1. IMR Publication
Recovery of Coastal Livelihoods in the Red Sea State (RCLRSS) – Sudan Red Sea : an Environmental Report related to selection of suitable locations for establishment of fish landing sites along the coast .It is relevant to mention that the project developed a set of environmental assessment and review procedures (EARP) as well as fisheries safeguarding module (FSM) to address any direct or indirect significant impacts on environment and living resources resulting from the different project activities involved. Therefore, it is recommended that an environment impact assessment (EIA) should be carried out for the already selected fish landing sites preceding construction to avoid or mitigate any expected adverse effects to ensure protection of environment and sustainable use of living resources.
Phytochemial screening and anti-microbial activity of Mangrove Gum against some Pathogens.Methanolic crude extracts of the gray mangrove Avicenna marina gum was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity and phytochemial screening. The results have shown that the extract attempt to inhibit the growth of six species of Bacteria and fungus which were Bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in addition to Fungus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans . The methanol extract of gum has significant effect on bacteria and fungus with inhibition zones ranging from 13 to 26mm and 12 to 15 mm respectively whereas it showed no antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms with aqueous extract. The results of the qualitative photochemical analysis of the extract showed that the extract contains more amounts of Terpenoids and Saponins as compared to the concentrations of Steroids and Flavonoids whereas alkaloids, Coumarins, tannis and Anthraquinones are not found in the extract.
Elkhair Oil Terminal (Phase II) Environmental Baseline Study.The project area is located directly southern part of Elkhair oil terminal jetty and regarded as a new development of the oil terminal. Although the terminal has been operating since 2008, nevertheless, the marine environment is still in good condition. According to the baseline study conducted at the project area, the measurements of the physical, chemical and biological water characteristics were normal and comparable with the readings at the adjacent areas (e.g. Abuhashish). Similarly the phytoplankton communities' measurements showed normal results with remarkable abundance of the Cyanobacteria over all other species of diatoms and dinoflagellates which is one of the Red Sea normal features. Additionally, the dominance of calanoid copepods in the zooplankton population at the project site was in accord with other findings obtained from undisturbed areas along the Sudanese coast. On the other hand soil analysis showed that the sediment at the project area was of sandy nature.
On the ecology of Sudanese Red Sea coastal vegetation with emphasis on mangrove ecosystem.The salt marsh halophytic natural vegetation belt in the Sudan disturbed under various elements of degradation. Although managements are prominent components, they remain Ito constitute sporadic and intermittent luxuriant and moderate woodlots . Avicennia marina (forsk) verih is the sole mangrove species in Sudan . Its wood-like landscape supports and all ecologically tuned assemblage of fauna and flora. Mangroves in Sudan occupy protected shallow muddy habitats (mersas) and lagoons which receive considerable amount of fresh water and sediments carried to the Red Sea via a network of seasonal khors , where muddy cracking sediments is deposited. In each of the nineteen (19) identified and sizeable mangroves stands reported during this study , local topography at each site affects the forest structure and productivity , as reflected through the selected examples investigated in detail at t the present work (Klanaeib , Halout and kilo-Tammania forests) .Considerable damage in mangrove swamps has and still is caused by biological and natural stresses ( average loss per the last forty (40) years is 33.5% at Klanaeib to 60.0% at Kilo-Tammania ). Avicennia marina - growing in the saline muddy shallow swamps in Sudan is well adapted to the high temperature ( up to 31.08'C in summer ), and salinities ( up to 44.880/ooat K1anaeib). This is indicated by the law water potential values recorded during this study ( ranges between 78.24 - 63.42 bars) during summer mornings and evenings . The values of water potent i,,1 are normally moderated by suitable water depth, protection from dry strong winds and higher water and sediments mild salinities. Sufficient capacity of survival and regeneration is reported in Avicennia marina the planting material is found to be available between December to February . Mangrove habitats are good sites for breeding and nursering marine commercial fish , Crabs and shellfish . Mangroves swamps are considered as one of the most biologically productive areas along the Red Sea coast-line . Mean mature tree height up to 8.9901, recorded at Halout , girth ranges between 24.11 em to 91.71 cm is recorded at Kilo-Tam mania and Halout respective ly. On the other hand crown area ranging between 0.81 012 to 10.56 m2 has been noted at KiloTammania and Halout respectively . The present study •shows that Avicennia marina leaves, stem and seeds contain considerable reserves of lipids ,fiber and protein; lipids content range is 11.39% in leaves to 16.02% in seeds. On the other hand crude fiber gave values as high as 19.09' in seeds to 23.33% in stems. Furthermore , crude protein has a mean value of 4.06% in stems and up to 5.25% in seeds . The study of other major halophytic vegetation revealed that the maximum percentage ground cover (40.45%) and frequency (5 1.65) were given by Suaeda monica in the northern locations ( latitudes 19 N and 21N). The findings of this research revealed that despite the recent alarming rate of destruction of the Red Sea coastal communities including mangroves , luxuriant stands sti ll exist in naturally protected areas . Henceforth , conservation of each of the nineteen ( 19) identified mangroves forests , using suitable management tools , is vital . In addition, silvicultural planting should be carried out to increase the area of these stands and Avicennia marina densities, considering the effects caused by the local ecological variation on each stand . The interactions between the abiotic and biotic environmental components and their collective impact upon the Mangrove ecosystem in Sudan is crucial since they determine the persistence and flourishunent or the extinction of the present mangrove stands along the Red Sea coasts. Notes: Enter any additional information about the item Subject : ASFA: Click the ‘Subject ASFA’ link below to select appropriate ASFA keywords or phrases. Do just wait until the a-z comes up Avicennia mangrove Subject Categories Subject: Uncontrolled keywords: Enter any other subject keywords. Separate the terms with a semi-colon(;) Geographical Terms: Enter geographical coverage keywords. Separate the terms with a semi-colon(;) Port Sudan