominance of calanoid copepods in the zooplankton population at the project site was in accord with other findings obtained from undisturbed areas along the Sudanese coast. On the other hand soil analysis showed that the sediment at the project area was of sandy nature.
  • On the ecology of Sudanese Red Sea coastal vegetation with emphasis on mangrove ecosystem.

    Sugga, Awatif (University of Khartoum, 1998)
    The salt marsh halophytic natural vegetation belt in the Sudan disturbed under various elements of degradation. Although managements are prominent components, they remain Ito constitute sporadic and intermittent luxuriant and moderate woodlots . Avicennia marina (forsk) verih is the sole mangrove species in Sudan . Its wood-like landscape supports and all ecologically tuned assemblage of fauna and flora. Mangroves in Sudan occupy protected shallow muddy habitats (mersas) and lagoons which receive considerable amount of fresh water and sediments carried to the Red Sea via a network of seasonal khors , where muddy cracking sediments is deposited. In each of the nineteen (19) identified and sizeable mangroves stands reported during this study , local topography at each site affects the forest structure and productivity , as reflected through the selected examples investigated in detail at t the present work (Klanaeib , Halout and kilo-Tammania forests) .Considerable damage in mangrove swamps has and still is caused by biological and natural stresses ( average loss per the last forty (40) years is 33.5% at Klanaeib to 60.0% at Kilo-Tammania ). Avicennia marina - growing in the saline muddy shallow swamps in Sudan is well adapted to the high temperature ( up to 31.08'C in summer ), and salinities ( up to 44.880/ooat K1anaeib). This is indicated by the law water potential values recorded during this study ( ranges between 78.24 - 63.42 bars) during summer mornings and evenings . The values of water potent i,,1 are normally moderated by suitable water depth, protection from dry strong winds and higher water and sediments mild salinities. Sufficient capacity of survival and regeneration is reported in Avicennia marina the planting material is found to be available between December to February . Mangrove habitats are good sites for breeding and nursering marine commercial fish , Crabs and shellfish . Mangroves swamps are considered as one of the most biologically productive areas along the Red Sea coast-line . Mean mature tree height up to 8.9901, recorded at Halout , girth ranges between 24.11 em to 91.71 cm is recorded at Kilo-Tam mania and Halout respective ly. On the other hand crown area ranging between 0.81 012 to 10.56 m2 has been noted at KiloTammania and Halout respectively . The present study •shows that Avicennia marina leaves, stem and seeds contain considerable reserves of lipids ,fiber and protein; lipids content range is 11.39% in leaves to 16.02% in seeds. On the other hand crude fiber gave values as high as 19.09' in seeds to 23.33% in stems. Furthermore , crude protein has a mean value of 4.06% in stems and up to 5.25% in seeds . The study of other major halophytic vegetation revealed that the maximum percentage ground cover (40.45%) and frequency (5 1.65) were given by Suaeda monica in the northern locations ( latitudes 19 N and 21N). The findings of this research revealed that despite the recent alarming rate of destruction of the Red Sea coastal communities including mangroves , luxuriant stands sti ll exist in naturally protected areas . Henceforth , conservation of each of the nineteen ( 19) identified mangroves forests , using suitable management tools , is vital . In addition, silvicultural planting should be carried out to increase the area of these stands and Avicennia marina densities, considering the effects caused by the local ecological variation on each stand . The interactions between the abiotic and biotic environmental components and their collective impact upon the Mangrove ecosystem in Sudan is crucial since they determine the persistence and flourishunent or the extinction of the present mangrove stands along the Red Sea coasts. Notes: Enter any additional information about the item Subject : ASFA: Click the ‘Subject ASFA’ link below to select appropriate ASFA keywords or phrases. Do just wait until the a-z comes up Avicennia mangrove Subject Categories Subject: Uncontrolled keywords: Enter any other subject keywords. Separate the terms with a semi-colon(;) Geographical Terms: Enter geographical coverage keywords. Separate the terms with a semi-colon(;) Port Sudan
  • Evaluation of the Red Sea State: Food Security Status 2007- 2009.

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed (Red Sea University, 2013)
    Over the last century, the Red Rea State (RSS) has experienced severe erosion of its traditional rural livelihood systems. The environmental as well as political unrest had combined to create a recurrent food security situation. The objectives of this study were:- To define the magnitude of rural as well as urban food consumption needs from stable crops. To assess the preparedness of RSS institutions to cope with food and nutritional needs of rural areas. To help decision makers in adopting monitoring techniques for poverty and food gap situations. A combination of data collection procedures were used to verify the stated hypotheses. A quantitative market survey was carried at different agro-ecological zones for establishing the prices of food commodities used at rural areas. Other indices such as water, charcoal, goats etc. were recorded at selected sites. Secondary data was also collected on food crop production levels and nutritional situation of population living in the survey area. Data on food assistance interventions in the area were also recorded. Food insecurity and population vulnerability profiles were also obtained. Based on the above methodology, the following results were evident. The food gap between total consumption and the current production is expected to rise beyond 2005-2006 levels. Local food production capabilities may only be sufficient for less than 4% of total requirements. Sorghum prices situation, as stable food and feed has sharply increased in the last two seasons. The food reserve situation needs were not parallel with actual needs especially in rural areas. The geographic coverage of the early warning system in the state is limited and needs to be extended to all localities of the state and be based following the hazard poverty mapping system with links to malnutrition and other food security indicators.The research came up with the following recommendations:- - The capacity of RSS in the area of monitoring weather data and obtaining closer GIS is highly needed to make available essential data for forecasting the food situation. - Proxy – indicators of poverty for e.g. education need to be addressed to create opportunities for alternative lively hoods. - Food safety nets need to be created and co-ordinated within rural and urban areas of the state. - A food and lively hood monitoring system need to be put in place to track all the efforts of food aid. There are currently eight channels through which food is being distributed. - It is recommended the strategic grain reserves available in the state to be monitored regularly for quantity and common losses due insects. Locality head quarters need strong base of storage facilities so that food can be closure to the needy. - Frequent base line surveys for supplementary and therapeutic following the international norms need to be regularly monitored. - In the RSS, more investments should focus on improving the livestock, fishery and pertinent marketing channels are critical to reduce vulnerability to food insecurity.
  • Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) in the Northern and Southern Parts of Port Sudan.

    Institute of Marine Research; Red Sea University, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries (2006)
  • أثر الإمتداد الحضري علي القطاع الز ا رعي التقلیدي:جنوب مدینة بورتسودان

    Alfaki, Tahani; Aziz, Ahmed Abdel (2013)
    هدفت الد ا رسة إلى الوقوف على التوسع والتنمیة في المناطق الز ا رعیة التقلیدیة جنوب مدینة بور تسودان . أن الآثار المترتبة على النزوح السكاني وظهور المشروعات التنمویة الكبیرة وأثرها البیئي هو ماركزت علیه الد ا رسة. اعتمدت منهجیة هذه الد ا رسة على مسوحات أولیة أجریت في منطقة الد ا رسة أو مجتمع الد ا رسة أعتمد على منطقتي هوشیرى والانقاذات بمحلیة بولایة البحر الأحمر وشملت الد ا رسة اختیار عینات عشوائیة – لد ا رسة السكان ومواردهم الز ا رعیة وأیلولة بعض هذه الموارد إلى بشائر والى المطار الجدید .كما أعتمدت الد ا رسة على استبیانات ومقابلات في المناطق المختارة. تم تحلیل النتائج عن طریق البرنامج الاحصائى للنظم الاجتماعیة .وقد تم جمع المعلومات الثانویة من الأو ا رق العلمیة التي قدمتها الو ا ز ا رت المختلفة. أظهرت نتائج الد ا رسة: - تعرضت المساحة الز ا رعیة والرعویة الموجودة في منطقة هوشیرى والمقدره ب 8677 قد إلى تغی ا رت في الفترة السابقة حیث حولت مساحة 2754 فدانا( 32 %) من المساحة إلى أ ا رضى صناعیة. - التنوع الحیوي النباتي لهذه المنطقة قد تقلص بنسبة كبیرة في الفترة السابقة - تأثرت معیشة السكان في منطقة هوشیرى والانقاذات وأصبح هناك أعتماداً على المنظمات وعلى الحكومة - تعرضت المنطقة إلى ضغوط بیئیة عالیة تمثلت في التلوث بالزیت في المناطق الساحلیة والنباتات الغازیة وتقلیص النباتات الرعویة المستساغة خرجت الد ا رسة بالعدید من التوصیات وكان أهمها : - ضرورة الاعتماد على التخطیط في الاستفادة من وجود خرط موجهه للولایة - الاهتمام باستخدامات الا ا رضى في هذا الجانب الذي ینظم المناطق الحضریة وطرق الاستثمار فیه - الاهتمام بالجانب التشاركي مع المجتمعات المحلیة وضرورة أش ا ركها في التنظیم والق ا ر ا رت الولائیة التي تمس مصالحهم
  • The Impact of Early Warning System of Food Security Program:On the Decision Making Process at the Red Sea State-Sudan

    Ali, Awatif Ayadh; Aziz, Ahmed Abdel (2013)
    This study assessed the impact of the early warning system on food security at the Red Sea State with emphasis on the welfare of the vulnerable groups in the state. Primary data collection involved both quantitative and qualitative data generated from different localities of RSS which represented its agro ecological zones. A questionnaire was designed to include specific details on early warning systems and early warning indicators, functions, challenges and gaps facing the EWS from the perspective of EWS team. Questions also included local perception and coping mechanisms with disasters. The questionnaire was administered for assessing early warning system indicators, community preparedness for food crisis and response to crisis by decision makers and Food Security Committee (FSC) at State level. The questionnaire and interviews were carried out for EWS team in Port Sudan town. Data was analyzed using SPSS. The main results of this study show that the EWS team perspective on food security alleviation was low as the whole system used to depend on the central government reserves and mobilization of food aid during the crisis. EWS team think that the need for EWS arises from large numbers of factors associated with climate which led to deterioration of natural resources linked to low productivity and poor governance. Lack of funding constituted the most significant gap facing EWS in RSS. This could be attributed to lack of commitment by state government to allocate funds in its financial and development plans for EWS in addition to lack of long donors funding commitment. Remoteness of vulnerable communities and the wider geographical coverage needed for assistance was also mentioned as a factor for widening gaps. The EWS team clearly indicated that the response to food security crises was very slow and there was a real gap between information availability and the actual response to the crisis. The EWS team strongly suggested that the political commitment of local governments to EWS and strengthening coordination between relevant stakeholders at state level together with other factors were among strong measures to be taken to activate the existing EWS. Local community preparedness to food security problems lied in its ability to manipulate the local reserve and develop other coping mechanisms earlier before the crises.
  • Environmental Impact; In Osman Digna (SUAKIN)

    El hag, A ' Gadir; Institute Of Marine Research (IMR) (2007)
  • Environmental Baseline study for Mersa El- Sheikh Ibrahim

    Institute Of Marine Research (IMR); Faculty of Marine Sciences & Fisheries (2012)
  • Stock Assessment and Management of Dilplodus: Speciee in Abu Qir Bay, Alexadria, Egypt

    Adam, Adel Mohamed Saleh (2010)
    The present study deals with the fisheries of two Sparid fish species in Abu Qir Bay. Family Sparidae represents about 17 % of the landed catch from the Bay. Among the family; genus Diplodus is generally caught by trammel nets, beach and purse seines but mostly by longlines. Two species of this genus were considered here for study. They are namely D. sargus and D. vulgaris where they represent by about 4.2% of the landed catch during the year 2008 in the Bay (GAFRD, 2008). The length weight relationship of both species under study showed a value of exponent “b” of very slight negative allometry. Analysis of the catch length structure of the two species revealed that the catch of D. sargus is composed of 21 length groups, the least length was 7.5 cm and the biggest was 27.5 cm with mean length 16.16 cm, while the catch of D. vulgaris is composed of 19 length groups starting from 8.5 cm to 26.5 cm with mean length 16.23 cm. The most abundant length group was 17.5 cm for the two species and both have nearly the same mean length. Study of the sex ratio showed that the females dominate the population in both species. The study of condition factor “K” showed that the value of “K” decreases as the fish increases in length and also varies with season. Length scale relationship was found to be linear. Back calculations of the total lengths by the end of each year of life, showed that the rate of growth of D. sargus was higher than D. vulgaris in both length and weight. Thus D. sargus was 11.42 cm total length at age I and reached 25.98 cm total length at the sixth year of age. For D. vulgaris it was 10.34 cm total length ate age I and reached 25.52 cm total length at the sixth year of age.Growth in weight studies show that for D. sargus, the fish was 26.77 gm total weight at the end of the first year of life, while it was 300.47 gm at the sixth year age of life. For D. vulgaris, it reached 18.30 gm total weight at one year old, while it was 267.24 gm by the end of the sixth year age of life. No difference in rate of growth between males and females (Linear and Ponderal). This is true for both species. Besides, the values of Von Bertalanffy parameters were estimated and compared for the two species. D. sargus comprises seven age groups from age group 0 to age group VI as well as D. vulgaris. The most abundant age groups are I and II for D. sargus, while in D. vulgaris it was age group II. The values of total, natural and fishing mortalities for both species were estimated. They were slightly higher in D. sargus than in D. vulgaris. The same was true for the values of growth performance in length and weight (ФL and Фw). The Survival rate was slightly lower in D. sargus (0.34), than in D. vulgaris (0.35). The values of exploitation rates were also higher in D. sargus (0.445) than in D. vulgaris (0.428). The length at first capture was nearly the same for both species (12.51 cm and 12.52 cm “Total length”) for D. sargus and D. vulgaris respectively. The corresponding ages were 1.208 year for D. sargus and 1.42 year for D. vulgaris. Fishes belonging to D. sargus reach 10.43 cm TL when they recruit to the population, while D. vulgaris reach 10.62 cm TL at recruitment. These correspond to 0.81 years in D. sargus and 1.05 years in D. vulgaris. The yield per recruit obtained by the analytical model of Beverton and Holt, 1957 was found to be 27.76 gm for D. sargus and 25.99 gm for D.vulgaris. The biomass per recruit for D. sargus is 57.16 gm, while it is 57.90 gm for D. vulgaris. The estimated yield per recruit and biomass per recruit at F0.1 (Target reference point) were 27.7617 gm and 57.16 gm for D. sargus and were 26.5552 gm and 54.87 gm for D. vulgaris respectively. These values were corresponding to fishing mortality values of 0.486 year-1for D. sargus and 0.484 year-1for D. vulgaris. The maximum yield per recruit (Y/Rmax) for D. sargus was 31.1233 gm which correspond to a value of Fmax= 1.239, while for D. vulgaris it was 29.7867 gm corresponding to Fmax =1.245. At Fmax the percentage of biomass per recruit value to virgin biomass was 16.26 % for D. sargus and 16.09 % for D. vulgaris. The effects of fishing mortality together with age at first capture on the values of yield per recruit were estimated for the two species under study. It showed an increase in age at first capture (tc) has little effect on Y/R in both species under constant value of fishing mortality. Cohort analysis (VPA, age based) represent the estimated values of the population numbers, Survivors, Natural and fishing mortalities for each year of life of D. sargus and D. vulgaris in Abu Qir Bay. It is noticed that, the populations of the two species under study decreased gradually with age, this is due to the exposure to the sequence of natural mortality (which decrease with age too) and fishing mortality (which appeared in different trends in the two species). It showed that, the catch is based mostly on fish of age groups I, II and III in both species under study. On the other hand, the effect of F on Y/R at different values of natural mortality (M) showed that the Y/Rmax value corresponding to higher values of fishing mortality at higher values of natural mortality, for both species. From another point of view, it was found that the value of Y/R decreases as the value of natural mortality “M” increases. This is true in both species. This shows the effect of water pollution on fish production. This study concluded that, the fisheries status of D. sargus and D. vulgaris in Abu Qir Bay reached the target reference point (F0.1) but did not reach the overexploited phase, because they did not reach the limit reference point (Fmax) for the two species under study.
  • بدلتا طوكر (Prosopis chilensis ) إدارة المسكیت

    Aziz, Ahmed Abdel; Alfaki, Manal (2013)
    أجريت هذه الدراسة في الفترة (2008 – 2010) بدلتا طوكر لدراسة اثر انتشار شجرة المسكيت بالدلتا على الأراضي الزراعية بجانب تقييم الأثر الناجم عن إزالتها وما يترب على ذلك من أي آثار بيئية . اعتمدت منهجية الدراسة على وسائل متعددة في البحث شملت الملاحظة والمعاينة عبر عدة مسوحات حقلية غطت الثلاث أقسام التي يتكون منها الدلتا، كما استخدمت اداة الاستبيان لتقييم الاثر على المستفيدين من المكافحة كما قام البحث باجراء العديد من المقابلات من خلال تحليل البيانات التي جمعت بواسطة المصادر الأولية والتي أخضعت بالتحليل بنظام التحليل الإحصائي للعلوم الاجتماعية ) بغرض تحليل النتائج . استعان الباحث بصور الاقمار الصناعية لتحديد الكثافة والتردد للمسكيت.S PSS) أما المعلومات الثانوية فقد جمعت بواسطة الاطلاع على التقارير الفنية ، بجانب تقارير مماثلة في تجربة إزالة المسكيت مثل تجربة مشروع حلفا الزراعي و تجربة مشروع دلتا طوكر الزراعي. وكانت نتائج البحث على النحو التالي :- - تحتل شجرة المسكيت حاليا حوالي 48% من مشروع دلتا طوكر فى قطاعات تتراوح من كثيفة جداً إلى خفيفة الكثافة. - إن كثيرا من مواطني المنطقة يعتمدون على صناعة الفحم من المسكيت حيث اصبح يشكل المورد الاعاشى للسكان. - بدأ نمو وانتشار المسكيت في المساحات التي تمت إزالتها منها ونظافتها سواء كانت المكافحة بالاقتلاع او الطرق الاخري . - ضمور المساحات الزراعية المستغلة والنقص في انتشار الري الفيضى السنوي وتدني منسوب المياة الجوفية اوعدم وضوح المسارات والطرق البرية كانت اهم المشاكل المرتبطة بالمسكيت التى تحدث عنها السكان المحليين كما خلصت الدراسة إلى التوصيات الآتية:- - اعتماد إستراتيجية الانتفاع من الشجرة اقتصاديا أكثر من التفكير في عملية إزالتها (خارج الدلتا ) نتيجة لطبيعة الشجرة وتحملها لكل الظروف البيئية وتكاثرها السريع ... الخ من الخصائص التي لا تتوفر لأي من الأشجار الأخرى . - على إدارة مشروع دلتا طوكر تحديد مصادر انتشار المسكيت وخاصة في المجرى الأعلى ومسارات الرعاة لما يتسبب في انتشار بذور المسكيت وانتقالها بالرياح والماء والحيوانات على وجه الخصوص مما يتسبب في انتشارها الشامل لأراضي الدلتا . - أن تجربة إزالة المسكيت تحتاج قبل الأقدام عليها من دراسة نتائج الإزالة وما يترتب عليها من الناحية الاقتصادية وتقييم التجربة ودراسة آثاره الناتجة حيث إن كثير من مواطني المنطقة يعتمدون على صناعة الفحم كمصدر اعاشي لهم. - لابد من تدريب المواطنين بالمنطقة من مزارعين ورعاة وتفعيل القوانين واللوائح في استغلال انجح الوسائل الممكنة للاستفادة من شجرة المسكيت.
  • Seasonality of Surface Chlorophyll in the Red Sea

    Ahmed, Mohammed Elamin Bashir Hassan (Universitas Bergensis, 2012)
    Although the understanding of the oceanography of the Red Sea has been developed over the last few decades, but we still have a little knowledge about the influences of the physical factors on the phytoplankton activity. The purpose of the present study was initially to quantify and investigate the seasonal variation of surface chlorophyll concentration (CHL-a) at three zones in the Red Sea (north, middle and south). The second goal is to identify the controlling factors which seem to have an effect on the phytoplankton bloom during the same period of the study. To reach our goals, we use remote sensing data (surface chlorophyll, sea surface temperature and photosynthetically available radiation), oceanographic data (wind speed), and modeling data (mixed layer depth) received during the period 1998–2009. The data are analyzed using BEAM/VISAT software and statistical methods to reveal principle features of the phytoplankton bloom. The results indicate different mechanisms of the phytoplankton bloom and different importance of controlling factors at the three zones of the Red Sea.
  • Prevalence of Marine Zooplankton around Port Sudan

    Ginawi, Amjed Ginawi Ahmed (University of Khartoum, 2010)
    Marine zooplankton and some physical parameters (water temperature and transparency) and chemical parameters (salinity, pH and phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and oxygen) were studied from November 2009 to October 2010, at six stations around Port Sudan. The stations were: Tires Factory (station 1), Fish market (Station 2), Open Sea (Station 3), the harbour entrance (Station 4), the Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries (Station 5) and Sea Land (Station 6). Marine zooplankton was sampled, preserved, stained and identified according to the standard methods. The physical and chemical parameters were determined following standard methods. Fifteen groups of zooplankton (calanoida copepods, cyclopoida copepods, branchyuran zoea, fish eggs, cladocerans, oikopleura, shrimp larvae, sagitta, cumaceans, tintinids, gastropod larvae, radiolarians, napulii, medusae, and polychaete larvae) were recorded from the different stations at different frequencies. The highest number of zooplankton was recorded in May (13430 ind. /m3). Calanoida copepods, cyclopoida copepods were the dominant groups and cladocerans were the least recorded. The highest number recorded in a station was (18998 ind/m3) in station 1 and the least was (5519 ind/m3) at station 6. Multiple correlation analysis was used to quantify the relationship between the total number of zooplankton and the physical and chemical parameters at each station. The correlation was significantly high (p<0.05) in station 4 and low in station 5. A positive relationship was found between dissolved oxygen concentration, transparency and nitrate concentration with the total number of zooplankton. A significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between high salinity and low total number of zooplankton. The study derived a mathematical model correlating total zooplankton with the physical and chemical parameters studied. This model perhaps may be the first of its kind in the Red Sea. The study recommends deriving similar models from other parts of the Sudanese coast and the region, and verifies the feasibility of its application with focus on the physical and chemical parameters with highest impact on marine zooplankton. This will reduce the effort and resources expended in these studies.

    Institute Of Marine Research (IMR) (Red Sea University, 2008)
    The Red Sea since ancient times is considered as a vital trade maritime route and an important source of food and livelihood for many co astal inhabitants. Its geographical location (in an arid zone area) geological structur e and semi enclosed nature, have created peculiar characteristic features manifested in a broad spectrum of complex habitats with high biological diversity. It is, the refore, described as one of the most important repositories and centre of biodiversity i n the world (Ormond, 1986, Krupp etal, 1994). The Sudanese Red Sea (about 750 km or more) which i s located at the central part of the Red Sea conforms to such patterns. It is partic ularly famous of its exceptionally unique and varied habitats with rich biological com munities, especially coral reefs. Its productive and highly sensitive coastal and marine habitats (coastal halophytes, mangroves, seagrasses / algal beds and coral reefs) harbour enormous counts of ecologically and commercially important fisheries r esources. This is in addition to rare mammals, turtles and birds.
  • Geological and structural investigation based on regional gravity and vertical electrical sounding data of the East Nile Rift Basin – Sudan

    The analysis of geology and structure of the study area (East Nile - North Khartoum) is attempted by utilizing regional gravity and vertical electrical sounding (VES) data to investigate the source of the high gravity encountered over the basin features in this area as well as to reveal the structures, sedimentary sequences and groundwater condition in the area. The regional gravity measurements are achieved along two profiles in the area using Scintrex CG-3 gravimeter. All corrections common in gravity method are applied to the field data to produce Bouguer anomalies. The Bouguer anomalies are combined together with those produced by Sun Oil Company in 1984 and the residual anomaly separation is made using the least-squares method. The residual anomalies are interpreted using a 2D gravmodeller program (computer program) with the aid of geologic information in the area to produce geologic sections of subsurface of the area. As a result, the most convenient explanation of the high anomalies is the presence of granulites with density of 3.1 g/cm3. They are suggested to be uplifted during the period of the Pan-African movement to a depth of less than 3000 m below gneissic rocks with a density of 2.7 g/cm3 beneath the Nubian Sandstone with a density of 2.3 g/cm3, and its tip is thrusted to the surface at Sabaloka. Additional results are obtained from the interpretation of the gravity data. Several sedimentary basins, which were previously discovered, are delineated here again. The most important one is Atbara Basin in which the total thickness of sediments is about 3000 m. A depth map of the Basement surface of the study area is prepared. A dextral strike slip fault parallel to that appears at Sabaloka area is discovered in the area extending beyond River Atbara. The vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements are conducted in the area using SAS 1000 meter to reveal the sedimentary sequence and further to investigate the groundwater condition in the area. The measurements are concentrated at Musawarat, El Awatib, Es Salama and Wad Musa areas. The present resistivity data are combined together with the old available data for more details. The VES data are interpreted using IPI2win software. A number of 8 geoelectric/geologic cross sections are prepared. As a result, the subsurface of the area consists of six geologic layers: - The first layer is the surface layer consists of undifferentiated sedimentary facies (gravels, sands, clayey sands, sandy clays and clay). - The second layer consists sandy-clay, clayey sands and sands. - The third layer is saturated sandstones. - The fourth layer is silicified sandstones/claystones (aquifuge). - The fifth layer is saturated sandstones. - The sixth layer is Basement Complex. The third layer and the fifth one are upper free aquifer and lower confined aquifer, respectively. The lower aquifer is thicker than the upper one. So, its water is the most abundant and convenient for drinking and irrigation purposes. Five subsurface geologic maps are prepared. Two of them are depth maps of the top surface of the upper and lower aquifers. The other two are thickness map of the upper and lower aquifers. The last one is a depth map of the Basement surface.
  • The Inorganic carbon cycle in the Red Sea.

    Ali, Elsheikh Bashir (University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, 2008)
    The inorganic carbon cycle in the Red Sea has been examined based on various datasets from six different years during the period 1977 and 2007. The study has been performed parameter wise, and the processes biological production/remineralization (soft tissue and hard parts), calcium carbonate sedimentation, air-sea gas exchange, and evaporation/precipitation have been considered. The surface water was relatively warm in the central part of the Red Sea due to wind convergence, and colder towards the south and north due to influence of relative cold Gulf of Aden water and net evaporation, respectively. The surface salinity increased all the way from the south towards the north, due to evaporation, and this explained the major part of the northwards increasing concentration in both surface AT and DIC. The surface AT was, in addition slightly influenced by biological production. Air-sea CO2 exchange was believed to influence the surface DIC, however, this effect seemed to be hidden in the random error of the observed data. For the deep water, the AT concentration was mainly influenced by calcium carbonate sedimentation, while remineralization/respiration could explain the major part of the DIC variations observed. fCO2 was positively correlated to the sea surface temperature. During the period 1977 - 2007, the fCO2 of the water increased at a similar rate as the atmospheric fCO2, however, while the atmospheric CO2 increase had obvious reasons, the oceanic increase most likely was a result of an increase in surface temperature. Air-sea CO2 flux was calculated, and the Red Sea was in general a small source for atmospheric carbon for all years except 1991 and 1992, when the southern parts of the ocean appeared as a large source and the northern part had turned into a small sink for atmospheric carbon. This particular situation in the north was connected to strong NNW wind and subsequent upwelling in the north during these two years.
  • Wave and wind conditions in the Red Sea: A numerical study using a third generation wave model

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed Elfatih (2010)
    In order to understand how waves behave and how other parameters can interact between ocean and atmosphere we can use a numerical model. For the Red Sea basin wave measurements are absent and due to that a WAM wave model is used to study the wave climate. The aim of this thesis is to run a wave model for the Red Sea area to begin a local forecast service and then estimate climatology of wave height, needed in almost all coastal engineering studies. As well as to give engineers a description of ocean surface waves and forces, this knowledge about Red Sea wave conditions can help the local shermen that use small vessels. The third generation wave model WAM is used to hindcast the wave condition in the Red Sea for the year 2007. The WAM model is forced using wind data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).
  • دراسة مواد البناء البديلة فى منطقة البحر الأحمر: المواد البوزولانية

    Edris, Abass Edris Alsaid (2012)
    Pozzolana is a materials that content Reactive Silica with Alumina which defines as Siliceous materials, also include ferroginous materials. In generally, this study aimed to estimate Alternative building materials ( pozzolanic materials ) and create new cementic materials such as Lime-Pozzolana Cement and Ordinary Portland-Pozzolana Cement . The results shows that there is no good and sufficient pozzolanic materials as Obsidian , Scoria, Diatomaceous Earth and Volcanic Ash , but some types of burnt clays and Rhyolite in addition to bricks Reject and miskeet Ash was shown . This study is subjected in Arbaat Delta clay , salloum Delta clay , Rhyolite Rocks , bricks Reject and miskeet Ask as Natural and artificial pozzolanic materials. The identification of above mentioned materials was carried out by using several methods includes Geological survey , Chemical Analysis and X-Rays . and physical properties tests for prepared cementic materials includes setting time , Expansion , Fineness and Compressive Strength . the aim of pozzolanic activily and its Reaction with lime and Ordinary Portland Cement . The physical properties tests of the prepared cementic material such as setting time , expansion ,Fineness , chemical analysis and X-Ray shows that Arbaat Delta clay , salloum Delta clay and bricks Reject are suitable from prepared mixtures Lime- Pozzolana cement (L .P.C) and Ordinary Portland- Pozzolana cement (O .P .P .C), as well as Comperessive Strength results during 28 days which as follows : Arabaat delta clay is 34.4 kN/mm², clay of salloum delta clay is 32.2 kN/mm², and bricks reject is 31.5 kN/mm² as averages of two samples for a mixture lime–pozzolan. As for the Ordinary Portland- Pozzolan cement, the results of the tests the Compressive Strength as follows: the Arbaat Delta clay is 35.6 kn/mm² , 34.2 kN/mm² for Saloum Delta, bricks reject is 32.1 kN/mm².as average of two samples . these result are suitble for pozzolanic materials but less in pozzolanic suitability than those of Obsidian , Scoria , Diatomaceous Earth and Volcanic Ash . Rhyolite rocks and the ash of miskeet trees contain crystalline silica, as was shown in X-Ray results , for this reason they have not a good results in Compressive Strength their results were very weak, where 19.7 kN/mm² and 3.1 kN/mm² respectively as the average of two samples for a mixture lime – Pozzolana cement and 22.1 2kN/mm² and 3.4 kN/ mm² for average of two samples of Ordinary Portland- Pozzolana cement .
  • Study and Evaluation Of Balila Oil Field Vis-breaking plant

    Mohammed, Babiker Krama Abdalla; Basheir ,Emam Mohammed; Red Sea University (2009)
    In this study the Vis-breaking plant of Balila crude oil which is owned by Petro Energy Company was studied and the benefit in cost of this plant was calculated. The improvement in crude oil quality was tested. Besides investigating how Vis-breaking plant contributes in energy saving hence minimize its consumption. The flow characteristics of crude in pipeline were studied experimentally before and after Vis-breaking plant and described mathematically. Rheological models were developed to relate the shear stress to shear rate. These models were used to describe the effects of oil viscosity on the pressure required for pumping the oil through pipelines. The result of present study shows that the rheological characteristics of crude oil were improved from bulk Non- Newtonian to the Newtonian fluid at testing temperature, although the vis-breaking plant used as upstream unit, it has been never applied before.

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