Instructions to the Marine Meteorological Observers of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 5th edition.
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Corporate AuthorU.S. Weather Bureau
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AbstractThe ocean meteorological program of the Weather Bureau calls in general for the making of but one regular observation a day, this, as well known, being made at noon· Greenwich mean time, (civil). However, in certain designated areas from which observations are transmitted by radiotelegraphy an additional regular observation is provided for at Greenwich midnight. Supplementing these regular observations are extra ones made under conditions of threatening or severe weather, gale and storm reports, and descriptive notes of weather experienced between observations, the lastnamed taking the form of a Daily Journal. The total requirements are such, however, as to make the smallest possible demands on observers consistent with the needs of the bureau in meeting its responsibilities for the ·issuance of forecasts and warnings, the procuring of data for publication on charts, and otherwise effectively carrying out its marine meteorological program. The provision that observations over the entire ocean should be made at the same moment of time is to make possible the construction of synoptic weather maps of large areas. While this object has been attained in part, nevertheless, owing to the varying observational requirements of different countries, the hope of a world synoptic weather map has never been completely realized. Generally speaking, in the Western Hemisphere where land observations are customarily made at 12 and 13 hours, Greenwich mean time, land and sea observations are in close agreement as to time; whereas in the Eastern Hemisphere agreement is at the present time almost wholly lacking. The value of simultaneous observations has received fresh recognition with the development of radio communication. The exchange of weather advices at sea and the growing practice among ships officers of constructing weather maps has had the effect of renewing interest in the entire subject. Concerted international action is now being taken to effectively organize the making of reports from ships at sea by radio to designated coastal centers of collection. It will be seen that by the daily receipt of ships' reports by radio an opportunity is afforded for the great national meteorological services to broadcast important advices to ships concerning daily weather conditions in their vicinity and along their course. There thus arises a reciprocal opportunity, as well as obligation, for ships to cooperate in this scheme of making observations of ocean conditions and reporting them by radio. Such cooperation will be coupled with the broadcasting and disseminating of useful advices and information by the national forecasters, made possible by observations from a large number of ships. Instructions for the transmission of observations by radio are contained in a separate publication, Radio Weather Code for Vessel Weather Observers. The material contained in these instructions has been restricted for the most part to information considered essential or helpful in observational work. For information on the general subject of meteorology observers are referred to the publications named in the bibliography on pages 63 to 66.
Publisher or UniversityGovernment Printing Office
Series : NrU.S. Weather Bureau, Circular M, 5th edition